Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 297
Filter
1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 779, 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Maternal vaccinations for influenza and pertussis are recommended in New Zealand to protect mothers and their infant from infection. However, maternal immunisation coverage in New Zealand is suboptimal. Furthermore, there is unacceptable inequitable maternal immunisation rates across the country with Maori and Pacific women having significantly lower maternal immunisation rates than those of other New Zealanders. METHODS: This research set out to explore what pregnant/recently pregnant Maori and Pacific women knew about immunisation during pregnancy and what factors influenced their decision to be vaccinated. A semi-structured interview guide was developed with questions focusing on knowledge of pertussis and influenza vaccination during pregnancy and decision-making. Maori and Pacific women aged over 16 years were purposively sampled and interviewed in Dunedin and Gisborne, New Zealand between May and August 2021. Interviews were analysed following a directed qualitative content approach. Data were arranged into coding nodes based on the study aims (deductive analysis) informed by previous literature and within these participant experiences were inductively coded into themes and subthemes. RESULTS: Not all women were aware of maternal vaccine recommendations or they diseases they protected against. Many underestimated how dangerous influenza and pertussis could be and some were more concerned about potential harms of the vaccine. Furthermore, understanding potential harms of infection and protection provided by vaccination did not necessarily mean women would choose to be vaccinated. Those who decided to vaccinate felt well-informed, had vaccination recommended by their healthcare provider, and did so to protect their and their infant's health. Those who decided against vaccination were concerned about safety of the vaccines, lacked the information they needed, were not offered the vaccine, or did not consider vaccination a priority. CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of understanding about vaccine benefits and risks of vaccine-preventable diseases which can result in the reinforcement of negative influences such as the fear of side effects. Furthermore, if vaccine benefits are not understood, inaccessibility of vaccines and the precedence of other life priorities may prevent uptake. Being well-informed and supported to make positive decisions to vaccinate in pregnancy is likely to improve vaccine coverage in Maori and Pacific Island New Zealanders.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Whooping Cough , Female , Humans , Immunization , Infant , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Mothers , New Zealand , Pertussis Vaccine/therapeutic use , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnant Women , Vaccination , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6961, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119270

ABSTRACT

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommend a third dose of COVID-19 vaccine for pregnant women, although data regarding effectiveness during pregnancy are lacking. This national, population-based, historical cohort study of pregnant women in Israel, delivering between August 1, 2021 and March 22, 2022, aims to analyze and compare the third and second doses' vaccine effectiveness in preventing COVID-19-related hospitalizations during pregnancy during two COVID-19 waves (Delta variant in the summer of 2021 and Omicron, BA.1, variant in the winter of 2022). Time-dependent Cox proportional-hazards regression models estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for COVID-related outcomes according to vaccine dose, and vaccine effectiveness as 1-HR. Study includes 82,659 and 33,303 pregnant women from the Delta and Omicron waves, respectively. Compared with the second dose, the third dose effectively prevents overall hospitalizations with SARS-CoV-2 infections, with estimated effectiveness of 92% (95% CI 83-96%) during Delta, and enhances protection against significant disease during Omicron, with effectiveness of 92% (95% CI 26-99%), and 48% (95% CI 37-57%) effectiveness against hospitalization overall. A third dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy, given at least 5 months after the second vaccine dose, enhances protection against adverse COVID-19-related outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , BNT162 Vaccine , RNA, Messenger , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Israel/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2240993, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103436

