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1.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 55: 35, 2021. graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1818711

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the epidemic of COVID-19 in northeastern Brazil, one of the regions most affected by the virus. METHODS The official data for COVID-19, from March 2020 to March 2021 in the states of the Northeast Region (NE), were used. The analysis of capital cities and states for accumulated weekly cases and confirmed deaths was made using the JoinPoint Trend Analysis application. RESULTS In one year, the Northeast region reported 22.9% of the cases and 21.5% of the deaths in the country due to COVID-19. At the beginning of the pandemic, all states showed a growing number of cases, first in the capitals and then in the interior. Following this wave, decreases are observed in all states and their capitals, but with many still reporting a large number of cases. In the middle of the 2nd semester of 2020 the number of cases begins to increase again simultaneously in states and their capitals—some at explosive speed—especially in late 2020 and early 2021. A similar pattern is observed in deaths, which exceed or approach the peak seen in the first wave. In the first wave, all capitals and northeastern states adopted intense isolation measures. Fortaleza, Recife and Teresina reached the highest isolation index of all capitals, close to 0.60. This index decreases, with a slight growth trend until the end of December. With the exception of Fortaleza and Salvador, the other capitals fell to less than 0.40. CONCLUSION The Brazilian NE and the country are in increasingly complicated health, social and economic situations. It is necessary to speed up vaccinations and maintain non-pharmacological measures: face masks, social distancing measures and hygiene care, in addition to policies to protect workers who have lost their incomes and to subsidize small business owners.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a epidemia da covid-19 na região Nordeste do Brasil, uma das mais atingidas por essa virose. MÉTODOS Os dados oficiais para covid-19 dos estados do Nordeste são referentes ao período de março de 2020 a março de 2021. A análise para capitais e estados da série do acumulado semanal de casos e de óbitos confirmados foi feita com emprego do aplicativo JoinPoint Trend Analysis. RESULTADOS Em um ano, o Nordeste acumulou 22,9% dos casos e 21,5% dos óbitos do país pela covid-19. No início da pandemia, todos os estados apresentaram um crescimento sustentável de casos, primeiro nas capitais e depois interior. Em seguida, observam-se decréscimos em todos os estados e suas capitais, porém muitos permanecem com números elevados. Em meados do segundo semestre de 2020, o número de casos começa a crescer nos estados e suas capitais, alguns em velocidade explosiva, em especial no final de 2020 e início de 2021. Padrão similar é observado para os óbitos, os quais ultrapassaram ou aproximam-se do teto observado na primeira onda, na qual todas as capitais e estados do Nordeste adotaram intensas medidas de isolamento. Fortaleza, Recife e Teresina atingiram os maiores índices de isolamento de todas as capitais, perto de 0,60. Esse índice decresce, com tendência leve de crescimento até final de dezembro, voltando a decrescer. Com exceção de Fortaleza e Salvador, as demais capitais caíram para menos de 0,40. CONCLUSÃO O Nordeste brasileiro e o país estão em uma situação sanitária, social e econômica cada vez mais complexa. É necessário acelerar o processo de vacinação e manter as medidas não farmacológicas - constante uso de máscaras faciais, medidas de distanciamento e cuidados de higiene -, além de políticas de proteção aos trabalhadores que perderam as suas rendas e subsídios aos pequenos empresários.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 55: 38, 2021. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1818709

