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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13155, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967619

ABSTRACT

There has been growing attention toward the predictive value of the coagulation parameters abnormalities in COVID-19. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of coagulation parameters namely Prothrombin concentration (PC), activated Partial thromboplastin Time (aPTT), D-Dimer (DD), Anti Thrombin III (ATIII) and fibrinogen (Fg) together with hematological, and biochemical parameters in predicting the severity of COVID-19 patients and estimating their relation to clinical outcomes in hospitalized and severe COVID-19 Patients. In a prospective study, a total of 267 newly diagnosed COVID-19 patients were enrolled. They were divided into two groups; hospitalized group which included 144 patients and non-hospitalized group that included 123 patients. According to severity, the patients were divided into severe group which included 71 patients and non-severe group that included 196 patients who were admitted to ward or not hospitalized. Clinical evaluation, measurement of coagulation parameters, biochemical indices, outcome and survival data were recorded. Hospitalized and severe patients were older and commonly presented with dyspnea (P ≤ 0.001). Differences in coagulation parameters were highly significant in hospitalized and severe groups in almost all parameters, same for inflammatory markers. D-dimer, AT-III and LDH showed excellent independently prediction of severity risk. With a cut-off of > 2.0 ng/L, the sensitivity and specificity of D dimer in predicting severity were 76% and 93%, respectively. Patients with coagulation abnormalities showed worse survival than those without (p = 0.002). Early assessment and dynamic monitoring of coagulation parameters may be a benchmark in the prediction of COVID-19 severity and death.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Blood Coagulation , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prospective Studies
2.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 34(5): 509-513, 2022 May.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903523

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the diagnosis process and treatment experience of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with heparin resistance (HR). METHODS: The medical team of the First People's Hospital of Lianyungang admitted 2 severe COVID-19 patients with HR in intensive care unit (ICU) during their support to the designated hospital for the treatment of COVID-19 patients in Lianyungang City in November 2021. The clinical features, laboratory examinations, imaging features, treatment and prognosis of the two patients were analyzed. RESULTS: Both severe COVID-19 patients received mechanical ventilation, 1 patient was treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. Both patients were complicated with lower extremity deep venous thrombosis and HR phenomenon under routine dose anticoagulant therapy. The maximum daily dose of unfractionated heparin exceeded 35 000 U (up to 43 200 U), the 2 patients failed to meet the standard of anticoagulation treatment, and the course of disease was prolonged. After that, argatroban was given 0.4 µg×kg-1×min-1 combined with anticoagulant therapy, the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of patients undergoing ECMO could be maintained at 55-60 seconds and the activated coagulation time (ACT) of them could be maintained at 180-200 seconds. After ECMO support or later sequential mechanical ventilation, both patients recovered and were discharged, and deep venous thrombosis was also effectively controlled. CONCLUSIONS: HR phenomenon often occurs during the treatment of severe COVID-19 patients, the anticoagulation regimen should be adjusted in time, and the anticoagulation effect combined with argatroban is clear.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Partial Thromboplastin Time
3.
Clin Lab ; 68(6)2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prognostic roles of hemostatic tests including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, D-dimer, and antithrombin III in the progression of disease, monitorization of severe, mild and moderate cases, and also to show their relationship with inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin, and interleukin-6 (IL-6). METHODS: The study comprised 604 patients (360 men and 244 women) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to Emergency Department of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine between March 15 and April 15, 2020. The variations in the concentration of coagulation tests and inflammatory markers were observed from the admission to hospital to the 10th day with three-day periods. RESULTS: PT level and PT activity of severe cases were significantly different compared to mild cases (p = 0.012, p = 0.010, respectively). Similarly, aPTT and D-dimer levels in severe cases were significantly higher compared to the mild cases. However, fibrinogen levels of mild cases were significantly lower compared to either moderate or severe cases (p < 0.001, for both). The PT, PT activity, aPTT, and D-Dimer levels in severe cases were significantly different compared with the mild cases. However, fibrinogen level was the highest in severe cases, and higher than either mild or moderate cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal the vital importance of measuring coagulation parameters at the time of admission and monitoring them at regular intervals in clinical monitoring of COVID-19 patients, in determining the severity of the disease in terms of the patient's prognosis, and in choosing and applying the appropriate treatment at the right time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Fibrinogen/analysis , Humans , Male , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prognosis , Prothrombin Time , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Pharm Res ; 39(3): 541-551, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777764

