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2.
J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod ; 51(10): 102509, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241820

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report results of the 2021 French National Perinatal Survey (ENP) in metropolitan France and assess trends in the main indicators of perinatal health, medical practices, and risk factors in France since 1995. POPULATION AND METHOD: All the samples included all women giving birth at a gestational age of at least 22 weeks of gestation and/or to an infant weighing at least 500 grams in all maternity units in metropolitan France during one week in 1995 (N=13 048), 2003 (N=14 324), 2010 (N=14 546), 2016 (N=12 553), and 2021 (N=12 088). The data came from postpartum interviews of the women at the hospital and their medical records. Comparisons between surveys showed trends over time. RESULTS: Between 1995 and 2021, maternal characteristics changed. Maternal age and the frequency of women with obesity rose: in 2021, 24.6% of women were 35 years or older (21.1% in 2016, 19.2% in 2010, 15.9% in 2003 and 12.4% in 1995) and 14.4% were obese (11.8% in 2016, 9.9% in 2010 and 7.4% in 2003). Some antenatal prevention behaviors that improved in 2021 were not smoking during the third trimester, acid folic administration before pregnancy, and vaccination against influenza. The percentage of women with an early prenatal appointment ("4th month appointment"), implemented to facilitate screening of maternal vulnerability during pregnancy, has continued to rise. The percentage of women receiving prenatal care by midwives has risen markedly (39.0% in 2021 versus 11.7% in 2016). Serum screening for Down syndrome continues to increase (91.8% of women in 2021). The rate of induction of labor has risen significantly (20.2% in 1995 and 25.8% in 2021). The mode of delivery has not varied significantly since 2003; in 2021, the cesarean rate was 21.4% and the instrumental vaginal delivery rate 12.4%. Episiotomy was increasingly rare, among both primiparous and multiparous women (16.5% and 2.9% in 2021, respectively). The prevalence of coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) infection during pregnancy was 5.7%. Preterm live births increased regularly, slightly but significantly over the 1995-2016 period and then remained stable between 2016 and 2021 (7.0%). In 2021, 56.3% of women exclusively breastfed during their hospital stay, a modest increase in comparison with 2016 (54.6%). CONCLUSION: Routine national perinatal surveys highlight positive trends over time in some preventive practices, decreases in some medical interventions consistent with national guidelines, and the increasing role of midwives in prenatal care. Nonetheless, some indicators remain less than optimal and require more detailed analyses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Pregnancy , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Parturition , Delivery, Obstetric
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(11): 4195-4202, 2022 Nov.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239494

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic induced changes in the dynamics of the life of women in the perinatal phase who, due to the health crisis, restructured social care and coexistence practices. The scope of this paper was to assess the experiences of high-risk perinatal pregnancy risk among COVID-19 positive women through social interaction. The work was conducted in a hospital of tertiary perinatal care. Qualitative methodology was used, whereby questionnaires and interviews were conducted via zoom with 14 COVID-19 positive women in the perinatal phase. Critical-interpretative discourse analysis was applied based on the concept of social interaction and complex thinking. Three types of social interaction were developed to assess the results: a) Initial social interaction: experiences when becoming aware of being COVID-19 positive; b) Acquired social interaction: experiences of care prior to COVID-19; c) Enduring social interaction: experience required in the face of COVID-19. The result of experience leads to new forms of social interaction after notification ranging from care to resilience. The conclusion drawn is that the experience of COVID-19 of women in the perinatal period remodeled their ways of coexistence and care within the institutional, family, and personal spheres.