ABSTRACT

Importance: Pregnant persons are at an increased risk of severe COVID-19 from SARS-CoV-2 infection, and COVID-19 vaccination is currently recommended during pregnancy. Objective: To ascertain the association of vaccine type, time from vaccination, gestational age at delivery, and pregnancy complications with placental transfer of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted in Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and included births at the study site between August 9, 2020, and April 25, 2021. Maternal and cord blood serum samples were available for antibody level measurements for maternal-neonatal dyads. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection vs COVID-19 vaccination. Main Outcomes and Measures: IgG antibodies to the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were measured by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody concentrations and transplacental transfer ratios were measured after SARS-CoV-2 infection or receipt of COVID-19 vaccines. Results: A total of 585 maternal-newborn dyads (median [IQR] maternal age, 31 [26-35] years; median [IQR] gestational age, 39 [38-40] weeks) with maternal IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 detected at the time of delivery were included. IgG was detected in cord blood from 557 of 585 newborns (95.2%). Among 169 vaccinated persons without SARS-CoV-2 infection, the interval from first dose of vaccine to delivery ranged from 12 to 122 days. The geometric mean IgG level among 169 vaccine recipients was significantly higher than that measured in 408 persons after infection (33.88 [95% CI, 27.64-41.53] arbitrary U/mL vs 2.80 [95% CI, 2.50-3.13] arbitrary U/mL). Geometric mean IgG levels were higher after vaccination with the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine compared with the BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) vaccine (53.74 [95% CI, 40.49-71.33] arbitrary U/mL vs 25.45 [95% CI, 19.17-33.79] arbitrary U/mL; P < .001). Placental transfer ratios were lower after vaccination compared with after infection (0.80 [95% CI, 0.68-0.93] vs 1.06 [95% CI, 0.98-1.14]; P < .001) but were similar between the mRNA vaccines (mRNA-1273: 0.70 [95% CI, 0.55-0.90]; BNT162b2: 0.85 [95% CI, 0.69-1.06]; P = .25). Time from infection or vaccination to delivery was associated with transfer ratio in models that included gestational age at delivery and maternal hypertensive disorders, diabetes, and obesity. Placental antibody transfer was detectable as early as 26 weeks' gestation. Transfer ratio that was higher than 1.0 was present for 48 of 51 (94.1%) births at 36 weeks' gestation or later by 8 weeks after vaccination. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that maternal and cord blood IgG antibody levels were higher after COVID-19 vaccination compared with after SARS-CoV-2 infection, with slightly lower placental transfer ratios after vaccination than after infection. The findings suggest that time from infection or vaccination to delivery was the most important factor in transfer efficiency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , BNT162 Vaccine , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunoglobulin G , Philadelphia , Placenta , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 60(11): 1163-1167, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099938

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the management and short-term outcomes of neonates delivered by mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 158 neonates born to mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant admitted to the isolation ward of Children's Hospital of Fudan University from March 15th, 2022 to May 30th, 2022. The postnatal infection control measures for these neonates, and their clinical characteristics and short-term outcomes were analyzed. They were divided into maternal symptomatic group and maternal asymptomatic group according to whether their mothers had SARS-CoV-2 symptoms. The clinical outcomes were compared between the 2 groups using Rank sum test and Chi-square test. Results: All neonates were under strict infection control measures at birth and after birth. Of the 158 neonates, 75 (47.5%) were male. The gestational age was (38+3±1+3) weeks and the birth weight was (3 201±463)g. Of the neonates included, ten were preterm (6.3%) and the minimum gestational age was 30+1 weeks. Six neonates (3.8%) had respiratory difficulty and 4 of them were premature and required mechanical ventilation. All 158 neonates were tested negative for SARS-COV-2 nucleic acid by daily nasal swabs for the first 7 days. A total of 156 mothers (2 cases of twin pregnancy) infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, the time from confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection to delivery was 7 (3, 12) days. Among them, 88 cases (56.4%) showed clinical symptoms, but none needed intensive care treatment. The peripheral white blood cell count of the neonates in maternal symptomatic group was significantly higher than that in maternal symptomatic group (23.0 (18.7, 28.0) × 109 vs. 19.6 (15.4, 36.6) × 109/L, Z=2.44, P<0.05). Conclusions: Neonates of mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant during third trimester have benign short-term outcomes, without intrauterine infection through vertical transmission. Strict infection control measures at birth and after birth can effectively protect these neonates from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Mothers , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(9): e2233273, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047371

