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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 946318, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141971

ABSTRACT

Background and Methods: The SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant is the antigenically most distinct variant to date. As the heavily mutated spike protein enables neutralization escape, we studied serum-neutralizing activities of naïve and vaccinated individuals after Omicron BA.1 or BA.2 sub-lineage infections in live virus neutralization tests with Omicron BA.1, Omicron BA.2, wildtype (WT, B1.1), and Delta (B.1.617.2) strains. Serum samples obtained after WT infections and three-dose mRNA vaccinations with and without prior infection were included as controls. Results: Primary BA.1 infections yielded reduced neutralizing antibody levels against WT, Delta, and Omicron BA.2, while samples from BA.2-infected individuals showed almost no cross-neutralization against the other variants. Serum neutralization of Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 variants was detectable after three-dose mRNA vaccinations, but with reduced titers. Vaccination-breakthrough infections with either Omicron BA.1 or BA.2, however, generated equal cross-neutralizing antibody levels against all SARS-CoV-2 variants tested. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that although Omicron variants are able to enhance cross-neutralizing antibody levels in pre-immune individuals, primary infections with BA.1 or BA.2 induced mostly variant-specific neutralizing antibodies, emphasizing the differently shaped humoral immunity induced by the two Omicron variants. These data thus contribute substantially to the understanding of antibody responses induced by primary Omicron infections or multiple exposures to different SARS-CoV-2 variants and are of particular importance for developing vaccination strategies in the light of future emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , Neutralization Tests , RNA, Messenger , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins
2.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274181, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140508

ABSTRACT

Quantitative measurement of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies is highly expected to evaluate immune status, vaccine response, and antiviral therapy. The Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S (Elecsys® anti-S) was developed to measure anti-SARS-CoV-2 S proteins. We sought to investigate whether Elecsys® anti-S can be used to predict neutralizing activities in patients' serums using an authentic virus neutralization assay. One hundred forty-six serum samples were obtained from 59 patients with COVID-19 at multiple time points. Of the 59 patients, 44 cases were included in Group M (mild 23, moderate 21) and produced 84 samples (mild 35, moderate 49), while 15 cases were included in Group S (severe 11, critical 4) and produced 62 samples (severe 43, critical 19). The neutralization assay detected 73% positive cases, and Elecsys® anti-S and Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 (Elecsys® anti-N) showed 72% and 66% positive cases, respectively. A linear correlation between the Elecsys® anti-S assay and the neutralization assay were highly correlated (r = 0.7253, r2 = 0.5261) than a linear correlation between the Elecsys® anti-N and neutralization assay (r = 0.5824, r2 = 0.3392). The levels of Elecsys® anti-S antibody and neutralizing activities were significantly higher in Group S than in Group M after 6 weeks from onset of symptoms (p < 0.05). Conversely, the levels of Elecsys® anti-N were comparable in both groups. Three immunosuppressed patients, including cancer patients, showed low levels of anti-S and anti-N antibodies and neutralizing activities throughout the measurement period, indicating the need for careful follow-up. Our data indicate that Elecsys® anti-S can predict the neutralization antibodies in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoassay , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20373, 2022 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133622

ABSTRACT

Immune response induced by COVID-19 vaccine booster against delta and omicron variants was assessed in 65 adults (65-84 years old) early aftesr a first booster dose. An increase in SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies was shown in individuals not previously infected without evidence of an age-related effect, with lower increase in those infected before a single dose of primary vaccination. Of note, humoral response was observed only starting from the 5th day after the boost.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Neutralization Tests , Antibodies, Viral , RNA, Messenger , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19858, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133587

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants accumulating immune escape mutations provide a significant risk to vaccine-induced protection against infection. The novel variant of concern (VoC) Omicron BA.1 and its sub-lineages have the largest number of amino acid alterations in its Spike protein to date. Thus, they may efficiently escape recognition by neutralizing antibodies, allowing breakthrough infections in convalescent and vaccinated individuals in particular in those who have only received a primary immunization scheme. We analyzed neutralization activity of sera from individuals after vaccination with all mRNA-, vector- or heterologous immunization schemes currently available in Europe by in vitro neutralization assay at peak response towards SARS-CoV-2 B.1, Omicron sub-lineages BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, BA.3, BA.4/5, Beta and Delta pseudotypes and also provide longitudinal follow-up data from BNT162b2 vaccinees. All vaccines apart from Ad26.CoV2.S showed high levels of responder rates (96-100%) towards the SARS-CoV-2 B.1 isolate, and minor to moderate reductions in neutralizing Beta and Delta VoC pseudotypes. The novel Omicron variant and its sub-lineages had the biggest impact, both in terms of response rates and neutralization titers. Only mRNA-1273 showed a 100% response rate to Omicron BA.1 and induced the highest level of neutralizing antibody titers, followed by heterologous prime-boost approaches. Homologous BNT162b2 vaccination, vector-based AZD1222 and Ad26.CoV2.S performed less well with peak responder rates of 48%, 56% and 9%, respectively. However, Omicron responder rates in BNT162b2 recipients were maintained in our six month longitudinal follow-up indicating that individuals with cross-protection against Omicron maintain it over time. Overall, our data strongly argue for booster doses in individuals who were previously vaccinated with BNT162b2, or a vector-based primary immunization scheme.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Neutralization Tests , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , RNA, Messenger , Ad26COVS1 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Vaccination
5.
Nature ; 593(7857): 136-141, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114170

ABSTRACT

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is uncontrolled in many parts of the world; control is compounded in some areas by the higher transmission potential of the B.1.1.7 variant1, which has now been reported in 94 countries. It is unclear whether the response of the virus to vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 on the basis of the prototypic strain will be affected by the mutations found in B.1.1.7. Here we assess the immune responses of individuals after vaccination with the mRNA-based vaccine BNT162b22. We measured neutralizing antibody responses after the first and second immunizations using pseudoviruses that expressed the wild-type spike protein or a mutated spike protein that contained the eight amino acid changes found in the B.1.1.7 variant. The sera from individuals who received the vaccine exhibited a broad range of neutralizing titres against the wild-type pseudoviruses that were modestly reduced against the B.1.1.7 variant. This reduction was also evident in sera from some patients who had recovered from COVID-19. Decreased neutralization of the B.1.1.7 variant was also observed for monoclonal antibodies that target the N-terminal domain (9 out of 10) and the receptor-binding motif (5 out of 31), but not for monoclonal antibodies that recognize the receptor-binding domain that bind outside the receptor-binding motif. Introduction of the mutation that encodes the E484K substitution in the B.1.1.7 background to reflect a newly emerged variant of concern (VOC 202102/02) led to a more-substantial loss of neutralizing activity by vaccine-elicited antibodies and monoclonal antibodies (19 out of 31) compared with the loss of neutralizing activity conferred by the mutations in B.1.1.7 alone. The emergence of the E484K substitution in a B.1.1.7 background represents a threat to the efficacy of the BNT162b2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Immune Evasion/immunology , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1032574, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119713

ABSTRACT

Despite the initially reported high efficacy of vaccines directed against ancestral SARS-CoV-2, repeated infections in both unvaccinated and vaccinated populations remain a major global health challenge. Because of mutation-mediated immune escape by variants-of-concern (VOC), approved neutralizing antibodies (neutAbs) effective against the original strains have been rendered non-protective. Identification and characterization of mutation-independent pan-neutralizing antibody responses are therefore essential for controlling the pandemic. Here, we characterize and discuss the origins of SARS-CoV-2 neutAbs, arising from either natural infection or following vaccination. In our study, neutAbs in COVID-19 patients were detected using the combination of two lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) tests, corroborated by plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT). A point-of-care neutAb LFIA, NeutraXpress™, was validated using serum samples from historical pre-COVID-19 negative controls, patients infected with other respiratory pathogens, and PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients. Surprisingly, potent neutAb activity was mainly noted in patients generating both IgM and IgG against the Spike receptor-binding domain (RBD), in contrast to samples possessing anti-RBD IgG alone. We propose that low-affinity, high-avidity, germline-encoded natural IgM and subsequent generation of class-switched IgG may have an underappreciated role in cross-protection, potentially offsetting immune escape by SARS-CoV-2 variants. We suggest Reverse Vaccinology 3.0 to further exploit this innate-like defense mechanism. Our proposition has potential implications for immunogen design, and provides strategies to elicit pan-neutAbs from natural B1-like cells. Refinements in future immunization protocols might further boost long-term cross-protection, even at the mucosal level, against clinical manifestations of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Neutralization Tests , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunoglobulin G , Germ Cells , Immunoglobulin M
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19791, 2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119245

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is highly variable. As target recognition of mAbs relies on tight binding affinity, we assessed the affinities of five therapeutic mAbs to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of wild type (A), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron BA.1 SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.1.529.1) spike using microfluidic diffusional sizing (MDS). Four therapeutic mAbs showed strongly reduced affinity to Omicron BA.1 RBD, whereas one (sotrovimab) was less impacted. These affinity reductions correlate with reduced antiviral activities suggesting that affinity could serve as a rapid indicator for activity before time-consuming virus neutralization assays are performed. We also compared the same mAbs to serological fingerprints (affinity and concentration) obtained by MDS of antibodies in sera of 65 convalescent individuals. The affinities of the therapeutic mAbs to wild type and Delta RBD were similar to the serum antibody response, indicating high antiviral activities. For Omicron BA.1 RBD, only sotrovimab retained affinities within the range of the serum antibody response, in agreement with high antiviral activity. These results suggest that serological fingerprints provide a route to evaluating affinity and antiviral activity of mAb drugs and could guide the development of new therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral , Viral Envelope Proteins , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Membrane Glycoproteins/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal
8.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(11): 1512-1517.e4, 2022 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118001

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron subvariant BA.2.75 emerged recently and appears to be spreading. It has nine mutations in spike compared with the currently circulating BA.2, raising concerns that it may further evade vaccine-elicited and therapeutic antibodies. We found BA.2.75 to be moderately more neutralization resistant to sera from vaccinated/boosted individuals than BA.2 (1.8-fold), similar to BA.2.12.1 (1.1-fold), but more neutralization sensitive than BA.4/5 (0.6-fold). Relative to BA.2, BA.2.75 showed heightened resistance to class 1 and class 3 monoclonal antibodies targeting the spike-receptor-binding domain while gaining sensitivity to class 2 antibodies. Resistance was largely conferred by G446S and R460K mutations. BA.2.75 was slightly resistant (3.7-fold) to bebtelovimab, a therapeutic antibody with potent activity against all Omicron subvariants. BA.2.75 also exhibited a higher binding affinity to host receptor ACE2 than other Omicron subvariants. BA.2.75 provides further insight into SARS-CoV-2 evolution as it gains transmissibility while incrementally evading antibody neutralization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Neutralization Tests , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Viral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing
9.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(11): 1518-1526.e4, 2022 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117599

ABSTRACT

The newly emerged BA.2.75 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant contains 9 additional mutations in its spike (S) protein compared to the ancestral BA.2 variant. Here, we examine the neutralizing antibody escape of BA.2.75 in mRNA-vaccinated and BA.1-infected individuals, as well as the molecular basis underlying functional changes in S. Notably, BA.2.75 exhibits enhanced neutralization resistance over BA.2 but less than the BA.4/5 variant. The G446S and N460K mutations of BA.2.75 are primarily responsible for its enhanced resistance to neutralizing antibodies. The R493Q mutation, a reversion to the prototype sequence, reduces BA.2.75 neutralization resistance. The impact of these mutations is consistent with their locations in common neutralizing antibody epitopes. Further, BA.2.75 shows enhanced cell-cell fusion over BA.2, driven largely by the N460K mutation, which enhances S processing. Structural modeling reveals enhanced receptor contacts introduced by N460K, suggesting a mechanism of potentiated receptor utilization and syncytia formation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Neutralization Tests , Antibodies, Viral , Viral Envelope Proteins
10.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 789, 2022 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117221

ABSTRACT

As new variants of SARS-CoV-2 continue to emerge, it is important to assess the cross-neutralizing capabilities of antibodies naturally elicited during wild type SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the present study, we evaluate the activity of nine anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), previously isolated from convalescent donors infected with the Wuhan-Hu-1 strain, against the SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron. By testing an array of mutated spike receptor binding domain (RBD) proteins, cell-expressed spike proteins from VOCs, and neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs as pseudoviruses, or as the authentic viruses in culture, we show that mAbs directed against the ACE2 binding site (ACE2bs) are more sensitive to viral evolution compared to anti-RBD non-ACE2bs mAbs, two of which retain their potency against all VOCs tested. At the second part of our study, we reveal the neutralization mechanisms at high molecular resolution of two anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing mAbs by structural characterization. We solve the structures of the Delta-neutralizing ACE2bs mAb TAU-2303 with the SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer and RBD at 4.5 Å and 2.42 Å resolutions, respectively, revealing a similar mode of binding to that between the RBD and ACE2. Furthermore, we provide five additional structures (at resolutions of 4.7 Å, 7.3 Å, 6.4 Å, 3.3 Å, and 6.1 Å) of a second antibody, TAU-2212, complexed with the SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer. TAU-2212 binds an exclusively quaternary epitope, and exhibits a unique, flexible mode of neutralization that involves transitioning between five different conformations, with both arms of the antibody recruited for cross linking intra- and inter-spike RBD subunits. Our study provides additional mechanistic understanding about how antibodies neutralize SARS-CoV-2 and its emerging variants and provides insights on the likelihood of reinfections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19020, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106452

ABSTRACT

Rapid and accurate measurement of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2)-specific neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) is paramount for monitoring immunity in infected and vaccinated subjects. The current gold standard relies on pseudovirus neutralization tests which require sophisticated skills and facilities. Alternatively, recent competitive immunoassays measuring anti-SARS-CoV-2 nAbs are proposed as a quick and commercially available surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT). Here, we report the performance evaluation of three sVNTs, including two ELISA-based assays and an automated bead-based immunoassay for detecting nAbs against SARS-CoV-2. The performance of three sVNTs, including GenScript cPass, Dynamiker, and Mindray NTAb was assessed in samples collected from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients (n = 160), COVID-19 vaccinated individuals (n = 163), and pre-pandemic controls (n = 70). Samples were collected from infected patients and vaccinated individuals 2-24 weeks after symptoms onset or second dose administration. Correlation analysis with pseudovirus neutralization test (pVNT) and immunoassays detecting anti-SARS-CoV-2 binding antibodies was performed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was generated to assess the optimal threshold for detecting nAbs by each assay. All three sVNTs showed an excellent performance in terms of specificity (100%) and sensitivity (100%, 97.0%, and 97.1% for GenScript, Dynamiker, and Mindray, respectively) in samples collected from vaccinated subjects. GenScript demonstrated the strongest correlation with pVNT (r = 0.743, R2 = 0.552), followed by Mindray (r = 0.718, R2 = 0.515) and Dynamiker (r = 0.608, R2 = 0.369). Correlation with anti-SARS-CoV-2 binding antibodies was variable, but the strongest correlations were observed between anti-RBD IgG antibodies and Mindray (r = 0.952, R2 = 0.907). ROC curve analyses demonstrated excellent performance for all three sVNT assays in both groups, with an AUC ranging between 0.99 and 1.0 (p < 0.0001). Also, it was shown that the manufacturer's recommended cutoff values could be modified based on the tested cohort without significantly affecting the sVNT performance. The sVNT provides a rapid, low-cost, and scalable alternative to conventional neutralization assays for measuring and expanding nAbs testing across various research and clinical settings. Also, it could aid in evaluating actual protective immunity at the population level and assessing vaccine effectiveness to lay a foundation for boosters' requirements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral , Antibodies, Viral , Neutralization Tests , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Antibodies, Neutralizing
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 977064, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099147

ABSTRACT

Variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have emerged continuously, challenging the effectiveness of vaccines, diagnostics, and treatments. Moreover, the possibility of the appearance of a new betacoronavirus with high transmissibility and high fatality is reason for concern. In this study, we used a natively paired yeast display technology, combined with next-generation sequencing (NGS) and massive bioinformatic analysis to perform a comprehensive study of subdomain specificity of natural human antibodies from two convalescent donors. Using this screening technology, we mapped the cross-reactive responses of antibodies generated by the two donors against SARS-CoV-2 variants and other betacoronaviruses. We tested the neutralization potency of a set of the cross-reactive antibodies generated in this study and observed that most of the antibodies produced by these patients were non-neutralizing. We performed a comparison of the specific and non-specific antibodies by somatic hypermutation in a repertoire-scale for the two individuals and observed that the degree of somatic hypermutation was unique for each patient. The data from this study provide functional insights into cross-reactive antibodies that can assist in the development of strategies against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and divergent betacoronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins
13.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6478, 2022 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096708

ABSTRACT

The latest SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern Omicron, with its immune escape from therapeutic anti-Spike monoclonal antibodies and WA-1 vaccine-elicited sera, demonstrates the continued relevance of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) therapies. Lessons learnt from previous usage of CCP suggests focusing on early outpatients and immunocompromised recipients, with high neutralizing antibody titer units. Here, we systematically review Omicron-neutralizing plasma activity data, and report that approximately 47% (424/902) of CCP samples from unvaccinated pre-Omicron donors neutralizes Omicron BA.1 with a very low geometric mean of geometric mean titers for 50% neutralization GM(GMT50) of ~13, representing a > 20-fold reduction from WA-1 neutralization. Non-convalescent subjects who had received two doses of mRNA vaccines had a GM(GMT50) for Omicron BA.1 neutralization of ~27. However, plasma from vaccinees recovering from either previous pre-Omicron variants of concern infection, Omicron BA.1 infection, or third-dose uninfected vaccinees was nearly 100% neutralizing against Omicron BA.1, BA.2 and BA.4/5 with GM(GMT(50)) all over 189, 10 times higher than pre-Omicron CCP. Fully vaccinated and post-BA.1 plasma (Vax-CCP) had a GM(GMT50) > 450 for BA.4/5 and >1,500 for BA.1 and BA.2. These findings have implications for both CCP stocks collected in prior pandemic periods and for future plans to restart CCP collections. Thus, Vax-CCP provides an effective tool to combat ongoing variants that escape therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
15.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 35 Suppl 3: 16-19, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091723

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has boosted significant research in developing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to treat and prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinical trials have shown that mAbs are safe and effective in preventing hospitalization and death in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 risk factors for progression. mAbs have also been effective for treating severe disease in seronegative patients and preventing COVID-19. So far, studies have been carried out in a largely unvaccinated population at a time when the omicron variant was not described. Future research should address these limitations and provide information on specific population groups, including immunosuppressed and previously infected individuals.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Envelope Proteins , Membrane Glycoproteins , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use
16.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6285, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087205

ABSTRACT

Vaccines that are broadly cross-protective against current and future SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoC) or across the sarbecoviruses subgenus remain a priority for public health. Virus neutralization is the best available correlate of protection. To define the magnitude and breadth of cross-neutralization in individuals with different exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination, we here use a multiplex surrogate neutralization assay based on virus spike receptor binding domains of multiple SARS-CoV-2 VoC, as well as related bat and pangolin viruses. We include sera from cohorts of individuals vaccinated with two or three doses of mRNA (BNT162b2) or inactivated SARS-CoV-2 (Coronavac or Sinopharm) vaccines with or without a history of previous SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV-1 infection. SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV-1 infection followed by BNT162b2 vaccine, Omicron BA.2 breakthrough infection following BNT162b2 vaccine or a third dose of BNT162b2 following two doses of BNT162b2 or Coronavac elicit the highest and broadest neutralization across VoCs. For both breadth and magnitude of neutralization across all sarbecoviruses, those infected with SARS-CoV-1 immunized with BNT162b2 outperform all other combinations of infection and/or vaccination. These data may inform vaccine design strategies for generating broadly neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 variants or across the sarbecovirus subgenus.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Neutralization Tests , Antibodies, Viral , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Receptors, Virus , RNA, Messenger
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17966, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087314

ABSTRACT

The gold-standard method to evaluate a functional antiviral immune response is to titer neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against a viral pathogen. This is historically performed using an in vitro assay of virus-mediated infection, which requires BSL-3 facilities. As these are insufficient in Latin American countries, including Mexico, scant information is obtained locally about viral pathogens NAb, using a functional assay. An alternative solution to using a BSL-3 assay with live virus is to use a BSL-2-safe assay with a non-replicative pseudovirus. Pseudoviral particles can be engineered to display a selected pathogen's entry protein on their surface, and to deliver a reporter gene into target cells upon transduction. Here we comprehensively describe the first development of a BSL-2 safe NAbs-measuring functional assay in Mexico, based on the production of pseudotyped lentiviral particles. As proof-of-concept, the assay is based on Nanoluc luciferase-mediated luminescence measurements from target cells transduced with SARS-CoV-2 Spike-pseudotyped lentiviral particles. We applied the optimized assay in a BSL-2 facility to measure NAbs in 65 serum samples, which evidenced the assay with 100% sensitivity, 86.6% specificity and 96% accuracy. Overall, this is the first report of a BSL-2 safe pseudovirus-based functional assay developed in Mexico to measure NAbs, and a cornerstone methodology necessary to measure NAbs with a functional assay in limited resources settings.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Neutralization Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral , Mexico , Luciferases/genetics , Antiviral Agents
18.
J Clin Oncol ; 40(26): 3057-3064, 2022 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079583

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) play a critical role in protection from SARS CoV-2. Patients with B-cell malignancies including myeloma are at increased risk of COVID-19-related mortality and exhibit variable serologic response to the vaccine. The capacity of vaccine-induced antibodies in these patients to neutralize SARS CoV-2 or its variants is not known. METHODS: Sera from 238 patients with multiple myeloma (MM) undergoing SARS CoV-2 vaccination were analyzed. Antibodies against the SARS CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) and viral nucleocapsid were measured to detect serologic response to vaccine and environmental exposure to the virus. The capacity of antibodies to neutralize virus was quantified using pseudovirus neutralization assay and live virus neutralization against the initial SARS CoV-2 strain and the B1.617.2 (Delta) variant. RESULTS: Vaccine-induced nAbs are detectable at much lower rates (54%) than estimated in previous seroconversion studies in MM, which did not monitor viral neutralization. In 33% of patients, vaccine-induced antispike RBD antibodies lack detectable neutralizing capacity, including against the B1.617.2 variant. Induction of nAbs is affected by race, disease, and treatment-related factors. Patients receiving mRNA1273 vaccine (Moderna) achieved significantly greater induction of nAbs compared with those receiving BNT162b2 (Pfizer; 67% v 48%, P = .006). CONCLUSION: These data show that vaccine-induced antibodies in several patients with MM lack detectable virus-neutralizing activity. Vaccine-mediated induction of nAbs is affected by race, disease, vaccine, and treatment characteristics. These data have several implications for the emerging application of booster vaccines in immunocompromised hosts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Multiple Myeloma , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
19.
Science ; 378(6620): 619-627, 2022 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078696

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron sublineages carry distinct spike mutations resulting in escape from antibodies induced by previous infection or vaccination. We show that hybrid immunity or vaccine boosters elicit plasma-neutralizing antibodies against Omicron BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, and BA.4/5, and that breakthrough infections, but not vaccination alone, induce neutralizing antibodies in the nasal mucosa. Consistent with immunological imprinting, most antibodies derived from memory B cells or plasma cells of Omicron breakthrough cases cross-react with the Wuhan-Hu-1, BA.1, BA.2, and BA.4/5 receptor-binding domains, whereas Omicron primary infections elicit B cells of narrow specificity up to 6 months after infection. Although most clinical antibodies have reduced neutralization of Omicron, we identified an ultrapotent pan-variant-neutralizing antibody that is a strong candidate for clinical development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Memory B Cells/immunology
20.
J Infect Dis ; 226(8): 1396-1400, 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077785

ABSTRACT

After >2 years of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, immunoglobulins (IGs) contain highly potent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) neutralizing antibodies, based on the large proportion of United States (US) plasma donors who have gone through COVID-19 or vaccination against the virus. Neutralization of Omicron SARS-CoV-2 by antibodies generated after non-Omicron infection or vaccination has been lower though, raising concerns about the potency of IG against this new virus variant. Also, as plasma collected in the US remains the main source of IG, the neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 for plasma collected elsewhere has been less well studied. Here, we confirm Omicron neutralization by US as well as European Union plasma-derived IG lots.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , Europe , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , United States
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