La pandemia COVID-19 provocó cambios en la dinámica de la vida de las mujeres en etapa perinatal quienes, ante la crisis sanitaria reconfiguraron prácticas de cuidado y convivencia social. El objetivo fue conocer a través de la interacción social algunas experiencias de mujeres con embarazo de alto riesgo positivas a COVID-19. El trabajo se realizó en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención perinatal. Se empleó metodología cualitativa, se aplicaron cuestionarios y entrevistas a 14 mujeres positivas a COVID-19 en etapa perinatal vía zoom. Se realizó análisis crítico-interpretativo del discurso con base al concepto interacción social y el pensamiento complejo. Para los resultados se desarrollaron tres tipos de interacción social: a) Interacción social primaria: Experiencias ante la notificación de la positividad al COVID-19; b) Interacción social aprendida: Experiencias del cuidado ante el COVID-19; y c) Interacción social resiliente: Experiencias necesarias ante el COVID-19. El vínculo de las experiencias desemboca en nuevas formas de interacciones sociales que van desde la notificación pasando por el cuidado y la resiliencia. Concluimos que las experiencias por el COVID-19 vividas por mujeres en etapa perinatal reinventaron sus modos de convivencia y cuidado dentro de lo institucional, familiar y personal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Child , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Parturition , Social Support , Perinatal Care
6.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286295, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237690

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine whether the COVID-19 pandemic had an impact on essential primary healthcare services at public primary healthcare facilities. METHODS: The number of weekly consultations for antenatal care (ANC), outpatient (OPD), immunisations (EPI), family planning (FP) and HIV services, between January 2018 and December 2020, were collected from 25 facilities in Masaka district, Uganda, 21 in Goma, and 29 in Kambia district, Sierra Leone. Negative binomial regression models accounting for clustering and season were used to analyse changes in activity levels between 2018, 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: In Goma, we found no change in OPD, EPI or ANC consultations, FP was 17% lower in March-July 2020 compared to 2019, but this recovered by December 2020. New diagnoses of HIV were 34% lower throughout 2020 compared to 2019. In Sierra Leone, compared to the same periods in 2019, facilities had 18-29% fewer OPD consultations throughout 2020, and 27% fewer DTP3 doses in March-July 2020. There was no evidence of differences in other services. In Uganda there were 20-35% fewer under-5 OPD consultations, 21-66% fewer MCV1 doses, and 48-51% fewer new diagnoses of HIV throughout 2020, compared to 2019. There was no difference in the number of HPV doses delivered. CONCLUSIONS: The level of disruption varied across the different settings and qualitatively appeared to correlate with the strength of lockdown measures and reported attitudes towards the risk posed by COVID-19. Mitigation strategies such as health communications campaigns and outreach services may be important to limit the impact of lockdowns on primary healthcare services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sierra Leone/epidemiology , Uganda/epidemiology , Democratic Republic of the Congo , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Prenatal Care , Primary Health Care
7.
Womens Health Issues ; 33(3): 235-241, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237268

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic led to unprecedented changes in care delivery across the pregnancy care continuum. Our primary objective with this research was to characterize the range of ways that the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic affected pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum care experiences. METHODS: Pregnant and recently pregnant patients (n = 20) from obstetrics and gynecology clinical sites associated with Massachusetts General Hospital were interviewed about their experiences with prenatal care, childbirth, and postpartum care during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Interview transcripts were analyzed for emergent themes. RESULTS: This sample included 20 pregnant and postpartum people, including 11 individuals who tested positive for COVID-19 during pregnancy or postpartum and nine with suspected infection. The ways in which COVID-19 or suspected COVID-19 affected experiences of prenatal care, childbirth, and postpartum care were complex and varied. Three themes were identified across narratives of pregnancy, birth, and postpartum care: patient perceptions of diminished access to care, stigma due to COVID-19 infection, and limited capacity of providers to honor patient preferences. CONCLUSIONS: A better understanding of pregnant and recently pregnant people's experiences during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic can inform infection control policies and clinical care delivery practices that are more congruent with the needs and values of pregnant, birthing, and postpartum people as institutions craft responses to future pandemics. Approaches that maximize meaningful access across the pregnancy care continuum, center patients' priorities within adapted care models, and honor patient preferences as much as possible are important aspects of an appropriate response to future waves of COVID-19 and other pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Pandemics , Continuity of Patient Care , Parturition , Postpartum Period
8.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0285270, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237254