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Intranasally administered unfractionated heparin (UFH) and other sulfated polysaccharides are potential prophylactics for COVID-19. The purpose of this research was to measure the safety and pharmacokinetics of clearance of intranasally administered UFH solution from the nasal cavity. METHODS: Double-blinded daily intranasal dosing in C57Bl6 mice with four doses (60 ng to 60 µg) of UFH was carried out for fourteen consecutive days, with both blood coagulation measurements and subject adverse event monitoring. The pharmacokinetics of fluorescent-labeled UFH clearance from the nasal cavity were measured in mice by in vivo imaging. Intranasal UFH at 2000 U/day solution with nasal spray device was tested for safety in a small number of healthy human subjects. RESULTS: UFH showed no evidence of toxicity in mice at any dose measured. No significant changes were observed in activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), platelet count, or frequency of minor irritant events over vehicle-only control. Human subjects showed no significant changes in aPTT time, international normalized ratio (INR), or platelet count over baseline measurements. No serious adverse events were observed. In vivo imaging in a mouse model showed a single phase clearance of UFH from the nasal cavity. After 12 h, 3.2% of the administered UFH remained in the nasal cavity, decaying to background levels by 48 h. CONCLUSIONS: UFH showed no toxic effects for extended daily intranasal dosing in mice as well as humans. The clearance kinetics of intranasal heparin solution from the nasal cavity indicates potentially protective levels for up to 12 h after dosing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heparin , Animals , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Partial Thromboplastin Time
5.
Clin Lab ; 68(4)2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771722

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigated the predictive value of routine coagulation parameters including D-dimer, Prothrombin Time (PT), International Normalized Ratio (INR), activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) and Complete Blood Count (CBC) test parameters in children with COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Retrospective and observational study carried out in Abuzar Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (Ahvaz, Iran) included COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Deceased patients (n = 5) compared to alive patients (n = 76) showed higher RDW (p = 0.005), PT (p = 0.005), INR (p = 0.004), PTT (p = 0.009), platelet count (p < 0.001), PLR (p < 0.001), and hospitalization time (p < 0.001). The area under the curve (AUC) of RDW was 0.85 (95% CI 0.75 - 0.96) which indicates its high power for mortality prediction in hospitalized children with COVID-19. We did not find significant differences in parameters in comparison between different severities. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, our study is one of the few studies to evaluate routine coagulation tests and the CBC test parameters predictive value in children with COVID-19. RDW has the most power to predict the mortality of children with COVID-19, followed by PT, INR, aPTT, platelet count, PLR, and hospitalization time have a high power to predict the risk of death in patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Child , Humans , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prothrombin Time , Retrospective Studies
6.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 25, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690867

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with a high prevalence rate, has rapidly infected millions of people around the world. Since viral infections can disrupt the coagulation and homeostasis cascades, various inflammatory and coagulation problems occur due to COVID-19 infection, similar to coronavirus epidemics in 2003 and 2004. According to multiple previous studies, in the present research, we reviewed the most commonly reported problems of COVID-19 patients, such as venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, disseminated intravascular coagulation, etc. and investigated the causes in these patients. Coagulation and inflammatory markers, such as platelets and fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, d-dimer, prothrombin time, etc., were also discussed, and the treatment options were briefly reviewed. In addition to coagulation treatments, regular examination of coagulation parameters and thrombotic complications can be helpful in the timely treatment of patients. Therefore, it is helpful to review the coagulation problems in COVID-19 patients. Although all mentioned problems and markers are important in COVID-19, some of them are more valuable in terms of diagnosis and prognosis.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Blood Coagulation , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686810