ABSTRACT

Importance: Pregnant people are at high risk for severe COVID-19 but were excluded from mRNA vaccine trials; data on COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness (VE) are needed. Objective: To evaluate the estimated effectiveness of mRNA vaccination against medically attended COVID-19 among pregnant people during Delta and Omicron predominance. Design, Setting, and Participants: This test-negative, case-control study was conducted from June 2021 to June 2022 in a network of 306 hospitals and 164 emergency department and urgent care (ED/UC) facilities across 10 US states, including 4517 ED/UC encounters and 975 hospitalizations among pregnant people with COVID-19-like illness (CLI) who underwent SARS-CoV-2 molecular testing. Exposures: Two doses (14-149 and ≥150 days prior) and 3 doses (7-119 and ≥120 days prior) of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine (≥1 dose received during pregnancy) vs unvaccinated. Main Outcomes and Measures: Estimated VE against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated ED/UC encounter or hospitalization, based on the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for prior vaccination; VE was calculated as (1 - aOR) × 100%. Results: Among 4517 eligible CLI-associated ED/UC encounters and 975 hospitalizations, 885 (19.6%) and 334 (34.3%) were SARS-CoV-2 positive, respectively; the median (IQR) patient age was 28 (24-32) years and 31 (26-35) years, 537 (12.0%) and 118 (12.0%) were non-Hispanic Black and 1189 (26.0%) and 240 (25.0%) were Hispanic. During Delta predominance, the estimated VE against COVID-19-associated ED/UC encounters was 84% (95% CI, 69% to 92%) for 2 doses within 14 to 149 days, 75% (95% CI, 5% to 93%) for 2 doses 150 or more days prior, and 81% (95% CI, 30% to 95%) for 3 doses 7 to 119 days prior; estimated VE against COVID-19-associated hospitalization was 99% (95% CI, 96% to 100%), 96% (95% CI, 86% to 99%), and 97% (95% CI, 79% to 100%), respectively. During Omicron predominance, for ED/UC encounters, the estimated VE of 2 doses within 14 to 149 days, 2 doses 150 or more days, 3 doses within 7 to 119 days, and 3 doses 120 or more days prior was 3% (95% CI, -49% to 37%), 42% (95% CI, -16% to 72%), 79% (95% CI, 59% to 89%), and -124% (95% CI, -414% to 2%), respectively; for hospitalization, estimated VE was 86% (95% CI, 41% to 97%), 64% (95% CI, -102% to 93%), 86% (95% CI, 28% to 97%), and -53% (95% CI, -1254% to 83%), respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, maternal mRNA COVID-19 vaccination, including booster dose, was associated with protection against medically attended COVID-19. VE estimates were higher against COVID-19-associated hospitalization than ED/UC visits and lower against the Omicron variant than the Delta variant. Protection waned over time, particularly during Omicron predominance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger, Stored , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
7.
Egypt J Immunol ; 29(4): 58-74, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2046332

ABSTRACT

The single-stranded RNA virus (coronavirus 2019) pandemic has represented a massive influence on health care professionals and communities around the world. This virus is accompanied by a range of respiratory disorders. Morbidity and mortality are in elevation among pregnant mothers. COVID-19 vaccine is considered safe for the majority of the population. Safety concerns were raised toward pregnant mothers and the COVID-19 vaccine. In the present study, data were taken out from relevant manuscripts; from 20th April 2021 to 25th December 2021. In this study, literature reviews from the most comprehensive health database on 100 papers published during 2020 and 2021 were used. This review article aimed to assess the present evidence available in the literature about the possible effect of COVID-19 on pregnant mothers and their fetuses and, to address considerations for maternal COVID-19 vaccine based on the review of existing data to aid in spreading the awareness about the benefits of vaccine that could save lives. In general, COVID-19 vaccines resulted in reducing the ability of virus transmission and patients' hospitalization. COVID-19 vaccines will never cause infection of corona virus. Evidence showed that COVID-19 vaccines from any brand will reduce the mortality and morbidity. However, available data indicated that possible deterioration of the clinical conditions of pregnant mothers infected with COVID-19 cannot be excluded. Primary outcomes did not show clear safety signs among pregnant mothers who received COVID-19 vaccines. This is because pregnant and lactating mothers were excluded from COVID-19 vaccine studies. Thus, data to lead vaccine decision-making are inadequate. More longitudinal follow up studies are necessary to reinforce the safety of the vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Lactation , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Milk, Human/immunology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0275105, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043213