ABSTRACT

Initial COVID-19-related social distancing restrictions, imposed in the UK in March 2020, and the subsequent lifting of restrictions in May 2020 caused antenatal disruption and stress which exceeded expected vulnerabilities associated with this lifecourse transition. The current study aimed to explore the antenatal psychological experiences of women during different phases of pandemic-related lockdown restrictions in the UK. Semi-structured interviews were held with 24 women about their antenatal experiences: twelve were interviewed after the initial lockdown restrictions (Timepoint 1; T1), and a separate twelve women were interviewed after the subsequent lifting of those restrictions (Timepoint 2; T2). Interviews were transcribed and a recurrent, cross-sectional thematic analysis was conducted. Two themes were identified for each timepoint, and each theme contained sub-themes. T1 themes were: 'A Mindful Pregnancy' and 'It's a Grieving Process', and T2 themes were: 'Coping with Lockdown Restrictions' and 'Robbed of Our Pregnancy'. COVID-19 related social distancing restrictions had an adverse effect on women's mental health during the antenatal period. Feeling trapped, anxious, and abandoned were common at both timepoints. Actively encouraging conversations about mental wellbeing during routine care and adopting a prevention opposed to cure attitude toward implementing additional support provisions may serve to improve antenatal psychological wellbeing during health crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Learning
9.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 435, 2023 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present paper was to explore the role of partners for the stressful life events of birth and the transition to parenthood. METHODS: In a first prospective longitudinal study (N = 304 dyads) we tested whether relationship quality positively predicted fewer interventions during labor and birth, a more positive birth experience, and better well-being during the first six weeks after birth. In a second study we surveyed mothers (N = 980; retrospective quasi-experimental design) who had given birth during the first lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic in spring 2020 - some in the absence of their partners - to test the assumption that regardless of relationship quality, the presence of the partner was positively related to low-intervention births and the birth experience. RESULTS: The results of the longitudinal study (Study 1) could be integrated into a Single Indicator model. They revealed that a high relationship quality assessed between week 5 and week 25 of pregnancy had a positive effect on birth experience for the mother and on psychological well-being during the transition to parenthood for both mothers and fathers. Results of the retrospective quasi-experimental field study (Study 2) revealed that the continuous presence of the partner was associated with a higher probability of a low-intervention birth and a more positive birth experience. Presence of a partner for only part of the birth did not positively predict labor and birth, but did positively predict the birth experience. The effects were independent of relationship quality. CONCLUSION: The results of both studies highlight the importance of partners for psychological well-being during labor and birth and the transition to parenthood.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Communicable Disease Control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Social Support , Parents
10.
J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs ; 52(4): 264-275, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236644

ABSTRACT

The range and use of telehealth technologies in the prenatal and postpartum periods have exploded since the COVID-19 pandemic. Many of the previous barriers to telehealth have been temporarily removed, which allows for the evaluation of new flexible care models and research on telehealth applications to address pressing clinical outcomes. But what will happen if these exceptions expire? In this column, I describe the scope of telehealth technologies in the prenatal and postpartum periods, the policy changes that have contributed to this growth, and research findings and recommendations from professional organizations that support the integration of telehealth into maternity care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Maternal Health Services , Telemedicine , Pregnancy , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vitamins , Postpartum Period
11.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e070214, 2023 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236352

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to describe how household economies and health service utilisation of pregnant and postpartum women were affected during the pandemic. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: This study was conducted in the Anuradhapura district, Sri Lanka. PARTICIPANTS: The study participants were 1460 pregnant and postpartum women recruited for the Rajarata Pregnancy Cohort during the initial stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Household economic (income, poverty, nutritional and health expenditures) and health service utilisation details during the COVID-19 pandemic were gathered through telephone interviews. Sociodemographic and economic data were obtained from the cohort baseline and analysed with descriptive and non-parametric analysis. RESULTS: Out of the 1460 women in the sample, 55.3% (n=807) were pregnant and 44.7% (n=653) were postpartum women. Of the total sample, 1172 (80.3%) women participated in the economic component. The monthly household income (median (IQR)=212.39 (159.29-265.49)) reduced (median (IQR)=159.29 (106.20-212.39)) in 50.5% (n=592) families during the pandemic (Z=-8.555, p<0.001). Only 10.3% (n=61) of affected families had received financial assistance from the government, which was only 46.4% of the affected income. The nutritional expenditure of pregnant women was reduced (Z=-2.023, p=0.043) by 6.7%. During the pandemic, 103 (8.8%) families with pregnant or postpartum women were pushed into poverty, and families who were pushed into poverty did not receive any financial assistance. The majority of women (n=1096, 83.3%) were satisfied with the free public health services provided by the public health midwife during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: During the early stages of the pandemic, healthcare utilisation of pregnant women was minimally affected. Even before the country's current economic crisis, the household economies of pregnant women in rural Sri Lanka were severely affected, pushing families into poverty due to the pandemic. The impact of COVID-19 and the aftermath on pregnant women will have many consequences if the policies and strategies are not revised to address this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Sri Lanka/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , Health Services , Postpartum Period
12.
BMJ Open ; 13(6): e068275, 2023 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236227