ABSTRACT

Aortic aneurysms are sometimes associated with enhanced-fibrinolytic-type disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). In enhanced-fibrinolytic-type DIC, both coagulation and fibrinolysis are markedly activated. Typical cases show decreased platelet counts and fibrinogen levels, increased concentrations of fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) and D-dimer, and increased FDP/D-dimer ratios. Thrombin-antithrombin complex or prothrombin fragment 1 + 2, as markers of coagulation activation, and plasmin-α2 plasmin inhibitor complex, a marker of fibrinolytic activation, are all markedly increased. Prolongation of prothrombin time (PT) is not so obvious, and the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is rather shortened in some cases. As a result, DIC can be neither diagnosed nor excluded based on PT and APTT alone. Many of the factors involved in coagulation and fibrinolysis activation are serine proteases. Treatment of enhanced-fibrinolytic-type DIC requires consideration of how to control the function of these serine proteases. The cornerstone of DIC treatment is treatment of the underlying pathology. However, in some cases surgery is either not possible or exacerbates the DIC associated with aortic aneurysm. In such cases, pharmacotherapy becomes even more important. Unfractionated heparin, other heparins, synthetic protease inhibitors, recombinant thrombomodulin, and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are agents that inhibit serine proteases, and all are effective against DIC. Inhibition of activated coagulation factors by anticoagulants is key to the treatment of DIC. Among them, DOACs can be taken orally and is useful for outpatient treatment. Combination therapy of heparin and nafamostat allows fine-adjustment of anticoagulant and antifibrinolytic effects. While warfarin is an anticoagulant, this agent is ineffective in the treatment of DIC because it inhibits the production of coagulation factors as substrates without inhibiting activated coagulation factors. In addition, monotherapy using tranexamic acid in cases of enhanced-fibrinolytic-type DIC may induce fatal thrombosis. If tranexamic acid is needed for DIC, combination with anticoagulant therapy is of critical importance.


Subject(s)
Aortic Aneurysm/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Fibrinolysis/drug effects , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Antifibrinolytic Agents/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Fibrinolysin , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Heparin/pharmacology , Humans , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prothrombin Time , alpha-2-Antiplasmin
8.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(3): e24216, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19, has reached all the corners of the world and was declared by the WHO as a global pandemic and public health emergency of international concern on the January 31, 2020. Allocating quick and specific biomarkers to predict the disease severity upon admission to hospital became a crucial need. This study, therefore, aimed at exploring the relationship between laboratory results in COVID-19 patients admitted to hospital and the final outcome in these patients. METHODS: Retrospective analysis was performed on the medical records of 310 COVID-19-positive patients admitted to Uhod Hospital, the referral hospital in the area of Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between the April 13 and the July 29, 2020. The association of laboratory results with the survival/mortality outcomes was studied. RESULTS: It was demonstrated that lymphopenia, prolonged aPTT, high INR, high D. dimer and high CK are valuable prognostic predictors of the severity of the disease at early stages that can determine the outcome. Based on the results of the multiple logistic regression, the variables that are associated with death outcome are aPTT, HR, RR, ALT and CK level CONCLUSION: It is proposed to perform these tests on admission to hospital for moderate to severe COVID-19 patients to improve the management of those cases and reduce mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Creatine Kinase/blood , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia
9.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 88(6): 2802-2813, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608393

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To determine the safety and efficacy-potential of inhaled nebulised unfractionated heparin (UFH) in the treatment of hospitalised patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Retrospective, uncontrolled multicentre single-arm case series of hospitalised patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, treated with inhaled nebulised UFH (5000 IU q8h, 10 000 IU q4h, or 25 000 IU q6h) for 6 ± 3 (mean ± standard deviation) days. Outcomes were activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) before treatment (baseline) and highest-level during treatment (peak), and adverse events including bleeding. Exploratory efficacy outcomes were oxygenation, assessed by ratio of oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 ) and FiO2 , and the World Health Organisation modified ordinal clinical scale. RESULTS: There were 98 patients included. In patients on stable prophylactic or therapeutic systemic anticoagulant therapy but not receiving therapeutic UFH infusion, APTT levels increased from baseline of 34 ± 10 seconds to a peak of 38 ± 11 seconds (P < .0001). In 3 patients on therapeutic UFH infusion, APTT levels did not significantly increase from baseline of 72 ± 20 to a peak of 84 ± 28 seconds (P = .17). Two patients had serious adverse events: bleeding gastric ulcer requiring transfusion and thigh haematoma; both were on therapeutic anticoagulation. Minor bleeding occurred in 16 patients, 13 of whom were on therapeutic anticoagulation. The oxygen saturation/FiO2 ratio and the FiO2 worsened before and improved after commencement of inhaled UFH (change in slope, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Inhaled nebulised UFH in hospitalised patients with COVID-19 was safe. Although statistically significant, inhaled nebulised UFH did not produce a clinically relevant increase in APTT (peak values in the normal range). Urgent randomised evaluation of nebulised UFH in patients with COVID-19 is warranted and several studies are currently underway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heparin , Anticoagulants , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Retrospective Studies
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 762782, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593084