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to infection. Furthermore, infection from pertussis, influenza and COVID-19 increases the likelihood of adverse consequences to the mother and developing baby such as stillbirth, ICU admission, and pre-term caesarean birth. Increased rates of transmission and risk of adverse consequences from infection justifies the provision of national maternal vaccination programmes. Additionally, maternal vaccination helps protect the infant until they are able to receive their own vaccinations; a time when they are most at risk of mortality from influenza and pertussis. Vaccination during pregnancy has been repeatedly demonstrated as safe and effective in reducing harm, although rates of uptake remain low compared to the general population. The current protocol describes the methodology for an umbrella review aiming to explore the barriers and facilitators of vaccination during pregnancy for pertussis, influenza, and COVID-19. Systematic reviews that investigate the barriers and facilitators of at least one of either pertussis, influenza, or COVID-19 will be included in this review. Multiple databases will be searched, and included reviews assessed for quality (using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) quality assessment for systematic reviews) and degree of overlap of included primary studies. Included reviews will be analysed according to the WHO SAGE model of determinants of vaccine hesitancy and separated by whether these explore influenza and pertussis, or COVID-19. The outcomes of this review will help inform the development of interventions to increase uptake of vaccination during pregnancy, and on whether interventions need to be tailored depending on the infectious disease. The key findings will identify the specific barriers and facilitators of vaccination hesitancy by considering contextual influences (e.g. sociodemographic variables), individual/social group influences (e.g. trust in the institutions), and vaccine-specific issues (e.g. safety and recommendations).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Whooping Cough , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/chemically induced , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pertussis Vaccine/therapeutic use , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Review Literature as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Vaccination , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e603-e610, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017834

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during pregnancy and early infancy can result in severe disease. Evaluating the effect of gestational age at the time of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination on maternal antibody levels and transplacental antibody transfer has important implications for maternal care and vaccination strategies. METHODS: Maternal and cord blood sera were collected from mother-newborn dyads (n = 402), following term delivery after antenatal 2-dose SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) and receptor binding domain (RBD)-specific IgG levels were evaluated in the samples collected. RESULTS: Median anti-S and anti-RBD-specific IgG levels in maternal sera at the time of delivery were lowest following first-trimester vaccination (n = 90; anti-S IgG: 76 AU/mL; anti-RBD-specific IgG: 478 AU/mL), intermediate in those vaccinated in the second trimester (n = 124; anti-S IgG: 126 AU/mL; anti-RBD-specific IgG: 1263 AU/mL), and highest after third-trimester vaccination (n = 188; anti-S IgG: 240 AU/mL; anti-RBD-specific IgG: 5855 AU/mL). Antibody levels in neonatal sera followed a similar pattern and were lowest following antenatal vaccination in the first trimester (anti-S IgG: 126 AU/mL; anti-RBD-specific IgG: 1140 AU/mL). In a subgroup of parturients vaccinated in the first trimester (n = 30), a third booster dose was associated with significantly higher maternal and neonatal antibody levels. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a considerable antibody waning throughout pregnancy in those vaccinated at early gestation. The observed boosting effect of a third vaccine dose hints at its potential benefit in those who completed the 2-dose vaccine series at early pregnancy or before conception. The impact of antenatal immunization timing on SARS-CoV-2 transplacental antibody transfer may influence neonatal seroprotection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
11.
Mod Pathol ; 35(9): 1175-1180, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016645

ABSTRACT

Current public health initiatives to contain the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) global pandemic focus on expanding vaccination efforts to include vulnerable populations such as pregnant people. Vaccines using messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) technology rely on translation by immune cells, primarily at the injection site. Hesitancy remains among the general population regarding the safety of mRNA vaccines during gestation, and it remains unknown whether the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein (the product of mRNA vaccines available) accumulates in the placenta after vaccination. Objective: To determine whether Spike protein translation and accumulation occurs in placental tissue in the context of recent mRNA SARC-CoV-2 vaccination during pregnancy. We identified 48 patients receiving one or two doses of mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine during gestation and used immunohistochemistry against SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded placental tissue. One placenta, positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by in situ hybridization (ISH) was used as positive control. Seven term placentas collected prior to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 served as negative controls. Eighty one percent of patients in the study group underwent third-trimester delivery; remaining had a first-trimester spontaneous abortion or elective second-trimester termination. Patients received two (52%) or one (48%) vaccine doses during pregnancy, with a median interval between latest dose and delivery of 13 days (range 2-79 days). Most (63%) cases had their latest dose within 15 days prior to delivery. All the placentas in the study and negative control groups were negative for SARS-CoV-2 immunohistochemistry. Six study cases with short vaccine-delivery intervals (2-7 days) were subjected to SARS-CoV-2 ISH and were negative. Our findings suggest that mRNA vaccines do not reach significant concentrations in the placenta given the absence of definitive SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein accumulation in placental tissue. This observation provides evidence supporting the safety of mRNA vaccines to the placental-fetal unit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Placenta , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Vaccination
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(9): e2230495, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013246