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Describing the prevalence of chronic diseases and associated socioeconomic and demographic factors, evaluating the patterns of social distancing and the antibodies prevalence against SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 symptoms in carriers and non-carriers of chronic diseases. METHODS Data from 77,075 individuals aged 20 to 59 from three steps of the EPICOVID-19 Brazil (a nationwide serological survey conducted between May and June, 2021) were assessed. The presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was examined by rapid tests. Self-reported prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, asthma, cancer, chronic kidney disease and heart disease were investigated. The prevalence of mask use, adherence to isolation measures and antibodies were evaluated separately amid carriers and non-carriers of chronic diseases. The prevalence of symptoms was analyzed among carriers and non-carriers of chronic diseases with antibodies. RESULTS The prevalence of at least one chronic disease was 43%, higher in the Southeast region, among white and indigenous individuals, women, less schooled and in lower socioeconomic position. The use of masks when leaving home was similar among carriers and non-carriers of chronic diseases (98%). The proportion of participants who reported adherence to isolation measures was higher amid carriers (15.9%) than non-carriers (24.9%) of chronic diseases. The prevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 was similar amongst carriers and non-carriers (2.4% and 2.3%). The prevalence of cough, dyspnea, palpitations and myalgia was significantly higher among carriers, but the proportion of symptomatic patients was similar between groups. CONCLUSION The prevalence of chronic diseases in Brazil is high and the COVID-19 pandemic affects carriers and non-carriers of chronic diseases similarly. Carriers present more severe forms of COVID-19 and higher prevalence of symptoms. Greater adherence to social distancing measures among chronic patients is disassociated from a lower incidence of COVID-19 in this group.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever a prevalência de doenças crônicas e fatores socioeconômicos e demográficos associados, avaliar os padrões de distanciamento social e a prevalência de anticorpos contra SARS-CoV-2 e sintomas de covid-19 em portadores e não portadores de doenças crônicas. MÉTODOS Foram avaliados dados de 77.075 mil indivíduos de 20 a 59 anos de três etapas do inquérito sorológico de abrangência nacional Epicovid-19 Brasil, realizadas entre maio e junho de 2021. A presença de anticorpos contra SARS-CoV-2 foi avaliada por teste rápido. Foram investigadas as prevalências autorreferidas de hipertensão, diabetes, asma, câncer, doença renal crônica e doença cardíaca. A prevalência de uso de máscara, de adesão a medidas de isolamento e de anticorpos foi avaliada separadamente entre portadores e não portadores de doenças crônicas. A prevalência de sintomas foi avaliada entre doentes crônicos e não doentes portadores de anticorpos. RESULTADOS A prevalência do pelo menos uma doença crônica foi de 43%, maior na região Sudeste, entre indivíduos brancos e indígenas, mulheres, menos escolarizados e em menor posição socioeconômica. O uso de máscara ao sair do domicílio não diferiu entre doentes crônicos e não doentes (98%). A proporção de participantes que referiram adesão ao isolamento foi maior entre doentes crônicos (15,9%) que entre não doentes (24,9%). A prevalência de anticorpos contra SARS-CoV-2 foi semelhante entre doentes crônicos e não doentes (2,4% e 2,3%). A prevalência de tosse, dispneia, palpitações e mialgia foi significativamente maior entre doentes crônicos, mas a proporção de sintomáticos não diferiu entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO A prevalência de doenças crônicas no país é alta e a pandemia de covid-19 atinge de forma semelhante doentes e não doentes. Doentes crônicos apresentam formas mais graves de covid-19 e maior prevalência de sintomas. A maior adesão às medidas de distanciamento social entre doentes crônicos não se reflete em menor incidência de covid-19 nesse grupo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Noncommunicable Diseases , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 55: 01, 2021. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1818706

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study describes body weight changes among participants of the NutriNet Brasil cohort (n = 14,259) during the covid-19 pandemic. We analyzed data reported before the pandemic onset (01/26/2020 to 03/18/2020) and about six months after (09/14/2020 to 10/19/2020). Our results show that 19.7% of the participants gained ≥ 2 kg. Weight gain was directly associated with male gender, lower education, and previous presence of overweight, and inversely associated with age. In turn, 15.2% lost ≥ 2kg, being directly associated with male gender and previous presence of overweight and inversely associated with age.


RESUMO Este estudo descreve modificações no peso corporal de participantes da coorte NutriNet Brasil (n = 14.259) ocorridas durante a pandemia de covid-19. Foram analisados dados informados em período anterior ao início da pandemia (26/01/2020 a 18/03/2020) e cerca de 6 meses após (14/09/2020 a 19/10/2020). O ganho de peso ≥ 2 kg alcançou 19,7% dos participantes, mostrando-se diretamente associado ao sexo masculino, à menor escolaridade e à presença prévia de excesso de peso, sendo inversamente associado à idade. A perda de peso ≥ 2kg alcançou 15,2% dos participantes, mostrando-se diretamente associada ao sexo masculino e à presença prévia de excesso de peso, sendo inversamente associada à idade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Body Weight , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Weight Gain , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , Overweight
4.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 55: 8, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1818704

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To report the decrease in breast imaging after covid-19 pandemic, obtaining the number of mammograms performed in 2019 and 2020. Additionally, to investigate if there was an increase in the proportion of women undergoing mammography for diagnostic purposes, with palpable lesions. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study, based on the number of mammograms performed by the Brazilian public health services, provided by DATASUS, an open access database. Mammograms from private institutions were not included. This study compares the number of mammograms performed in 2019 and 2020, in women aged 50-69 years, stratified by month, in each federal state, and the presence of palpable lumps (physician-reported). RESULTS: In total, 1,948,471 mammograms were performed in 2019 and 1,126,688 in 2020, for the population studied. These values represent a 42% decline. Monthly, a significant decreased is observed after April 2020. The results varied slightly according to federal state; yet the entire country was affected. Rondônia was the most affected state, with 67% decline. The proportion of women presenting palpable lumps increased from 7.06% on average in 2019 to 7.94% in 2020 (OR = 1.135, 95%CI 1.125-1.145, p = 0,001). DISCUSSION: The number of mammograms performed in 2020 declined considerably. Out of the women who presented for mammogram, the proportion of palpable lumps was significantly higher in 2020. Considering the detection rate of digital mammography, the loss of 800,000 exams means 4,000 undiagnosed breast cancer cases, by the end of 2020.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Mammography , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Middle Aged
5.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 55: 37, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1818703