ABSTRACT

Coagulopathy is a frequently reported finding in the pathology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, the molecular mechanism, the involved coagulation factors, and the role of regulatory proteins in homeostasis are not fully investigated. We explored the dynamic changes of nine coagulation tests in patients and controls to propose a molecular mechanism for COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. Coagulation tests including prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), fibrinogen (FIB), lupus anticoagulant (LAC), proteins C and S, antithrombin III (ATIII), D-dimer, and fibrin degradation products (FDPs) were performed on plasma collected from 105 individuals (35 critical patients, 35 severe patients, and 35 healthy controls). There was a statically significant difference when the results of the critical (CRT) and/or severe (SVR) group for the following tests were compared to the control (CRL) group: PTCRT (15.014) and PTSVR (13.846) (PTCRL = 13.383, p < 0.001), PTTCRT (42.923) and PTTSVR (37.8) (PTTCRL = 36.494, p < 0.001), LACCRT (49.414) and LACSVR (47.046) (LACCRL = 40.763, p < 0.001), FIBCRT (537.66) and FIBSVR (480.29) (FIBCRL = 283.57, p < 0.001), ProCCRT (85.57%) and ProCSVR (99.34%) (ProCCRL = 94.31%, p = 0.04), ProSCRT (62.91%) and ProSSVR (65.06%) (ProSCRL = 75.03%, p < 0.001), D-dimer (p < 0.0001, χ 2 = 34.812), and FDP (p < 0.002, χ 2 = 15.205). No significant association was found in the ATIII results in groups (ATIIICRT = 95.71% and ATIIISVR = 99.63%; ATIIICRL = 98.74%, p = 0.321). D-dimer, FIB, PT, PTT, LAC, protein S, FDP, and protein C (ordered according to p-values) have significance in the prognosis of patients. Disruptions in homeostasis in protein C (and S), VIII/VIIIa and V/Va axes, probably play a role in COVID-19-associated coagulopathy.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Tests/methods , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/complications , Adult , Aged , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Factors/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Female , Fibrin/metabolism , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Homeostasis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prognosis , Protein C/metabolism , Prothrombin Time , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
11.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211066945, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574469

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Argatroban is licensed for patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and is conventionally monitored by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) ratio. The target range is 1.5 to 3.0 times the patients' baseline APTT and not exceeding 100 s, however this baseline is not always known. APTT is known to plateau at higher levels of argatroban, and is influenced by coagulopathies, lupus anticoagulant and raised FVIII levels. It has been used as a treatment for COVID-19 and Vaccine-induced Immune Thrombocytopenia and Thrombosis (VITT). Some recent publications have favored the use of anti-IIa methods to determine the plasma drug concentration of argatroban. METHODS: Plasma of 60 samples from 3 COVID-19 patients and 54 samples from 5 VITT patients were tested by APTT ratio and anti-IIa method (dilute thrombin time dTT). Actin FS APTT ratios were derived from the baseline APTT of the patient and the mean normal APTT. RESULTS: Mean APTT ratio derived from baseline was 1.71 (COVID-19), 1.33 (VITT) compared to APTT ratio by mean normal 1.65 (COVID-19), 1.48 (VITT). dTT mean concentration was 0.64 µg/ml (COVID-19) 0.53 µg/ml (VITT) with poor correlations to COVID-19 baseline APTT ratio r2 = 0.1526 p <0.0001, mean normal r2 = 0.2188 p < 0.0001; VITT baseline APTT ratio r2 = 0.04 p < 0.001, VITT mean normal r2 = 0.0064 p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that dTT is a superior method to monitor the concentration of argatroban, we have demonstrated significant differences between APTT ratios and dTT levels, which could have clinical impact. This is especially so in COVID-19 and VITT.