ABSTRACT

Importance: COVID-19 vaccine boosters or third doses are recommended for adolescents and adults who completed their initial COVID-19 vaccine course more than 5 months prior. Minimal data are available on COVID-19 vaccine booster or third dose reactogenicity among pregnant and lactating individuals. Objective: To describe the reactions to the booster or third dose of the COVID-19 vaccine and vaccine experiences among pregnant and lactating individuals. Design, Setting, and Participants: Beginning in October 2021, a follow-up Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) survey regarding a COVID-19 vaccine booster or third dose was sent to 17 504 participants in an ongoing online prospective cohort study on COVID-19 vaccines among pregnant and lactating individuals. A convenience sample of adults enrolled in the online prospective study who were pregnant, lactating, or neither pregnant nor lactating at the time of their booster or third dose was eligible for this follow-up survey; 17 014 (97.2%) completed the follow-up survey. Exposure: Receipt of a booster or third dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. Main Outcomes and Measures: Self-reported vaccine reactions less than 24 hours after the dose. Results: As of April 4, 2022, 17 014 eligible participants (mean [SD] age, 33.3 [3.5] years) responded to the booster or third dose survey; of these, 2009 (11.8%) were pregnant at the time of their booster or third dose, 10 279 (60.4%) were lactating, and 4726 (27.8%) were neither pregnant nor lactating. After a COVID-19 booster or third dose, most individuals (14 074 of 17 005 [82.8%]) reported a local reaction, and 11 542 of 17 005 (67.9%) reported at least 1 systemic symptom. Compared with individuals who were neither pregnant nor lactating, pregnant participants were more likely to report any local reaction to a COVID-19 booster or third dose (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.4; P = .01) but less likely to report any systemic reaction (aOR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6-0.8; P < .001). Most pregnant (1961 of 2009 [97.6%]) and lactating (9866 of 10 277 [96.0%]) individuals reported no obstetric or lactation concerns after vaccination. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that COVID-19 vaccine boosters or third doses were well tolerated among pregnant and lactating individuals. Data to evaluate tolerability of boosters or additional doses among pregnant and lactating individuals will be important as they are considered for these populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/adverse effects , Lactation , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Prospective Studies
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010024

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic significantly impacted the general population's health. At times, the infection has unfavorably influenced pregnancy evolution and the result of birth. However, vertical transmission of the virus is rare and generates controversial discussions. The study aimed to highlight the clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings of pregnant women with confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) with possible vertical transmission and identify possible factors that encourage vertical transmission. Between 1 April 2020 and 31 December 2021, 281 pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 gave birth in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Departments of the tertiary unit of County Emergency Clinical Hospital from Timisoara. Three newborns (1.06%) tested positive. The characteristic of these three cases was described as a short series. In two cases, the patients were asymptomatic. In one case, the patient developed a mild form of COVID-19 with a favorable evolution in all cases. We did not identify the presence of smoking history, vaccine before admission, atypical presentation, fever, or chest X-ray abnormalities. We note possible factors that encourage vertical transmission: Pregnancy-induced hypertension, thrombophilia, asymptomatic cough, an asymptomatic or mild form of the disease, a ruptured membrane, and cesarean. The laboratory results highlight the inconstant presence of some changes found in the list of potential predictors of the severity of the infection: Lymphopenia, high values of C-reactive protein, D-dimer, fibrinogen, platelets, Aspartate Aminotransferase, Lactate dehydrogenase, and ferritin. The study's conclusion of this small group suggests that there may have been an intrauterine infection in late pregnancy and described characteristics of the pregnant women. Possible risk factors that could encourage vertical transmission have been identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Trends Mol Med ; 28(8): 662-680, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004349