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The health of parents prior to conception, a woman's health during pregnancy and the infant's environment across their first months and years collectively have profound effects on the child's health across the lifespan. Since there are very few cohort studies in early pregnancy, gaps remain in our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning these relationships, and how health may be optimised. 'BABY1000', a pilot prospective longitudinal birth cohort study, aims to (1) identify factors before and during pregnancy and early life that impact longer-term health and (2) assess the feasibility and acceptability of study design to inform future research. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were based in Sydney, Australia. Women were recruited at preconception or 12 weeks' gestation, and data were collected from them throughout pregnancy and postpartum, their children until the age of 2 years, and dietary information from a partner (if able) at the last study visit. The pilot aimed to recruit 250 women. However, recruitment ceased earlier than planned secondary to limitations from the COVID-19 pandemic and the final number of subjects was 225. FINDINGS TO DATE: Biosamples, clinical measurements and sociodemographic/psychosocial measures were collected using validated tools and questionnaires. Data analysis and 24-month follow-up assessments for children are ongoing. Key early findings presented include participant demographics and dietary adequacy during pregnancy. The COVID-19 pandemic and associated public health and research restrictions affected recruitment of participants, follow-up assessments and data completeness. FUTURE PLANS: The BABY1000 study will provide further insight into the developmental origins of health and disease and inform design and implementation of future cohort and intervention studies in the field. Since the BABY1000 pilot was conducted across the COVID-19 pandemic, it also provides unique insight into the early impacts of the pandemic on families, which may have effects on health across the lifespan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Infant , Child , Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies
13.
J Addict Med ; 17(3): e172-e176, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236027

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The opioid epidemic has been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in increased acute care opioid-related and overdose visits. We sought to assess how the pandemic may have impacted an obstetric cohort impacted by opioid misuse in the acute care context. METHODS: A retrospective review of acute care presentations of patients with concomitant pregnancy (Z33.1) and opioid-related diagnostic codes (T10 codes and/or F11) was conducted over a 24-month period (pre-COVID = March 2019 through February 2020, post-COVID = March 2020 through February 2021). Descriptive statistics and χ2 analysis of pre- versus post-COVID presentations were performed. RESULTS: A total of 193 individuals, 104 (53.9%) pre- and 89 (46.1%) post-COVID, accounting for 292 total encounters, 160 (54.8%) pre- and 132 (45.2%) post-COVID, were seen for acute care visits ( P = 0.84). Age ( P = 0.15), race ( P = 0.59), and insurance status ( P = 0.17) were similar pre- versus post-COVID. The majority of presentations, pre- (40.4%) and post-COVID (44.9%), were for opioid withdrawal ( P = 0.74). Although post-COVID individuals were more likely to lack prenatal care (48.3% versus 39.4% pre-COVID), this trend was not significant ( P = 0.19). Similar proportions of individuals were affected by pregnancy complications (51.9% pre-, 44.9% post-COVID; P = 0.30). Similar proportions of individuals were affected by adverse pregnancy outcomes (44.2% pre-, 48.3% post-COVID; P = 0.64). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic did not have a statistically significant effect on opioid-related acute care presentations or outcomes for obstetric patients. In this acute care cohort, however, opioid misuse had significant general impact on pregnancy complications and outcomes, suggesting unmet needs in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Overdose , Opioid-Related Disorders , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Pandemics , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
14.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 936, 2023 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on healthcare services is likely to affect birth outcomes including the delivery mode. However, recent evidence has been conflicting in this regard. The study aimed to assess changes to C-section rate during the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of women delivered in the maternity department of hospitals in all provinces of Iran before the COVID-19 pandemic (February-August 30, 2019) and during the pandemic (February-August 30, 2020). Data were collected through the Iranian Maternal and Neonatal Network (IMAN), a country-wide electronic health record database management system for maternal and neonatal information. A total of 1,208,671 medical records were analyzed using the SPSS software version 22. The differences in C-section rates according to the studied variables were tested using the χ2 test. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the factors associated with C-section. RESULTS: A significant rise was observed in the rates of C-section during the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic (52.9% vs 50.8%; p = .001). The rates for preeclampsia (3.0% vs 1.3%), gestational diabetes (6.1% vs 3.0%), preterm birth (11.6% vs 6.9%), IUGR (1.2% vs 0.4%), LBW (11.2% vs 7.8%), and low Apgar score at first minute (4.2% vs 3.2%) were higher in women who delivered by C-section compared to those with normal delivery (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: The overall C-section rate during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic was significantly higher than the pre-pandemic period. C-section was associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Thus, preventing the overuse of C-section especially during pandemic becomes an urgent need for maternal and neonatal health in Iran.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Cesarean Section , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Electronic Health Records
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 402, 2023 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235963

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the levels of adherence among pregnant women to the basic COVID-19 preventive measures, and to analyze the effect of risk perception and sociodemographic and clinical factors on adherence. METHOD: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted at the obstetrics clinics of 50 primary care centers selected using a multistage sampling method. An online-administered, structured questionnaire was used to collect self-reported levels of adherence to four basic preventive measures against COVID-19, along with perceived COVID-19 severity, infectiousness, and harmfulness to the baby, besides sociodemographic and clinical data including obstetrical and other medical history. RESULTS: A total of 2460 pregnant women were included with a mean (SD) age of 30.21 (6.11) years. Levels of self-reported compliance were highest for hand hygiene (95.7%), followed by social distancing (92.3%), masking (90.0%), and avoidance of contact with a COVID-19 infected person (70.3%). Perceived COVID-19 severity and infectiousness, and harmfulness to the baby were observed in 89.2%, 70.7%, and 85.0% of the participants, respectively, and were variably associated with compliance to preventive measures. Analysis of sociodemographic factors highlighted the significance of education and economic status in determining adherence to preventive measures, which represents a potential inequity in the risk of COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the importance of patients' education to enable functional perception of COVID-19 that promotes self-efficacy, besides investigating the specific social determinants of health to tackle inequalities in terms of prevention efficiency and the subsequent health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy , Infant , Humans , Female , Adult , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pregnant Women , Educational Status
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(6): e2315578, 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235748

ABSTRACT

Importance: Several recent US Supreme Court rulings have drawn criticism from the medical community, but their health consequences have not been quantitatively evaluated. Objective: To model health outcomes associated with 3 Supreme Court rulings in 2022 that invalidated workplace COVID-19 vaccine or mask-and-test requirements, voided state handgun-carry restrictions, and revoked the constitutional right to abortion. Design, Setting, and Participants: This decision analytical modeling study estimated outcomes associated with 3 Supreme Court rulings in 2022: (1) National Federation of Independent Business v Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which invalidated COVID-19 workplace protections; (2) New York State Rifle and Pistol Association Inc v Bruen, Superintendent of New York State Police (Bruen), which voided state laws restricting handgun carry; and (3) Dobbs v Jackson Women's Health Organization (Dobbs), which revoked the constitutional right to abortion. Data analysis was performed from July 1, 2022, to April 7, 2023. Main Outcomes and Measures: For the OSHA ruling, multiple data sources were used to calculate deaths attributable to COVID-19 among unvaccinated workers from January 4 to May 28, 2022, and the share of these deaths that would have been prevented by the voided protections. To model the Bruen decision, published estimates of the consequences of right-to-carry laws were applied to 2020 firearm-related deaths (and injuries) in 7 affected jurisdictions. For the Dobbs ruling, the model assessed unwanted pregnancy continuations, resulting from the change in distance to the closest abortion facility, and then excess deaths (and peripartum complications) from forcing these unwanted pregnancies to term. Results: The decision model projected that the OSHA decision was associated with 1402 additional COVID-19 deaths (and 22 830 hospitalizations) in early 2022. In addition, the model projected that 152 additional firearm-related deaths (and 377 nonfatal injuries) annually will result from the Bruen decision. Finally, the model projected that 30 440 fewer abortions will occur annually due to current abortion bans stemming from Dobbs, with 76 612 fewer abortions if states at high risk for such bans also were to ban the procedure; these bans will be associated with an estimated 6 to 15 additional pregnancy-related deaths each year, respectively, and hundreds of additional cases of peripartum morbidity. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that outcomes from 3 Supreme Court decisions in 2022 could lead to substantial harms to public health, including nearly 3000 excess deaths (and possibly many more) over a decade.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Supreme Court Decisions , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , Workplace , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
17.
Womens Health Issues ; 33(3): 242-249, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235644

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We explored the impact of COVID-19 on universal screening programs for opioid use and related conditions among practicing clinicians or staff who work with pregnant patients. METHODS: Semi-structured, in-depth qualitative interviews (n = 15) were conducted with practicing clinicians or staff in West-Central Florida between May and October 2020, representing both a range of professions and clinical settings that serve pregnant patients. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and reviewed for accuracy. Independent coders conducted thematic content analysis iteratively in MaxQDA to identify emergent themes. RESULTS: Four main themes were identified: worsening health and life conditions of pregnant patients, impaired patient-provider interactions, lack of priority and resources, and conducting opioid screening remotely. Pregnant patients often faced worsening mental health, lack of connection with health care providers, and socioenvironmental factors that increased the risk of overdose and intimate partner violence. Health care providers and facilities faced an infectious disease pandemic that simultaneously increased mental burden and reduced resources. Telehealth improved access to health care for many, but also came with implementation challenges such as inadequate technology, the need to address barriers to developing rapport with patients, and difficulty with certain social screens. CONCLUSION: These themes describe facilitators of and barriers to implementing opioid and related screening programs during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the increasing urgency of screening because of socioenvironmental factors. Patients, health care providers, and health practices may benefit from emergency plans that anticipate screening challenges given their increased importance during times of heightened risk, including disasters and epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Health Personnel , Mental Health , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology
18.
Am J Emerg Med ; 69: 160-166, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235521

ABSTRACT

Individuals experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) and/or human trafficking (HT) are at increased risk of severe health consequences as a result of legislation criminalizing and/or restricting abortion, which is expected to increase as a result of the Supreme Court decision Dobbs v. Jackson. These risks are further stratified by race, socioeconomics, and other marginalizing demographic attributes. IPV and HT introduce barriers to maintaining physical and mental health, due to control of access to transportation and funds by the abuser, fear of retribution for seeking healthcare, and other barriers. Individuals experiencing IPV or HT often lack reproductive autonomy, as a result of facing reproductive coercion at the hands of their abusers. Following the Dobbs decision, these vulnerable patient populations will face further limitations on their reproductive autonomy and increased obstacles to obtaining an abortion if they medically need or desire one. This will likely result in more patients presenting to the emergency department due to complications from unsafe or unsupervised self-managed abortions, as well as patients being reluctant to report having obtained an unlawful abortion due to fear of legal consequences. This is particularly relevant to individuals experiencing IPV and HT, as they may be more likely to use these methods for obtaining an abortion due to numerous barriers. Emergency medicine clinicians are vital in providing care to these patients, as they frequently present to emergency departments. A multi-pronged approach to better support these patients is essential, involving an increased index of suspicion for IPV, HT or the complications of unsupervised abortion, improved organizational structures, specialized training for staff, improved screening methods, reflection on implicit bias, and recommendations for mindful documentation and legal considerations.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Induced , Abortion, Spontaneous , Intimate Partner Violence , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Emotions , Emergency Service, Hospital
19.
Global Health ; 19(1): 36, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234896

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus (COVID 19) pandemic is one of the most terrifying disasters of the twenty-first century. The non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) implemented to control the spread of the disease had numerous positive consequences. However, there were also unintended consequences-positively or negatively related to the nature of the interventions, the target, the level and duration of implementation. This article describes the unintended economic, Psychosocial and environmental consequences of NPIs in four African countries. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods study in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Nigeria, Senegal and Uganda. A comprehensive conceptual framework, supported by a clear theory of change was adopted to encompass both systemic and non-systemic interventions. The data collection approaches included: (i) review of literature; (ii) analysis of secondary data for selected indicators; and (ii) key informant interviews with policy makers, civil society, local leaders, and law enforcement staff. The results were synthesized around thematic areas. RESULTS: Over the first six to nine months of the pandemic, NPIs especially lockdowns, travel restrictions, curfews, school closures, and prohibition of mass gathering resulted into both positive and negative unintended consequences cutting across economic, psychological, and environmental platforms. DRC, Nigeria, and Uganda observed reduced crime rates and road traffic accidents, while Uganda also reported reduced air pollution. In addition, hygiene practices have improved through health promotion measures that have been promoted for the response to the pandemic. All countries experienced economic slowdown, job losses heavily impacting women and poor households, increased sexual and gender-based violence, teenage pregnancies, and early marriages, increased poor mental health conditions, increased waste generation with poor disposal, among others. CONCLUSION: Despite achieving pandemic control, the stringent NPIs had several negative and few positive unintended consequences. Governments need to balance the negative and positive consequences of NPIs by anticipating and instituting measures that will support and protect vulnerable groups especially the poor, the elderly, women, and children. Noticeable efforts, including measures to avoid forced into marriage, increasing inequities, economic support to urban poor; those living with disabilities, migrant workers, and refugees, had been conducted to mitigate the negative effects of the NIPs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Uganda/epidemiology , Nigeria/epidemiology , Senegal/epidemiology , Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control
20.
Health Expect ; 26(4): 1768-1782, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234823

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Maternity services underwent much change during the COVID-19 pandemic. Research on the impact on miscarriage care and experiences during this time is sparse. Within a national evaluation of recurrent miscarriage care, we qualitatively explored stakeholder views and experiences of recurrent miscarriage services in Ireland. This study describes the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on those experiences and perceptions of care. METHODS: People with professional and lived experience of recurrent miscarriage and service engagement were actively involved in this qualitative study from idea generation to analysis and reporting. We recruited women and men with two or more consecutive first-trimester miscarriages, and people involved in the management/delivery of recurrent miscarriage services and supports. We used purposive sampling to ensure that perspectives across disciplinary or lived experience, geographical, and health service administrative areas, were included. We conducted semi-structured interviews, virtually all due to COVID-19 restrictions, between June 2020 and February 2021. These were audio-recorded, and data were transcribed, and subsequently analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: We interviewed 42 service providers and 13 women and 7 men with experience of recurrent miscarriage. We actively generated two central themes during data analysis. The first-'Disconnected'-describes how many women navigated miscarriage diagnosis and management and care in subsequent pregnancies alone; many felt that this resulted in increased trauma. At the same time, men struggled with not being present to support their partners and described feeling disconnected. The second theme highlighted 'The perceived dispensability of recurrent miscarriage services and supports'. Some service providers felt that service reduction and redeployment demonstrated a lack of value in the service. Virtual clinics facilitated access to services, but a preference for in-person care was highlighted. CONCLUSION: Our analysis provides rich insights into the significant impacts that the COVID-19 pandemic has had on the way recurrent miscarriage care is provided and experienced, with important implications for early pregnancy, miscarriage and recurrent miscarriage care. Services have undergone significant changes and, while these may be temporary, how services should be delivered in the future requires consideration, particularly given the deficits in care and care experiences highlighted prepandemic. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: Members of the multidisciplinary RE:CURRENT Project Research Advisory Group (including four parent advocates, two of whom are co-authors on this article) were actively involved throughout the study, including the generation of topic guides and the refining of themes.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Habitual , COVID-19 , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Ireland , Pandemics , Abortion, Habitual/therapy , Abortion, Habitual/epidemiology , Qualitative Research
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