Subject(s)
Arginine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Partial Thromboplastin Time/methods , Pipecolic Acids/therapeutic use , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Aged , Arginine/pharmacology , Arginine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pipecolic Acids/pharmacology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombosis/chemically induced
13.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 44(2): 399-406, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511317

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Summary of Product Characteristics for the direct thrombin inhibitor argatroban states monitoring should be by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), with a target range of 1.5-3.0 times the patients' baseline APTT. APTT may be influenced by coagulopathies, lupus anticoagulant and raised FVIII levels. Previous studies have shown sensitivity differences of APTT reagents to argatroban. Some recent publications have favoured the use of anti-IIa methods to determine the plasma drug concentration of argatroban. This study aims to compare the anti-IIa assays: Hemoclot thrombin inhibitor assay (HTI) and Ecarin chromogenic assay (ECA) alongside the APTT. METHODS: Residual plasma of 25 samples from 8 patients (3 with COVID-19 and HIT: n = 18, 5 with HIT: n = 7) was tested at two sites: site A: Sysmex CS5100 by HTI and APTT (Actin FS and SynthASil), and also on Stago STA Compact Max: ECA and APTT (CK Prest); and site B: Stago STA R Max 2 by ECA and APTT (Cephascreen). RESULTS: Mean APTT ratio was 1.96 (Actin FS), 1.84 (SynthASil), 1.59 (CK Prest) and 2.48 (Cephascreen). Mean argatroban concentration by HTI was 0.60 µg/mL and by ECA was 0.65 µg/mL (site A) and 0.70 µg/mL (site B). There was a poor correlation to HTI in APTT ratios (range r2  = .0235-0.4181) with stronger correlations between ECA methods to HTI (r2  = .8998 site A, r2  = .8734 site B). CONCLUSION: This study confirms previous publications on the unsuitability of APTT and expands this by being multisited and included APTT reagents that use mechanical clot detection. Both anti-IIa methods are more suitable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Arginine/analogs & derivatives , Drug Monitoring/methods , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Pipecolic Acids/pharmacology , Sulfonamides , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced
14.
Chest ; 161(3): 710-727, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary vascular microthrombi are a proposed mechanism of COVID-19 respiratory failure. We hypothesized that early administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) followed by therapeutic heparin would improve pulmonary function in these patients. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does tPA improve pulmonary function in severe COVID-19 respiratory failure, and is it safe? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Adults with COVID-19-induced respiratory failure were randomized from May14, 2020 through March 3, 2021, in two phases. Phase 1 (n = 36) comprised a control group (standard-of-care treatment) vs a tPA bolus (50-mg tPA IV bolus followed by 7 days of heparin; goal activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT], 60-80 s) group. Phase 2 (n = 14) comprised a control group vs a tPA drip (50-mg tPA IV bolus, followed by tPA drip 2 mg/h plus heparin 500 units/h over 24 h, then heparin to maintain aPTT of 60-80 s for 7 days) group. Patients were excluded from enrollment if they had not undergone a neurologic examination or cross-sectional brain imaging within the previous 4.5 h to rule out stroke and potential for hemorrhagic conversion. The primary outcome was Pao2 to Fio2 ratio improvement from baseline at 48 h after randomization. Secondary outcomes included Pao2 to Fio2 ratio improvement of > 50% or Pao2 to Fio2 ratio of ≥ 200 at 48 h (composite outcome), ventilator-free days (VFD), and mortality. RESULTS: Fifty patients were randomized: 17 in the control group and 19 in the tPA bolus group in phase 1 and eight in the control group and six in the tPA drip group in phase 2. No severe bleeding events occurred. In the tPA bolus group, the Pao2 to Fio2 ratio values were significantly (P < .017) higher than baseline at 6 through 168 h after randomization; the control group showed no significant improvements. Among patients receiving a tPA bolus, the percent change of Pao2 to Fio2 ratio at 48 h (16.9% control [interquartile range (IQR), -8.3% to 36.8%] vs 29.8% tPA bolus [IQR, 4.5%-88.7%]; P = .11), the composite outcome (11.8% vs 47.4%; P = .03), VFD (0.0 [IQR, 0.0-9.0] vs 12.0 [IQR, 0.0-19.0]; P = .11), and in-hospital mortality (41.2% vs 21.1%; P = .19) did not reach statistically significant differences when compared with those of control participants. The patients who received a tPA drip did not experience benefit. INTERPRETATION: The combination of tPA bolus plus heparin is safe in severe COVID-19 respiratory failure. A phase 3 study is warranted given the improvements in oxygenation and promising observations in VFD and mortality. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT04357730; URL: www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/complications , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/administration & dosage , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480798