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has been associated with severe illness in pregnant women. Furthermore, COVID-19 during pregnancy is associated with adverse fetal outcomes including preterm labor. Pregnant women were largely excluded from initial clinical trials investigating the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines; however, they have since been included as part of the routine roll-out of these vaccines. This narrative review synthesizes the evidence on the safety, immunogenicity, and effectiveness predominantly of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines which have been most widely used in pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(8): 1215-1221, 2022 Aug 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994240

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by 2019-nCoV. Due to the physiological change in pregnancy, pregnant women are susceptible to COVID-19 and are at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, especially in the context of spread of novel variants. At present, less evidences have been obtained from randomized controlled trials on the effectiveness and safety of COVID-19 vaccine use in pregnant women, and the recommendations of COVID-19 vaccination for pregnant women vary with countries, posing challenge to the prevention and control of COVID-19 in pregnant women. This paper summarizes the progress in major research of 2019-nCoV infection in pregnancy conducted both at home and abroad, describes the harm of COVID-19 in pregnancy to pregnant women, fetuses and infants and introduces the effectiveness and safety of COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy revealed by real world studies in order to provide reference for the related research and development of COVID-19 prevention and control strategies in pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Infant , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
16.
Acta Paediatr ; 111(12): 2278-2283, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992730

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has turned perinatal healthcare into a worldwide public health challenge. Although initial data did not demonstrate pregnancy as a more susceptible period to adverse outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, an increasing number of reports now certify maternal illness as a high-risk condition for the development of maternal-fetal complications. Despite the rarity of SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission, severe maternal illness might induce adverse perinatal and neonatal outcomes. Additionally, perinatal COVID-19 data may raise concerns about long-term harmful consequences to the offspring in the framework of non-communicable diseases. The World Health Organisation, as well as scientific literature, consider the protection of the maternal-fetal dyad against COVID-19 as a critical issue and, therefore, strongly promote and encourage the vaccination of pregnant and lactating women. Furthermore, the pandemic has triggered an unprecedented recession, leading to historic levels of unemployment and deprivation, while health, societal, economic and gender inequities particularly affecting low-income and middle-income countries, have increased. This mini-review provides an updated brief report on historical, clinical, psychological and socioeconomic aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic based on 10 lectures presented at the 9th Maria-Delivoria-Papadopoulos Perinatal Symposium, held virtually on 19 March 2022.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Lactation , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Socioeconomic Factors , Pregnancy Outcome
17.
Glob Health Action ; 15(1): 2100602, 2022 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has interrupted the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programming in South Africa. In 2020, it was estimated that there were 4 million cross-border migrants in South Africa, some of whom are women living with HIV (WLWH), who are highly mobile and located within peripheral and urban areas of Johannesburg. Little is known about the mobility typologies of these women associated with different movement patterns, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mobility typologies of women utilising PMTCT services and on how changes to services might have affected adherence. OBJECTIVE: To qualitatively explore experiences of different mobility typologies of migrant women utilising PMTCT services in a high mobility context of Johannesburg and how belonging to a specific typology might have affected the health care received and their overall experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 40 pregnant migrant WLWH were conducted from June 2020-June 2021. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling at a public hospital in Johannesburg. A thematic approach was used to analyse interviews. RESULTS: Forty interviews were conducted with 22 cross-border and 18 internal migrants. Women in cross-border migration patterns compared to interprovincial and intraregional mobility experienced barriers of documentation, language availability, mistreatment, education and counselling. Due to border closures, they were unable to receive ART interrupting adherence and relied on SMS reminders to adhere to ART during the pandemic. All 40 women struggled to understand the importance of adherence because of the lack of infrastructure to support social distancing protocols and to provide PMTCT education. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 amplified existing challenges for cross-border migrant women to utilise PMTCT services. Future pandemic preparedness should be addressed with differentiated service delivery including multi-month dispensing of ARVs, virtual educational care, and language-sensitive information, responsive to the needs of mobile women to alleviate the burden on the healthcare system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Transients and Migrants , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Prenatal Care/methods , South Africa/epidemiology
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 119, 2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The provision of care to pregnant persons and neonates must continue through pandemics. To maintain quality of care, while minimizing physical contact during the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-related Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2) pandemic, hospitals and international organizations issued recommendations on maternity and neonatal care delivery and restructuring of clinical and academic services. Early in the pandemic, recommendations relied on expert opinion, and offered a one-size-fits-all set of guidelines. Our aim was to examine these recommendations and provide the rationale and context to guide clinicians, administrators, educators, and researchers, on how to adapt maternity and neonatal services during the pandemic, regardless of jurisdiction. METHOD: Our initial database search used Medical subject headings and free-text search terms related to coronavirus infections, pregnancy and neonatology, and summarized relevant recommendations from international society guidelines. Subsequent targeted searches to December 30, 2020, included relevant publications in general medical and obstetric journals, and updated society recommendations. RESULTS: We identified 846 titles and abstracts, of which 105 English-language publications fulfilled eligibility criteria and were included in our study. A multidisciplinary team representing clinicians from various disciplines, academics, administrators and training program directors critically appraised the literature to collate recommendations by multiple jurisdictions, including a quaternary care Canadian hospital, to provide context and rationale for viable options. INTERPRETATION: There are different schools of thought regarding effective practices in obstetric and neonatal services. Our critical review presents the rationale to effectively modify services, based on the phase of the pandemic, the prevalence of infection in the population, and resource availability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Maternal-Child Health Services/organization & administration , Perinatal Care , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19/therapy , Canada , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Inpatients , Organizational Policy , Outpatients , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957452