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the perceptions of pregnant women about COVID-19 and the prevalence of common mental disorders during the implemented social distancing period. METHODS This was an observational, cross-sectional study using digital media, of pregnant women exposed to social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic, in Fortaleza, Ceará, Northeastern Brazil. Common mental disorders were estimated using the modified Self-Report Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) scale, and the feelings towards COVID-19 were assessed using the Fear of COVID-19 scale through telephone calls made in May 2020. COX multivariate regression models were used to verify the associations. RESULTS Of the 1,041 pregnant women, 45.7% (95%CI: 42.7-48.8) had common mental disorders (CMD). All items of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale showed a significant association with the prevalence of CMD (p < 0.001). A CMD risk gradient was observed, going from a prevalence ratio of 1.52 (95%CI: 1.13-2.04) in pregnant women with two positive items to 2.70 (95%CI: 2.08-3.51) for those with four positive items. Early gestational age and the lack of prenatal care were also associated with CMD. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of common mental disorders in pregnant women was high during the period of social distancing and was aggravated by negative feelings towards COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Mental Health , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Internet , Pregnant Women , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(5&6): 619-628, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818381

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: India witnessed a massive second surge of COVID-19 cases since March 2021 after a period of decline from September 2020. Data collected under the National Clinical Registry for COVID-19 (NCRC) were analysed to describe the differences in demographic and clinical features of COVID-19 patients recruited during these two successive waves. Methods: The NCRC, launched in September 2020, is an ongoing multicentre observational initiative, which provided the platform for the current investigation. Demographic, clinical, treatment and outcome data of hospitalized, confirmed COVID-19 patients were captured in an electronic data portal from 41 hospitals across India. Patients enrolled during September 1, 2020 to January 31, 2021 and February 1 to May 11, 2021 constituted participants of the two successive waves, respectively. Results: As on May 11, 2021, 18961 individuals were recruited in the registry, 12059 and 6903 reflecting in-patients from the first and second waves, respectively. Mean age of the patients was significantly lower in the second wave [48.7 (18.1) yr vs. 50.7 (18.0) yr, P<0.001] with higher proportion of patients in the younger age group intervals of <20, and 20-39 yr. Approximately 70 per cent of the admitted patients were ≥ 40 yr of age in both waves of the pandemic. The proportion of males were slightly lower in second wave as compared to the first [4400 (63.7%) vs. 7886 (65.4%), P=0.02]. Commonest presenting symptom was fever in both waves. In the second wave, a significantly higher proportion [2625 (48.6%) vs. 4420 (42.8%), P<0.003] complained of shortness of breath, developed ARDS [422(13%) vs. 880 (7.9%), P<0.001], required supplemental oxygen [1637 (50.3%) vs. 4771 (42.7%), P<0.001], and mechanical ventilation [260 (15.9%) vs. 530 (11.1%), P<0.001]. Mortality also significantly increased in the second wave [OR: 1.35 (95% CI: 1.19, 1.52)] in all age groups except in <20 yr. Interpretation & conclusions: The second wave of COVID-19 in India was slightly different in presentation than the first wave, with a younger demography, lesser comorbidities, and presentation with breathlessness in greater frequency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Curr Opin Neurol ; 34(4): 589-597, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816369

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-pandemic has facilitated the implementation of telemedicine in both clinical practice and research. We highlight recent developments in three promising areas of telemedicine: teleconsultation, telemonitoring, and teletreatment. We illustrate this using Parkinson's disease as a model for other chronic neurological disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Teleconsultations can reliably administer parts of the neurological examination remotely, but are typically not useful for establishing a reliable diagnosis. For follow-ups, teleconsultations can provide enhanced comfort and convenience to patients, and provide opportunities for blended and proactive care models. Barriers include technological challenges, limited clinician confidence, and a suboptimal clinician-patient relationship. Telemonitoring using wearable sensors and smartphone-based apps can support clinical decision-making, but we lack large-scale randomized controlled trials to prove effectiveness on clinical outcomes. Increasingly many trials are now incorporating telemonitoring as an exploratory outcome, but more work remains needed to demonstrate its clinical meaningfulness. Finding a balance between benefits and burdens for individual patients remains vital. Recent work emphasised the promise of various teletreatment solutions, such as remotely adjustable deep brain stimulation parameters, virtual reality enhanced exercise programs, and telephone-based cognitive behavioural therapy. Personal contact remains essential to ascertain adherence to teletreatment. SUMMARY: The availability of different telemedicine tools for remote consultation, monitoring, and treatment is increasing. Future research should establish whether telemedicine improves outcomes in routine clinical care, and further underpin its merits both as intervention and outcome in research settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parkinson Disease , Telemedicine , Humans , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease/diagnosis , Parkinson Disease/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs ; 46(2): 103-109, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816330

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic led to several states mandating social distancing and sheltering in place along with a shift in health care delivery, unprecedented unemployment rates, financial stress, and emotional concerns. For pregnant and postpartum women, limited social support and social isolation with social distancing and fear of COVID-19 exposure or infection for themselves, their fetus, or their newborn infants, have implications for maternal mental health. An overview of the potential impact of COVID-19 on mental health risk for pregnant and postpartum women is presented with implications for nursing practice to promote maternal-infant wellbeing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Women's Health , Adult , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
11.
Lancet ; 398(10312): 1700-1712, 2021 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815302