ABSTRACT

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a severe condition characterized by the systemic formation of microthrombi complicated with bleeding tendency and organ dysfunction. In the last years, it represents one of the most frequent consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The pathogenesis of DIC is complex, with cross-talk between the coagulant and inflammatory pathways. The objective of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory action of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (um-PEA) in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced DIC model in rats. Experimental DIC was induced by continual infusion of LPS (30 mg/kg) for 4 h through the tail vein. Um-PEA (30 mg/kg) was given orally 30 min before and 1 h after the start of intravenous infusion of LPS. Results showed that um-PEA reduced alteration of coagulation markers, as well as proinflammatory cytokine release in plasma and lung samples, induced by LPS infusion. Furthermore, um-PEA also has the effect of preventing the formation of fibrin deposition and lung damage. Moreover, um-PEA was able to reduce the number of mast cells (MCs) and the release of its serine proteases, which are also necessary for SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results suggest that um-PEA could be considered as a potential therapeutic approach in the management of DIC and in clinical implications associated to coagulopathy and lung dysfunction, such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Amides/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Ethanolamines/therapeutic use , Palmitic Acids/therapeutic use , Sepsis/complications , Amides/chemistry , Amides/pharmacology , Animals , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Ethanolamines/chemistry , Ethanolamines/pharmacology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Mast Cells/cytology , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/metabolism , Palmitic Acids/chemistry , Palmitic Acids/pharmacology , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prothrombin Time , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sepsis/pathology , Serine Proteases/metabolism
16.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(10)2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447986

ABSTRACT

An 80-year-old man with no personal or family history of bleeding, presented to hospital with extensive haematomas and skin bruising after using doxycycline. His basic lab workup was concerning for a coagulopathy with an elevated activated partial thromboplastin time and significant anaemia. Mixing studies and other factor levels were tested that led to the diagnosis of acquired haemophilia A with low factor VIII levels and high factor VIII antibodies. He was started on steroids, but his haemoglobin level continued to drop. Later, during his treatment, he was given multiple therapeutic agents, including cyclophosphamide, rituximab and recombinant factor VII (NovoSeven-R). Gradually factor VIII levels increased and haemoglobin stabilised. The hospital course was complicated by COVID-19 pneumonia leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome; the patient eventually expired due to respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemophilia A , Aged, 80 and over , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Hemophilia A/chemically induced , Hemophilia A/diagnosis , Hemophilia A/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Partial Thromboplastin Time , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14186, 2020 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434143

ABSTRACT

Infections cause varying degrees of haemostatic dysfunction which can be detected by clot waveform analysis (CWA), a global haemostatic marker. CWA has been shown to predict poor outcomes in severe infections with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. The effect of less severe bacterial and viral infections on CWA has not been established. We hypothesized that different infections influence CWA distinctively. Patients admitted with bacterial infections, dengue and upper respiratory tract viral infections were recruited if they had an activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) measured on admission. APTT-based CWA was performed on Sysmex CS2100i automated analyser using Dade Actin FSL reagent. CWA parameters [(maximum velocity (min1), maximum acceleration (min2) and maximum deceleration (max2)] were compared against control patients. Infected patients (n = 101) had longer aPTT than controls (n = 112) (34.37 ± 7.72 s vs 27.80 ± 1.59 s, p < 0.001), with the mean (± SD) aPTT longest in dengue infection (n = 36) (37.99 ± 7.93 s), followed by bacterial infection (n = 52) (33.96 ± 7.33 s) and respiratory viral infection (n = 13) (29.98 ± 3.92 s). Compared to controls (min1; min2; max2) (5.53 ± 1.16%/s; 0.89 ± 0.19%/s2; 0.74 ± 0.16%/s2), bacterial infection has higher CWA results (6.92 ± 1.60%/s; 1.04 ± 0.28%/s2; 0.82 ± 0.24%/s2, all p < 0.05); dengue infection has significantly lower CWA values (3.93 ± 1.32%/s; 0.57 ± 0.17%/s2; 0.43 ± 0.14%/s2, all p < 0.001) whilst respiratory virus infection has similar results (6.19 ± 1.32%/s; 0.95 ± 0.21%/s2; 0.73 ± 0.18%/s2, all p > 0.05). CWA parameters demonstrated positive correlation with C-reactive protein levels (min1: r = 0.54, min2: r = 0.44, max2: r = 0.34; all p < 0.01). Different infections affect CWA distinctively. CWA could provide information on the haemostatic milieu triggered by infection and further studies are needed to better define its application in this area.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/blood , Hemostasis , Partial Thromboplastin Time/methods , Virus Diseases/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Dengue/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Elective Surgical Procedures , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/blood
18.
J Biol Chem ; 297(4): 101207, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415531

ABSTRACT

Certain sulfated glycans, including those from marine sources, can show potential effects against SARS-CoV-2. Here, a new fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS) from the sea cucumber Pentacta pygmaea (PpFucCS) (MW ∼10-60 kDa) was isolated and structurally characterized by NMR. PpFucCS is composed of {→3)-ß-GalNAcX-(1→4)-ß-GlcA-[(3→1)Y]-(1→}, where X = 4S (80%), 6S (10%) or nonsulfated (10%), Y = α-Fuc2,4S (40%), α-Fuc2,4S-(1→4)-α-Fuc (30%), or α-Fuc4S (30%), and S = SO3-. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of PpFucCS and those of the FucCS and sulfated fucan isolated from Isostichopus badionotus (IbFucCS and IbSF) were compared with that of heparin. IC50 values demonstrated the activity of the three holothurian sulfated glycans to be ∼12 times more efficient than heparin, with no cytotoxic effects. The dissociation constant (KD) values obtained by surface plasmon resonance of the wildtype SARS-CoV-2 spike (S)-protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and N501Y mutant RBD in interactions with the heparin-immobilized sensor chip were 94 and 1.8 × 103 nM, respectively. Competitive surface plasmon resonance inhibition analysis of PpFucCS, IbFucCS, and IbSF against heparin binding to wildtype S-protein showed IC50 values (in the nanomolar range) 6, 25, and 6 times more efficient than heparin, respectively. Data from computational simulations suggest an influence of the sulfation patterns of the Fuc units on hydrogen bonding with GlcA and that conformational change of some of the oligosaccharide structures occurs upon S-protein RBD binding. Compared with heparin, negligible anticoagulant action was observed for IbSF. Our results suggest that IbSF may represent a promising molecule for future investigations against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Polysaccharides/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Sulfates/chemistry , Animals , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chondroitin Sulfates/chemistry , Chondroitin Sulfates/metabolism , Kinetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sea Cucumbers/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Surface Plasmon Resonance
19.
Hematology ; 26(1): 656-662, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398020

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coagulation dysfunction is an evident factor in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), appearing even in COVID-19 patients with normal inflammation indices. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the characteristics of coagulation function indices in COVID-19 patients to investigate possible mechanisms through the comparison of non-severe and severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We included 143 patients whose clinical characteristics, coagulation function, and other indices such as inflammatory factors were collected and compared based on disease severity. RESULTS: Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), D-dimer, and fibrinogen levels were evidently higher in the severe group than in the non-severe group. Among non-severe COVID-19 patients, the aforementioned indicators depicted increasing trends, but the fibrinogen level alone was higher than normal. However, in severe COVID-19 patients, values of all three indices were higher than normal. In severe COVID-19 patients, fibrinogen and D-dimer were correlated with several inflammation indices during the early stage of the disease. However, no correlation between fibrinogen and inflammatory factors was observed in non-severe COVID-19 patients at any time point. DISCUSSION: Results revealed that the hypercoagulability tendency of severe COVID-19 patients was more evident. The relationship between coagulation function and inflammatory factors showed that changes in coagulation function in severe COVID-19 patients may be related to abnormal increase in inflammatory factors at an early stage; however, in non-severe COVID-19 patients, there might be other factors leading to abnormal coagulation. CONCLUSION: Inflammatory factors were not the only cause of abnormal coagulation function in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Thrombophilia/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinogen/analysis , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/etiology
20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388480

ABSTRACT

A 65-year-old man presented with symptoms of severe subcutaneous bleeding in his arm, which led to compartment syndrome requiring fasciotomy and massive blood transfusion protocol. Medical history was significant for history of autoimmune thyroid disease. Workup revealed elevated partial thromboplastin time, decreased factor VIII levels and elevated factor VIII inhibitor levels. He was worked up for causes of acquired haemophilia A and was found to have an elevated SARS-CoV-2 antibody level. Given his negative workup for other secondary aetiologies, we suspect that the cause of his haemophilia A was from his SARS-CoV-2 infection, which has been observed previously in various case reports.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemophilia A , Aged , Hemophilia A/complications , Hemophilia A/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Partial Thromboplastin Time , SARS-CoV-2
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