ABSTRACT

With SARS-CoV-2 infection, pregnant women may be at a high risk of severe disease and adverse perinatal outcomes. A COVID-19 vaccination campaign represents the key strategy to combat the pandemic; however, public acceptance of maternal immunization has to be improved, which may be achieved by highlighting the promising mechanism of passive immunity as a strategy for protecting newborns against SARS-CoV-2 infection. We tested the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response following COVID-19 full-dose vaccination in the serum and amniotic fluid of two pregnant women who presented between April and June 2021, at the Center for the Treatment and Prevention of Infections in Pregnancy of the National Institute for Infectious Diseases "L. Spallanzani", for antenatal consultancy. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG was found in residual samples of amniotic fluid collected from both women at the 18th week of gestation (63 and 131 days after the second dose's administration). Titers in amniotic fluid mirrored the levels detected in serum and were inversely linked to the time from vaccination. Our results suggest that antibodies elicited by COVID-19 vaccination can cross the placenta and reach the fetus; therefore, they may offer passive immunity at birth. It is critical to fully understand the kinetics of the maternal response to vaccination, the efficiency of IgG transfer, and the persistence of antibodies in infants to optimize maternal immunization regimens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Amniotic Fluid , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 876966, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952821

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The year 2020 saw the emergence of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which became a great threat to public health worldwide. The exponential spread of the disease with millions of lives lost worldwide saw the emergence of an accelerated vaccine development with emergency approval from well-known regulatory bodies such as the US Food and Drug Administration, followed by widespread vaccine deployment despite a paucity in safety profile data. This issue becomes even more pronounced when it involves expectant mothers considering the possible undesirable effect toward the unborn child. Method: This was a retrospective cohort study which was conducted at six general hospitals in the state of Penang, Malaysia. All the pregnant employees who have consented to take the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine and participate in this study were monitored from the time of their first vaccination and up to 28 days after they delivered their babies. Results: All the participants had adequate maximum vertical pocket (MVP) and no obvious anomalies or detection of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were detected during the second trimester. However, one subject was reported to have miscarried during the second trimester. The reported mean neonate birth weight was 3.0 kg with the mean Apgar score of 8.8 and 9.8 at 1 and 5 min, respectively. Approximately seven (5.8%) neonates were reported to be small for their gestational age. Another three (2.5%) neonates were reported to have anomalies. Conclusion: As a whole, the inference that can be made from this study is that mRNA COVID-19 vaccine appears to be safe in pregnant women regardless of the trimester as the findings did not show obvious safety warning signs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnant Women , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Hospitals, General , Humans , Malaysia , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL