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1.
Eur J Med Chem ; 238: 114508, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982957

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 posed a serious threat to human life and health, and SARS-CoV-2 Mpro has been considered as an attractive drug target for the treatment of COVID-19. Herein, we report 2-(furan-2-ylmethylene)hydrazine-1-carbothioamide derivatives as novel inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro developed by in-house library screening and biological evaluation. Similarity search led to the identification of compound F8-S43 with the enzymatic IC50 value of 10.76 µM. Further structure-based drug design and synthetic optimization uncovered compounds F8-B6 and F8-B22 as novel non-peptidomimetic inhibitors of Mpro with IC50 values of 1.57 µM and 1.55 µM, respectively. Moreover, enzymatic kinetic assay and mass spectrometry demonstrated that F8-B6 was a reversible covalent inhibitor of Mpro. Besides, F8-B6 showed low cytotoxicity with CC50 values of more than 100 µM in Vero and MDCK cells. Overall, these novel SARS-CoV-2 Mpro non-peptidomimetic inhibitors provide a useful starting point for further structural optimization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Furans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drug Discovery/methods , Furans/chemistry , Furans/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrazines/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology
2.
Comput Biol Med ; 147: 105679, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982860

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was originally identified in Wuhan city of China in December 2019 and it spread rapidly throughout the globe, causing a threat to human life. Since targeted therapies are deficient, scientists all over the world have an opportunity to develop novel drug therapies to combat COVID-19. After the declaration of a global medical emergency, it was established that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) could permit the use of emergency testing, treatments, and vaccines to decrease suffering, and loss of life, and restore the nation's health and security. The FDA has approved the use of remdesivir and its analogs as an antiviral medication, to treat COVID-19. The primary protease of SARS-CoV-2, which has the potential to regulate coronavirus proliferation, has been a viable target for the discovery of medicines against SARS-CoV-2. The present research deals with the in silico technique to screen phytocompounds from a traditional medicinal plant, Bauhinia variegata for potential inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease. Dried leaves of the plant B. variegata were used to prepare aqueous and methanol extract and the constituents were analyzed using the GC-MS technique. A total of 57 compounds were retrieved from the aqueous and methanol extract analysis. Among these, three lead compounds (2,5 dimethyl 1-H Pyrrole, 2,3 diphenyl cyclopropyl methyl phenyl sulphoxide, and Benzonitrile m phenethyl) were shown to have the highest binding affinity (-5.719 to -5.580 kcal/mol) towards SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The post MD simulation results also revealed the favorable confirmation and stability of the selected lead compounds with Mpro as per trajectory analysis. The Prime MM/GBSA binding free energy supports this finding, the top lead compound 2,3 diphenyl cyclopropyl methyl phenyl sulphoxide showed high binding free energy (-64.377 ± 5.24 kcal/mol) towards Mpro which reflects the binding stability of the molecule with Mpro. The binding free energy of the complexes was strongly influenced by His, Gln, and Glu residues. All of the molecules chosen are found to have strong pharmacokinetic characteristics and show drug-likeness properties. The lead compounds present acute toxicity (LD50) values ranging from 670 mg/kg to 2500 mg/kg; with toxicity classifications of 4 and 5 classes. Thus, these compounds could behave as probable lead candidates for treatment against SARS-CoV-2. However further in vitro and in vivo studies are required for the development of medication against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Bauhinia , COVID-19 , Bauhinia/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Methanol , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry
3.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 616: 8-13, 2022 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982607

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) provoked a pandemic of acute respiratory disease, namely coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Currently, effective drugs for this disease are urgently warranted. Anisodamine is a traditional Chinese medicine that is predicted as a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of COVID-19. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate its antiviral activity and crucial targets in SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 and anisodamine were co-cultured in Vero E6 cells, and the antiviral activity of anisodamine was assessed by immunofluorescence assay. The antiviral activity of anisodamine was further measured by pseudovirus entry assay in HEK293/hACE2 cells. Finally, the predictions of crucial targets of anisodamine on SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed by molecular docking studies. We discovered that anisodamine suppressed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero E6 cells, and reduced the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus entry to HEK293/hACE2 cells. Furthermore, molecular docking studies indicated that anisodamine may target SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) with the docking score of -6.63 kcal/mol and formed three H-bonds with Gly143, Cys145, and Cys44 amino acid residues at the predicted active site of Mpro. This study suggests that anisodamine is a potent antiviral agent for treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , SARS-CoV-2 , Solanaceous Alkaloids , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/drug effects , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Solanaceous Alkaloids/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry
4.
Antiviral Res ; 205: 105381, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982553

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has raised the alarm to search for effective therapy for this virus. To date several vaccines have been approved but few available drugs reported recently still need approval from FDA. Remdesivir was approved for emergency use only. In this report, the SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro was expressed and purified. By using a FRET-based enzymatic assay, we have screened a library consisting of more than 300 different niclosamide derivatives and identified three molecules JMX0286, JMX0301, and JMX0941 as potent allosteric inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro, with IC50 values similar to that of known covalent inhibitor boceprevir. In a cell-based antiviral assay, these inhibitors can inhibit the virus growth with EC50 in the range of 2-3 µM. The mechanism of action of JMX0286, JMX0301, and JMX0941 were characterized by enzyme kinetics, affinity binding and protein-based substrate digestion. Molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and hydration studies suggested that JMX0286, JMX0301, JMX0941 bind specifically to an allosteric pocket of the SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease. This study provides three potent compounds for further studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins
5.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 16: 2463-2478, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978914

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic caused by the COVID-19 disease has reached everywhere in the world and has affected every aspect of our lives. As of the current data, the World Health Organization (WHO) has reported more than 300 million confirmed COVID-19 cases worldwide and more than 5 million deaths. Mpro is an enzyme that plays a key role in the life cycle of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and it is vital for the disease progression. The Mpro enzyme seems to have several allosteric sites that can hinder the enzyme catalytic activity. Furthermore, some of these allosteric sites are located at or nearby the dimerization interface which is essential for the overall Mpro activity. In this review paper, we investigate the potential of the Mpro allosteric site to act as a drug target, especially since they interestingly appear to be resistant to mutation. The work is illustrated through three subsequent sections: First, the two main categories of Mpro allosteric sites have been explained and discussed. Second, a total of six pockets have been studied and evaluated for their druggability and cavity characteristics. Third, the experimental and computational attempts for the discovery of new allosteric inhibitors have been illustrated and discussed. To sum up, this review paper gives a detailed insight into the feasibility of developing new Mpro inhibitors to act as a potential treatment for the COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Allosteric Site , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
6.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 37(1): 2112-2132, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967782

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic provokes scientists to make a prompt development of new effective therapeutic interventions for the battle against SARS-CoV-2. A new series of N-(5-nitrothiazol-2-yl)-carboxamido derivatives were designed and synthesised based on the structural optimisation principle of the SARS-CoV Mpro co-crystallized WR1 inhibitor. Notably, compound 3b achieved the most promising anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity with an IC50 value of 174.7 µg/mL. On the other hand, compounds 3a, 3b, and 3c showed very promising SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitory effects with IC50 values of 4.67, 5.12, and 11.90 µg/mL, respectively. Compound 3b docking score was very promising (-6.94 kcal/mol) and its binding mode was nearly similar to that of WR1. Besides, the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of compound 3b showed its great stability inside the binding pocket until around 40 ns. Finally, a very promising SAR was concluded to help to design more powerful SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors shortly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Humans , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13146, 2022 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967629

ABSTRACT

The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 has been recognized as an attractive drug target because of its central role in viral replication. Our previous preliminary molecular docking studies showed that theaflavin 3-gallate (a natural bioactive molecule derived from theaflavin and found in high abundance in black tea) exhibited better docking scores than repurposed drugs (Atazanavir, Darunavir, Lopinavir). In this study, conventional and steered MD-simulations analyses revealed stronger interactions of theaflavin 3-gallate with the active site residues of Mpro than theaflavin and a standard molecule GC373 (a known inhibitor of Mpro and novel broad-spectrum anti-viral agent). Theaflavin 3-gallate inhibited Mpro protein of SARS-CoV-2 with an IC50 value of 18.48 ± 1.29 µM. Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 (Indian/a3i clade/2020 isolate) with 200 µM of theaflavin 3-gallate in vitro using Vero cells and quantifying viral transcripts demonstrated reduction of viral count by 75% (viral particles reduced from Log106.7 to Log106.1). Overall, our findings suggest that theaflavin 3-gallate effectively targets the Mpro thus limiting the replication of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in vitro.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biflavonoids , COVID-19/drug therapy , Catechin , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Vero Cells
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13118, 2022 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967627

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been ongoing for over two years, and treatment for COVID-19, other than monoclonal antibodies, is urgently required. Accordingly, we have investigated the inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 protein targets by high-throughput virtual screening using a marine natural products database. Considering the calculated molecular properties and availability of the compounds, (+)-usnic acid was selected as a suitable hit. In the in vitro antiviral assay of (+)-usnic acid by the immunofluorescence method, IC50 was 7.99 µM, which is similar to that of remdesivir used as a positive control. The generalized Born and surface area continuum solvation (MM/GBSA) method was performed to find the potent target of (+)-usnic acid, and the Mpro protein showed the most prominent value, -52.05 kcal/mol, among other SARS-CoV-2 protein targets. Thereafter, RMSD and protein-ligand interactions were profiled using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Sodium usnate (NaU) improved in vitro assay results with an IC50 of 5.33 µM and a selectivity index (SI) of 9.38. Additionally, when (+)-usnic acid was assayed against SARS-CoV-2 variants, it showed enhanced efficacy toward beta variants with an IC50 of 2.92 µM and SI of 11.1. We report the in vitro anti-SARS-CoV-2 efficacy of (+)-usnic acid in this study and propose that it has the potential to be developed as a COVID-19 treatment if its in vivo efficacy has been confirmed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Benzofurans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Salts
9.
Eur J Med Chem ; 240: 114572, 2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966535

ABSTRACT

The newly emerged coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that caused the COVID-19 pandemic, is the closest relative of SARS-CoV with high genetic similarity. The papain-like protease (PLpro) is an important SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 nonstructural protein that plays a critical role in some infection processes such as the generation of the functional replication complex, maturation of crude polyproteins, and regulation of the host antiviral immune responses. Therefore, the research to discover SARS-CoV-2 PLpro inhibitors could be a sensible strategy to obtain therapeutic agents for the treatment of COVID-19. Aiming to find SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 PLpro inhibitors, various high throughput screenings (HTS) have been performed over the past two decades. Interestingly, the result of these efforts is the identification of hit/lead compounds whose structures have one important feature in common, namely having a chalcone-amide (N-benzylbenzamide) backbone. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies have shown that placing an (R)-configurated methyl group on the middle carbon adjacent to the amide group creates a unique backbone called (R)-methyl chalcone-amide, which dramatically increases PLpro inhibitory potency. Although this scaffold has not yet been introduced by medicinal chemists as a specific skeleton for the design of PLpro inhibitors, structural considerations show that the most reported PLpro inhibitors have this skeleton. This review suggests the (R)-methyl chalcone-amide scaffold as a key backbone for the design and development of selective SARS-CoV-2 PLpro inhibitors. Understanding the SAR and binding mode of these inhibitors in the active site of SARS-CoV-2 PLpro can aid the future development of anti-COVID-19 agents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chalcone , Chalcones , Amides , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases , Humans , Pandemics , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Mar Drugs ; 20(6)2022 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964023

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019, caused by the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an ongoing global pandemic that poses an unprecedented threat to the global economy and human health. Several potent inhibitors targeting SARS-CoV-2 have been published; however, most of them have failed in clinical trials. This study aimed to assess the therapeutic compounds among aldehyde derivatives from seaweeds as potential SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors using a computer simulation protocol. The absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADME/Tox) properties of the compounds were analyzed using a machine learning algorithm, and the docking simulation of these compounds to the 3C-like protease (Protein Data Bank (PDB) ID: 6LU7) was analyzed using a molecular docking protocol based on the CHARMm algorithm. These compounds exhibited good drug-like properties following the Lipinski and Veber rules. Among the marine aldehyde derivatives, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, and 5-bromoprotocatechualdehyde were predicted to have good absorption and solubility levels and non-hepatotoxicity in the ADME/Tox prediction. 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde were predicted to be non-toxic in TOPKAT prediction. In addition, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde was predicted to exhibit interactions with the 3C-like protease, with binding energies of -71.9725 kcal/mol. The computational analyses indicated that 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde could be regarded as potential a SARS-CoV-2 inhibitor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Seaweed , Aldehydes/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seaweed/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963998

ABSTRACT

In continuation of our antecedent work against COVID-19, three natural compounds, namely, Luteoside C (130), Kahalalide E (184), and Streptovaricin B (278) were determined as the most promising SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) inhibitors among 310 naturally originated antiviral compounds. This was performed via a multi-step in silico method. At first, a molecular structure similarity study was done with PRD_002214, the co-crystallized ligand of Mpro (PDB ID: 6LU7), and favored thirty compounds. Subsequently, the fingerprint study performed with respect to PRD_002214 resulted in the election of sixteen compounds (7, 128, 130, 156, 157, 158, 180, 184, 203, 204, 210, 237, 264, 276, 277, and 278). Then, results of molecular docking versus Mpro PDB ID: 6LU7 favored eight compounds (128, 130, 156, 180, 184, 203, 204, and 278) based on their binding affinities. Then, in silico toxicity studies were performed for the promising compounds and revealed that all of them have good toxicity profiles. Finally, molecular dynamic (MD) simulation experiments were carried out for compounds 130, 184, and 278, which exhibited the best binding modes against Mpro. MD tests revealed that luteoside C (130) has the greatest potential to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 main protease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12802, 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960496

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 led to the research aiming to find the inhibitors of this virus. Towards this world problem, an attempt was made to identify SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) inhibitory peptides from ricin domains. The ricin-based peptide from barley (BRIP) was able to inhibit Mpro in vitro with an IC50 of 0.52 nM. Its low and no cytotoxicity upto 50 µM suggested its therapeutic potential against SARS-CoV-2. The most favorable binding site on Mpro was identified by molecular docking and steered molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The Mpro-BRIP interactions were further investigated by evaluating the trajectories for microsecond timescale MD simulations. The structural parameters of Mpro-BRIP complex were stable, and the presence of oppositely charged surfaces on the binding interface of BRIP and Mpro complex further contributed to the overall stability of the protein-peptide complex. Among the components of thermodynamic binding free energy, Van der Waals and electrostatic contributions were most favorable for complex formation. Our findings provide novel insight into the area of inhibitor development against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hordeum , Ricin , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hordeum/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pandemics , Peptides/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ricin/metabolism , Ricin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
13.
Molecules ; 27(10)2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953751

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is a global burden on human health and economy. The 3-Chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) becomes an attractive target for SARS-CoV-2 due to its important role in viral replication. We synthesized a series of 8H-indeno[1,2-d]thiazole derivatives and evaluated their biochemical activities against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. Among them, the representative compound 7a displayed inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 1.28 ± 0.17 µM against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. Molecular docking of 7a against 3CLpro was performed and the binding mode was rationalized. These preliminary results provide a unique prototype for the development of novel inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Protease Inhibitors , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Viral Proteins/metabolism
14.
Biomolecules ; 12(7)2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938685

ABSTRACT

Protease inhibitors are widely studied since the unrestricted activity of proteases can cause extensive organ lesions. In particular, elastase activity is involved in the pathophysiology of acute lung injury, for example during SARS-CoV-2 infection, while serine proteases and thrombin-like proteases are involved in the development and/or pathology of the nervous system. Natural protease inhibitors have the advantage to be reversible and with few side effects and thus are increasingly considered as new drugs. Kunitz-type protease inhibitors (KTPIs), reported in the venom of various organisms, such as wasps, spiders, scorpions, and snakes, have been studied for their potent anticoagulant activity and widespread protease inhibitor activity. Putative KTPI anticoagulants have been identified in transcriptomic resources obtained for two blister beetle species, Lydus trimaculatus and Mylabris variabilis. The KTPIs of L. trimaculatus and M. variabilis were characterized by combined transcriptomic and bioinformatics methodologies. The full-length mRNA sequences were divided on the base of the sequence of the active sites of the putative proteins. In silico protein structure analyses of each group of translational products show the biochemical features of the active sites and the potential protease targets. Validation of these genes is the first step for considering these molecules as new drugs for use in medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coleoptera , Animals , Coleoptera/genetics , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Proteases
15.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263251, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938414

ABSTRACT

The main protease (3CLpro) is one of the essential components of the SARS-CoVs viral life cycle, which makes it an interesting target for overpowering these viruses. Although many covalent and noncovalent inhibitors have been designed to inhibit this molecular target, none have gained FDA approval as a drug. Because of the high rate of COVID-19 pandemic development, in addition to laboratory research, we require in silico methods to accelerate rational drug design. The unbinding pathways of two SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro noncovalent inhibitors with the PDB IDs: 3V3M, 4MDS, 6W63, 5RF7 were explored from a comparative perspective using unbiased molecular dynamics (UMD) simulations. We uncovered common weak points for selected inhibitors that could not interact significantly with a binding pocket at specific residues by all their fragments. So water molecules entered the free binding S regions and weakened protein-inhibitor fundamental interactions gradually. N142, G143, and H163 are the essential residues, which cause key protein-ligand interactions in the binding pocket. We believe that these results will help design new potent inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drug Design , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 7341493, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932844

ABSTRACT

In this work, the discovery and description of PF-07321332, a major bioavailable oral SARS-CoV-2 protease inhibitor with in vitro human coronavirus antiviral activity, and excellent selection of off-target and in vivo immune profiles are reported. Various drugs and novel compound candidates for the treatment of the COVID-19 pandemic have been developed. PF-07321332 (or nirmatrelvir) is a new oral antiviral drug developed by Pfizer. In response to the pandemic, Pfizer has developed the COVID vaccine and in 2022 will launch its new major anti-SARS-Cov-2 protease inhibitor (PI). The combination of ritonavir and nirmatrelvir is under study in phase III of the clinical trial with a brand name Paxlovid. Paxlovid is an active 3Cl protease inhibitor. Paxlovid exerts its antiviral efficacy by inhibiting a necessary protease in the viral replication procedure. Proteases of coronavirus cleave several sites in the viral polyprotein where pyrrolidone was replaced by flexible glutamine. Due to the coronavirus pandemic, there is high demand for synthesis and development of this novel drug. Herein, we report the synthetic route and the mechanism of action was recently published on nirmatrelvir. Also, a comparison of the performance of two new oral antiviruses (molnupiravir and nirmatrelvir) for the treatment of COVID-19 is described. This review will be helpful for different disciplines such as biochemistry, organic chemistry, medicinal chemistry, and pharmacology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Endopeptidases , Drug Combinations , Humans , Lactams , Leucine , Nitriles , Proline , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Ritonavir , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry
17.
Molecules ; 27(14)2022 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928614

ABSTRACT

For the last few years, the world has been going through a difficult time, and the reason behind this is severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), one of the significant members of the Coronaviridae family. The major research groups have shifted their focus towards finding a vaccine and drugs against SARS-CoV-2 to reduce the infection rate and save the life of human beings. Even the WHO has permitted using certain vaccines for an emergency attempt to cut the infection curve down. However, the virus has a great sense of mutation, and the vaccine's effectiveness remains questionable. No natural medicine is available at the community level to cure the patients for now. In this study, we have screened the vast library of experimental drugs of Drug Bank with Schrodinger's maestro by using three algorithms: high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS), standard precision, and extra precise docking followed by Molecular Mechanics/Generalized Born Surface Area (MMGBSA). We have identified 3-(7-diaminomethyl-naphthalen-2-YL)-propionic acid ethyl ester and Thymidine-5'-thiophosphate as potent inhibitors against the SARS-CoV-2, and both drugs performed impeccably and showed stability during the 100 ns molecular dynamics simulation. Both of the drugs are among the category of small molecules and have an acceptable range of ADME properties. They can be used after their validation in in-vitro and in-vivo conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11585, 2022 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927097

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2's papain-like protease (PLpro) interaction with ligands has recently been explored with a myriad of crystal structures. We used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study different PLpro-ligand complexes, their ligand-induced conformational changes, and interactions. We focused on inhibitors reported with known IC50 against PLpro, namely GRL-0617, XR8-89, PLP_Snyder530, and Sander's recently published compound 7 (CPD7), and compared these trajectories against the apostructure (Apo), with a total of around 60 µs worth simulation data. We aimed to study the conformational changes using molecular dynamics simulations for the inhibitors in the PLpro. PCA analyses and the MSM models revealed distinct conformations of PLpro in the absence/presence of ligands and proposed that BL2-loop contributes to the accessibility of these inhibitors. Further, bulkier substituents closer to Tyr268 and Gln269 could improve inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 PLpro by occupying the region between BL2-groove and BL2-loop, but we also expand on the relevance of exploring multiple PLpro sub-pockets to improve inhibition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aniline Compounds , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzamides , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases , Humans , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Naphthalenes , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology
19.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917637

ABSTRACT

The main protease (Mpro) of the betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is an attractive target for the development of treatments for COVID-19. Structure-based design is a successful approach to discovering new inhibitors of the Mpro. Starting from crystal structures of the Mpro in complexes with the Hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease inhibitors boceprevir and telaprevir, we optimized the potency of the alpha-ketoamide boceprevir against the Mpro by replacing its P1 cyclobutyl moiety by a γ-lactam as a glutamine surrogate. The resulting compound, MG-78, exhibited an IC50 of 13 nM versus the recombinant Mpro, and similar potency was observed for its P1' N-methyl derivative MG-131. Crystal structures confirmed the validity of our design concept. In addition to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibition, we also explored the activity of MG-78 against the Mpro of the alphacoronavirus HCoV NL63 and against enterovirus 3C proteases. The activities were good (0.33 µM, HCoV-NL63 Mpro), moderate (1.45 µM, Coxsackievirus 3Cpro), and relatively poor (6.7 µM, enterovirus A71 3Cpro), respectively. The structural basis for the differences in activities was revealed by X-ray crystallo-graphy. We conclude that the modified boceprevir scaffold is suitable for obtaining high-potency inhibitors of the coronavirus Mpros but further optimization would be needed to target enterovirus 3Cpros efficiently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Humans , Proline/analogs & derivatives , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins
20.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 13(25): 5776-5786, 2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915250

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has been devastating, with hundreds of millions of infections and millions of deaths reported worldwide. In response, the application of structure-activity relationships (SAR) upon experimentally validated inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) may provide an avenue for the identification of new lead compounds active against COVID-19. Upon the basis of information gleaned from a combination of reported crystal structures and the docking of experimentally validated inhibitors, four "rules" for designing potent Mpro inhibitors have been proposed. The aim here is to guide medicinal chemists toward the most probable hits and to provide guidance on repurposing available structures as Mpro inhibitors. Experimental examination of our own previously reported inhibitors using the four "rules" identified a potential lead compound, the cathepsin inhibitor GB111-NH2, that was 2.3 times more potent than SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitor N3.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins
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