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Before 2020, mental disorders were leading causes of the global health-related burden, with depressive and anxiety disorders being leading contributors to this burden. The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has created an environment where many determinants of poor mental health are exacerbated. The need for up-to-date information on the mental health impacts of COVID-19 in a way that informs health system responses is imperative. In this study, we aimed to quantify the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence and burden of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders globally in 2020. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of data reporting the prevalence of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic and published between Jan 1, 2020, and Jan 29, 2021. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, preprint servers, grey literature sources, and consulted experts. Eligible studies reported prevalence of depressive or anxiety disorders that were representative of the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic and had a pre-pandemic baseline. We used the assembled data in a meta-regression to estimate change in the prevalence of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders between pre-pandemic and mid-pandemic (using periods as defined by each study) via COVID-19 impact indicators (human mobility, daily SARS-CoV-2 infection rate, and daily excess mortality rate). We then used this model to estimate the change from pre-pandemic prevalence (estimated using Disease Modelling Meta-Regression version 2.1 [known as DisMod-MR 2.1]) by age, sex, and location. We used final prevalence estimates and disability weights to estimate years lived with disability and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. FINDINGS: We identified 5683 unique data sources, of which 48 met inclusion criteria (46 studies met criteria for major depressive disorder and 27 for anxiety disorders). Two COVID-19 impact indicators, specifically daily SARS-CoV-2 infection rates and reductions in human mobility, were associated with increased prevalence of major depressive disorder (regression coefficient [B] 0·9 [95% uncertainty interval 0·1 to 1·8; p=0·029] for human mobility, 18·1 [7·9 to 28·3; p=0·0005] for daily SARS-CoV-2 infection) and anxiety disorders (0·9 [0·1 to 1·7; p=0·022] and 13·8 [10·7 to 17·0; p<0·0001]. Females were affected more by the pandemic than males (B 0·1 [0·1 to 0·2; p=0·0001] for major depressive disorder, 0·1 [0·1 to 0·2; p=0·0001] for anxiety disorders) and younger age groups were more affected than older age groups (-0·007 [-0·009 to -0·006; p=0·0001] for major depressive disorder, -0·003 [-0·005 to -0·002; p=0·0001] for anxiety disorders). We estimated that the locations hit hardest by the pandemic in 2020, as measured with decreased human mobility and daily SARS-CoV-2 infection rate, had the greatest increases in prevalence of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. We estimated an additional 53·2 million (44·8 to 62·9) cases of major depressive disorder globally (an increase of 27·6% [25·1 to 30·3]) due to the COVID-19 pandemic, such that the total prevalence was 3152·9 cases (2722·5 to 3654·5) per 100 000 population. We also estimated an additional 76·2 million (64·3 to 90·6) cases of anxiety disorders globally (an increase of 25·6% [23·2 to 28·0]), such that the total prevalence was 4802·4 cases (4108·2 to 5588·6) per 100 000 population. Altogether, major depressive disorder caused 49·4 million (33·6 to 68·7) DALYs and anxiety disorders caused 44·5 million (30·2 to 62·5) DALYs globally in 2020. INTERPRETATION: This pandemic has created an increased urgency to strengthen mental health systems in most countries. Mitigation strategies could incorporate ways to promote mental wellbeing and target determinants of poor mental health and interventions to treat those with a mental disorder. Taking no action to address the burden of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders should not be an option. FUNDING: Queensland Health, National Health and Medical Research Council, and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Global Burden of Disease , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Appetite ; 169: 105806, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814111

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic brought about many changes that potentially altered the home food environment, which has been associated with child eating patterns and dietary intake. There is also some evidence that changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic are associated with health behaviors in children, such as an increased intake of high-calorie snack food. The current study aimed to more deeply understand how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the home food environment of meal and snack time routines and parent feeding practices within families of young children. Data for this study are taken from the Kids EAT! Study, a racially/ethnically diverse cohort of families with 2-5 year old children. Qualitative interviews were conducted by phone and video conference with mothers (n = 25) during August/September 2020 and were coded using a hybrid deductive/inductive analysis approach. This allowed coders to identify themes using the interview questions as an organizational template (deductive) while also allowing unique themes to emerge from the qualitative data (inductive). Three overarching themes emerged with multiple sub-themes: 1) Mothers were more directive in the types of food and amounts of food eaten by children; 2) Mothers had less rules around mealtimes; 3) Mothers had increased meal responsibilities. When faced with a change in a structured schedule and increased stress-such as occurred with the COVID-19 pandemic, parents may benefit from advice on how to manage parent feeding practices, including tips on appropriate limit setting, establishing a schedule and routines, and improving accessibility of healthful snacks. Lessons learned during the COVID-19 pandemic may have relevance to other time periods when families face disruptions to routine and during other times of transition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child, Preschool , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Parents , SARS-CoV-2
13.
rev. cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 12(3): 1-13, 20210821.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1811628

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La posición prono (PP) es una alternativa terapéutica ampliamente recomendada e implementada en los pacientes con COVID-19. Sin embargo, aunque es un procedimiento no invasivo, es complejo y se asocia con eventos adversos como las úlceras por presión (UPP). Nuestro objetivo es proponer un plan de cuidados de enfermería basado en el lenguaje estandarizado NANDA-I, NIC, NOC para la prevención de las UPP secundarias a la PP en la enfermedad de COVID-19. Síntesis del contenido: En los pacientes con COVID-19, además de factores de riesgo propios del paciente como la edad avanzada y la presencia de comorbilidades, la PP contribuye a la presencia de los diagnósticos de enfermería de riesgo de úlcera por presión [00249], de deterioro de la integridad cutánea [00047] y tisular [00248]. Por su parte, la intervención de enfermería prevención de úlceras por presión [3540], es clave para minimizar el desarrollo de esta complicación, mejorar la calidad de la atención y el pronóstico en este tipo de pacientes. Finalmente, para determinar la efectividad del cuidado de enfermería se proponen los resultados NOC consecuencias de la inmovilidad: fisiológicas [0204] e integridad tisular: piel y membranas mucosas [1101]. Conclusión: La PP es una terapia coadyuvante recomendada para el manejo de los pacientes con COVID-19 críticamente enfermos, debido a que optimiza la función pulmonar, sin embargo está asociada a eventos adversos como las UPP. Este artículo presenta recomendaciones basadas en una revisión narrativa para facilitar la implementación de cuidados de enfermería preventivos que reduzcan su frecuencia en esta población.


Introduction: Prone position (PP) is a therapeutic alternative widely used and recommended in patients with COVID-19. Although PP is a non-invasive procedure, it is complex and could be associated with complications such as the development of pressure ulcers (PU). We aimed to propose a standardized nursing care plan in terms of NANDA-International, NIC (Nursing Interventions Classification) and NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classification) to prevent PU secondary to the PP in people with COVID-19.Content synthesis: In patients with COVID-19, in addition to risk factors such as advanced age and the presence of comorbidities, PP contributes to the presence of pressure ulcer risk nursing diagnoses [00249], of deterioration of skin [00047] and tissue [00248] integrity. On the other hand, the nursing intervention for the prevention of pressure ulcers [3540], due to the specificity and scientific basis of its activities, is key to minimize the development of this complication, improve the quality of care and the prognosis in this type of patients. Finally, to evaluate the effectiveness of nursing care, we propose the nursing results (NOC): consequences of immobility: physiological [0204] and tissue integrity: skin and mucous membranes [1101]. Conclusion: PP is a recommended adjunctive therapy for the management of critically ill COVID-19 patients due to its benefits to improve lung function. However, it is associated with adverse effects such as PU. This article presents recommendations based on a narrative review for a better implementation of preventive nursing care that reduces the frequency of PU in this population.


Introdução: A posição prona (PP) é uma alternativa terapéutica amplamente recomendada e implementada em pacientes com COVID-19. No entanto, embora seja um procedimento não invasivo, é complexo e está associado a eventos adversos, como úlceras por pressão (UP). Nosso objetivo é propor um plano de cuidados de enfermagem baseado na linguagem padronizada NANDA-I, NIC, NOC para a prevenção de UP secundárias à PP na doença COVID-19.Síntese de conteúdo: Em pacientes com COVID-19, além dos próprios fatores de risco do paciente, como idade avançada e presença de comorbidades, a PP contribui para a presença de diagnósticos de enfermagem de risco de úlcera por pressão [00249], de deterioração da pele [00047] e do tecido Integridade. Por sua vez, a intervenção de enfermagem na prevenção de úlceras por pressão [3540] é fundamental para minimizar o desenvolvimento desta complicação, melhorar a qualidade da assistência e o prognóstico neste tipo de paciente. Por fim, para determinar a eficácia da assistência de enfermagem, são propostos os resultados da NOC, consequências da imobilidade: fisiológicas [0204] e integridade do tecido: pele e mucosas [1101]. Conclusão: PP é uma terapia adjuvante recomendada para o tratamento de pacientes graves com COVID-19, pois otimiza a função pulmonar, porém está associada a eventos adversos, como UP. Este artigo apresenta recomendações baseadas em revisão narrativa para facilitar a implementação de cuidados preventivos de enfermagem que reduzam sua frequência nesta população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Prone Position , Coronavirus Infections , Pressure Ulcer , Pandemics
14.
rev. cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 12(2): 1-13, mayo 1, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1811623

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A Coronavirus Disease-2019 é uma doença infectocontagiosa que afeta o sistema respiratório, que surgiu na China e logo se espalhou pelo mundo. Objetivo: Avaliar a qualidade metodológica e transparência das Diretrizes de Prática Clínica brasileiras para o tratamento da Coronavirus Disease-2019. Materiais e Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática realizada em 2020 nas fontes de dados: MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, Scopus e Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, National Guideline Clearinghouse e Guidelines International Network, e sites do Ministério da Saúde do Brasil, Sociedades Médicas Brasileiras, Conselhos de Medicina, Conselho Federal de Enfermagem e Conselho Federal de Fisioterapia. A avaliação da qualidade metodológica e da transparência das diretrizes ocorreu por meio do instrumento Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation, versão II, realizada por quatro autores. Resultados: Foram encontradas 33 diretrizes, das quais foram incluídas 14 para análise. Somente uma diretriz apresentou pontuações acima de 60% em todos os domínios. Entre os seis domínios, três apresentaram maiores pontuações: Escopo e finalidade, Envolvimento das partes interessadas e Clareza da apresentação. Discussão: Apesar da fragilidade metodológica, os autores se preocuparam em apresentar as recomendações de forma clara e concisa, através de informações-chave e opções terapêuticas que facilitam a tomada de decisão. Conclusão: As diretrizes brasileiras apresentaram baixa qualidade metodológica, em que somente uma diretriz foi recomendada e classificada com alta qualidade e transparência metodológica.


Introduction: Coronavirus disease (Covid-19) is an infectious disease affecting the respiratory tract, which emerged in China and spread rapidly throughout the world. Objective: To evaluate the methodological quality and transparency of Brazilian clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of coronavirus disease (Covid-19). Materials and Methods: A systematic review was conducted in 2020 on Medline (via PubMed), Embase, Scopus, LILACS, National Guideline Clearinghouse and Guidelines International Network databases, in addition to online searches on the Brazilian Ministry of Health, Brazilian Medical Association, Federal Council of Medicine, Federal Council of Nursing and Federal Council of Physical Therapy websites. The methodological quality and transparency of the guidelines were assessed using the second version of the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) instrument developed by four authors. Results: 33 guidelines were found of which 14 were included in the analysis. There was only one guideline that scored above 60% in all domains. Among the six domains, higher scores were found in the following three domains: scope and objective, stakeholder involvement and clarity of presentation. Discussion: Despite methodological weakness found, the authors were keen to provide clear and concise recommendations through key information and therapeutic options to facilitate decision making. Conclusions: Brazilian clinical practice guidelines were found to be of poor methodological quality, from which only one guideline was recommended and classified as to be of high methodological quality and transparency.


Introducción: La enfermedad por coronavirus (Covid-19) es una patología infecciosa que afecta al sistema respiratorio, la cual se originó en China y se extendió rápidamente por todo el mundo. Objetivo: Evaluar la calidad metodológica y la transparencia de las guías de práctica clínica brasileñas para el tratamiento de la enfermedad por coronavirus (Covid-19). Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una revisión sistemática en 2020 en las bases de datos Medline (vía PubMed), Embase, Scopus, LILACS, National Guideline Clearinghouse y Guidelines International Network, además de consultas en los sitios web del Ministerio de Salud de Brasil, Asociación Médicas Brasileña, Consejo Federal de Medicina, Consejo Federal de Enfermería y Consejo Federal de Fisioterapia. La evaluación de la calidad metodológica y la transparencia de las guías se realizó con el instrumento Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE), segunda versión realizada por cuatro autores. Resultados: Se encontraron 33 guías, de las que se incluyeron 14 en el análisis. Hubo una sola guía que obtuvo una puntuación superior al 60% en todos los dominios. Entre los seis dominios, se presentaron puntuaciones más altas en los siguientes tres dominios: alcance y objetivo, participación de las partes interesadas y claridad de la presentación. Discusión: A pesar de la fragilidad metodológica, los autores se interesaron por presentar las recomendaciones de forma clara y concisa a través de información clave y opciones terapéuticas que faciliten la toma de decisiones. Conclusión: Las guías de práctica clínica brasileñas mostraron tener una baja calidad metodológica, de las que solamente una guía fue recomendada y clasificada como de alta calidad y transparencia metodológica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Therapeutics , Guidelines as Topic , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Systematic Review
15.
rev. cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 12(2): 1-17, mayo 1, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1811617

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A pandemia de Covid-19 trouxe muitos desafios para a assistência oncológica, gerando novos desenhos operacionais nas esferas da gestão e da assistência. Objetivo: Descrever experiências de implantação de processos administrativos e assistenciais de instituições prestadoras de atendimento oncológico durante a pandemia da Covid-19. Método: Relato de caso, descritivo, qualitativo. As experiências contidas nos relatos compreendem o período de 05 de março a 31 de janeiro de 2021. Os relatos são provenientes de instituições distintas do município de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil. Resultados: Os 3 relatos descrevem ações como: triagem dos pacientes para a incorporação de estratégias de telemedicina e tele-enfermagem; preparação de ambientes livres de Covid-19 para a segurança de profissionais e pacientes; reforço às ações educativas na geração de conhecimentos e adoção de comportamentos seguros para equipes de saúde e pacientes, entre outras. Discussão: Os relatos descreveram como eixo comum a implementação de ações para viabilizar a segurança dos pacientes, dos profissionais e do meio ambiente, bem como a continuidade da assistência oncológica. A literatura científica e as recomendações dos conselhos, sociedades e organizações foram subsidiárias das medidas instituídas. Conclusão: O ineditismo da situação de isolamento social devido ao risco da disseminação da COVID-19 demonstrou-se um campo fecundo para a incorporação de novas estratégias de gestão e assistência em Oncologia. Perdas e danos certamente ocorrerão no processo de assistência oncológica na vigência desta pandemia. Neste contexto, o mapeamento da queda de diagnósticos de câncer bem como das interrupções de tratamento é fundamental para mitigação de suas consequências.


Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought many challenges to oncology care, leading to the implementation of new operational models in health management and care. Objective: To describe the experiences related to the implementation of health management and care models in cancer treatment centers during the COVID-19 outbreak. Materials and Methods: A qualitative descriptive case report was conducted including experiences from March 5 to January 31, 2021. Reports were provided by different cancer treatment centers in São Paulo, Brazil. Results: Actions such as identification of patients eligible for telemedicine and telenursing strategies, preparation of COVID-19-free environments for healthcare professionals and patients, and support for educational actions to increase knowledge and adoption of safety behavior for healthcare professionals and patients were observed in the three reports. Discussion: A common element described in the reports is the implementation of actions to improve the safety of healthcare professionals, patients and the environment, as well as the continuity of cancer care. Scientific literature and recommendations of advisory boards, associations and organizations were supplementary to the measures applied. Conclusions: Social distancing due to the risk of COVID-19 spread proved to a successful field for the introduction of new health management and care in cancer treatment. Although there will certainly be loss and damage to cancer treatment processes during this pandemic, mapping the drop in cancer diagnosis, as well as treatment interruptions, is essential to mitigate any consequences.


Introducción: La pandemia de Covid-19 trajo muchos desafíos para la atención oncológica, generando nuevos diseños operativos en las esferas de gestión y atención. Objetivo: Describir las experiencias de implementación de procesos administrativos y de atención de instituciones proveedoras de atención oncológica durante la pandemia de Covid-19. Métodos: Reporte de caso, descriptivo, cualitativo. Las experiencias del reporte cubren el período del 5 de marzo al 31 de enero de 2021. Los informes provienen de diferentes instituciones en el municipio de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil. Resultados: Los 3 reportes describen acciones tales como: detección de pacientes para las estrategias de telemedicina y tele enfermería; preparación de entornos libres de Covid-19 para la seguridad de profesionales y pacientes; refuerzo de acciones educativas para generación de conocimiento y adopción de comportamientos seguros para profesionales y pacientes, entre otros. Discusión: Los reportes describen como eje común la implementación de acciones para la seguridad de los pacientes, los profesionales y el medio ambiente, así como la continuidad de la atención oncológica. La literatura científica, las recomendaciones de consejos, sociedades y organizaciones fueron subsidiarias de las medidas instituidas. Conclusión: La novedad del confinamiento social debido al riesgo de propagación de COVID-19 demostró ser un campo fructífero para la incorporación de nuevas estrategias de gestión y asistencia oncológica. Ciertamente, habrá pérdidas y daños en el proceso de atención oncológica durante esta pandemia. En este contexto, el mapeo de la caída del diagnóstico de cáncer, así como de las interrupciones del tratamiento, es esencial para mitigar sus consecuencias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Safety Management , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Ambulatory Care , Medical Oncology
16.
rev. cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 12(1): e1336, ene-2021.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1811614

ABSTRACT

De manera sorpresiva el COVID-19 detuvo al mundo, o puntualmente frenó el acelerado ritmo en que confluía la actividad humana, pues los capullos siguen brotando en primavera, las ballenas continúan sus largas migraciones por el océano, la temporada de sequía volvió para quemar la tierra y el planeta continuó su incesante danza de rotación y traslación. Es decir, todos los seres vivos continuaron con normalidad su existencia, excepto los seres humanos, aterrados por una muerte invisible y un enemigo despiadado que hasta este momento parece infranqueable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections , Education , Pandemics
17.
rev. cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 12(2): 1-11, mayo 1, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1811611

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A infodemia, ou fluxo elevado de informações, apresenta comportamento similar aos vírus, disseminam-se de pessoa a pessoa e representam um novo desafio às autoridades de saúde. Objetiva-se analisar as notícias falsas veiculadas no contexto da pandemia pelo novo coronavírus. Materiais e métodos: Pesquisa documental realizada com base no portal de notícias do Ministério da Saúde do Brasil intitulado "Saúde sem Fake News". Foram identificadas as publicações ocorridas de dezembro/2019 a março/2020, por meio das seguintes palavras-chave: coronavírus e COVID-19. Para a apreciação dos dados, foi adotada a análise de conteúdo proposta por Bardin. Resultados: Foram identificadas 66 publicações, com o total de 92 fake news. A análise revelou as características comuns às fake news, dentre elas: manchetes e imagens chamativas, dados alarmantes e disseminação cíclica. Além disso, as mídias sociais despontaram como importante via de disseminação e, para conferir efeito de verdade ao dito, a atribuição da autoria a órgãos ou profissionais da saúde foi comum. As notícias foram categorizadas em seis grupos temáticos: métodos para prevenção (32,6%) e história natural da doença (28,2%) foram os mais frequentes. Discussão: Observa-se o interesse crescente por temas relacionados à disseminação de informações sobre o novo coronavírus e as investigações ao redor do mundo destacam a importância da atuação do Governo e dos órgãos da saúde na identificação e combate às notícias falsas. Conclusões: As fake news relacionadas ao novo coronavírus ameaçam a saúde individual e coletiva, abordam temáticas diversas e apresentam potencial de dano à saúde física e mental.


Introduction: Infodemic, defined as a high flow of information, has a similar behavior to that of viruses, as it quickly spreads from person to person, which represents a new challenge for healthcare authorities. The objective is to analyze fake news published in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: A documentary research was conducted based on the Brazilian Ministry of Health news website titled "Health without fake news". Coronavirus and COVID-19 were the keywords used to identify news published between December 2019 and March 2020. For data visualization, the content analysis approach developed by Bardin was applied. Results: 66 publications with a total of 92 fake news were identified. The analysis found common characteristics among fake news such as the use of flashy headlines and images, alarming data and circular diffusion. In addition, social networks emerged as an important means of diffusion in which, in order to give a sense of truthfulness to news, it was common to attribute the authorship of fake news to healthcare organizations or professionals. News articles were classified into six thematic groups in which prevention methods (32.6%) and natural history of the disease (28.2%) were the most common topics. Discussion: There is growing interest in topics related to the diffusion of information about coronavirus. Global research points out the importance of identifying and combating fake news by government and healthcare agencies. Conclusions: Fake news related to coronavirus poses a threat to individual and collective health, addresses a variety of issues and carries potential harm to physical and mental health.


Introducción: La infodemia, entendido como el alto flujo de información, presenta un comportamiento similar al de los virus, ya que se propaga de persona a persona, lo que representa un nuevo reto para las autoridades sanitarias. El objetivo es analizar las noticias falsas publicadas en el contexto de la pandemia por el nuevo coronavirus. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una investigación documental basada en el portal de noticias del Ministerio de Salud de Brasil con el título de "Salud sin noticias falsas". Las palabras claves utilizadas para identificar las publicaciones realizadas entre diciembre de 2019 y marzo de 2020 fueron coronavirus y COVID-19. Para la visualización de los datos, se incluyó el análisis de contenido propuesto por Bardin. Resultados: Se identificaron 66 publicaciones con un total de 92 noticias falsas. En el análisis se revelaron las características comunes de las noticias falsas como el uso de titulares e imágenes llamativas, datos alarmantes y difusión cíclica. Así mismo, las redes sociales surgieron como una importante vía de difusión en las que, para dar una sensación de veracidad a estas noticias, era habitual atribuir la autoría de estas a organismos o profesionales sanitarios. Las noticias se clasificaron en seis grupos temáticos, entre los que se encuentran los métodos de prevención (32.6%) y la historia natural de la enfermedad (28.2%) como los más frecuentes. Discusión: Se observa un creciente interés en los temas relacionados con la difusión de información sobre el nuevo coronavirus y las investigaciones a nivel mundial señalan la importancia de identificar y combatir las noticias falsas por parte del gobierno y las agencias de salud. Conclusiones: Las noticias falsas relacionadas con el nuevo coronavirus representan una amenaza para la salud individual y colectiva, abordan diversas temáticas y conllevan daños potenciales para la salud física y mental.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Health Education , News , Coronavirus , Information Dissemination , Pandemics
18.
Int J Med Educ ; 12: 243-244, 2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811051
19.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256806, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808553

ABSTRACT

Scientific evidence plays an important role in the therapeutic decision-making process. What happens when physicians are forced to make therapeutic decisions under uncertainty? The absence of scientific guidelines at the beginning of a pandemic due to an unknown virus, such as COVID-19, could influence the perceived legitimacy of the application of non-evidence-based therapeutic approaches. This paper reports on a test of this hypothesis, in which we administered an ad hoc questionnaire to a sample of 64 Italian physicians during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy (April 2020). The questionnaire statements regarding the legitimacy of off-label or experimental drugs were framed according to three different scenarios (Normality, Emergency and COVID-19). Furthermore, as the perception of internal bodily sensations (i.e., interoception) modulates the decision-making process, we tested participants' interoceptive sensibility using the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA). The results showed that participants were more inclined to legitimate non-evidence-based therapeutic approaches in the COVID-19 and Emergency scenarios than the Normality scenario. We also found that scores on the MAIA Trusting subscale positively predicted this difference. Our findings demonstrate that uncertain medical scenarios, involving a dramatic increase in patient volume and acuity, can increase risk-taking in therapeutic decision-making. Furthermore, individual characteristics of health care providers, such as interoceptive ability, should be taken into account when constructing models to prevent the breakdown of healthcare systems in cases of severe emergency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Physicians/psychology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Decision Making , Drug Prescriptions , Emergency Treatment , Female , Humans , Interoception , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Risk-Taking , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Radiology ; 303(2): 295-296, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807539
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