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1.
J Laryngol Otol ; 136(3): 237-242, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713068

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the olfactory recovery rates and patterns in a cohort of coronavirus disease 2019 positive patients, and to investigate the clinical predictors of poor long-term olfactory restoration. METHODS: An observational retrospective study was conducted on 146 patients between September 2020 and January 2021 at a tertiary referral hospital. Coronavirus disease 2019 positive patients with olfactory dysfunction were sent a modified version of the COVID-19 Anosmia Reporting Tool for Clinicians via e-mail. RESULTS: The difference in median recovery time between complete recovery and incomplete or no recovery was statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, the only significant factor associated with incomplete or no recovery was anosmia duration. CONCLUSION: After a mean time of 5.6 months from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection, persistent olfactory disorders were self-reported in 36.7 per cent of patients. Complete recovery was more likely to occur within 15 days. Given the high prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019, a large number of patients are expected to suffer from long-term olfactory morbidity.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , Recovery of Function/physiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Self Report , Time Factors
2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(3): 1042-1048, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708605

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Alterations of the olfactory function in patients affected by COVID-19 often have an early onset and a variable duration ranging from a few weeks to months. The aim of this study was to evaluate olfactory dysfunction persistence after recovery from COVID-19, and potential related clinical-demographic conditions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 76 patients recovered from COVID-19 from at least 20 days with olfactory dysfunction during the infection were included in the study. For the subjective evaluation of olfactory function, a visual analogic scale (VAS) was used. The objective evaluation was performed with the use of the Sniffin' Sticks test. RESULTS: Objective assessment of olfactory function revealed that 48 (63.16%) patients were found to be normosmic (TDI ≥ 30.5), 26 (34.21%) were hyposmic (TDI from 30.5 to 16.5) and two (2.63%) were anosmic (TDI ≤ 16.5) at the time of the evaluation. These results did not show a significant difference between subjective and objective tests (p = 0.45). Most patients recovered their sense of smell within the first two months after recovery while a portion (22.2%) still experienced olfactory alterations 4-6 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients who had not recovered their sense of smell had a significantly longer period of SARS-CoV-2 positivity compared to patients that fully recovered (36.07 ± 7.78 days vs. 29 ± 7.89 days; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the duration of the infection negatively correlates with the recovery of olfactory function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Young Adult
3.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(7): 955-972, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693757

ABSTRACT

SCOPE: The aim of these guidelines is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the assessment and management of individuals with persistent symptoms after acute COVID-19 infection and to provide a definition for this entity, termed 'long COVID'. METHODS: We performed a search of the literature on studies addressing epidemiology, symptoms, assessment, and treatment of long COVID. The recommendations were grouped by these headings and by organ systems for assessment and treatment. An expert opinion definition of long COVID is provided. Symptoms were reviewed by a search of the available literature. For assessment recommendations, we aimed to perform a diagnostic meta-analysis, but no studies provided relevant results. For treatment recommendations we performed a systematic review of the literature in accordance with the PRISMA statement. We aimed to evaluate patient-related outcomes, including quality of life, return to baseline physical activity, and return to work. Quality assessment of studies included in the systematic review is provided according to study design. RECOMMENDATIONS: Evidence was insufficient to provide any recommendation other than conditional guidance. The panel recommends considering routine blood tests, chest imaging, and pulmonary functions tests for patients with persistent respiratory symptoms at 3 months. Other tests should be performed mainly to exclude other conditions according to symptoms. For management, no evidence-based recommendations could be provided. Physical and respiratory rehabilitation should be considered. On the basis of limited evidence, the panel suggests designing high-quality prospective clinical studies/trials, including a control group, to further evaluate the assessment and management of individuals with persistent symptoms of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Quality of Life , Recovery of Function , Return to Work
4.
Trials ; 23(1): 129, 2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690888

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Encouraging upper limb use and increasing intensity of practice in rehabilitation are two important goals for optimizing upper limb recovery post stroke. Feedback from novel wearable sensors may influence practice behaviour to promote achieving these goals. A wearable sensor can potentially be used in conjunction with a virtually monitored home program for greater patient convenience, or due to restrictions that preclude in-person visits, such as COVID-19. This trial aims to (1) determine the efficacy of a virtual behaviour change program that relies on feedback from a custom wearable sensor to increase use and function of the upper limb post stroke; and (2) explore the experiences and perceptions of using a program coupled with wearable sensors to increase arm use from the perspective of people with stroke. METHODS: This mixed-methods study will utilize a prospective controlled trial with random allocation to immediate or 3-week delayed entry to determine the efficacy of a 3-week behaviour change program with a nested qualitative description study. The intervention, the Virtual Arm Boot Camp (V-ABC) features feedback from a wearable device, which is intended to increase upper limb use post stroke, as well as 6 virtual sessions with a therapist. Sixty-four adults within 1-year post stroke onset will be recruited from seven rehabilitation centres. All outcomes will be collected virtually. The primary outcome measure is upper limb use measured by grasp counts over 3 days from the wearable sensor (TENZR) after the 3-week intervention. Secondary outcomes include upper limb function (Arm Capacity and Movement Test) and self-reported function (Hand Function and Strength subscale from the Stroke Impact Scale). Outcome data will be collected at baseline, post-intervention and at 2 months retention. The qualitative component will explore the experiences and acceptability of using a home program with a wearable sensor for increasing arm use from the point of view of individuals with stroke. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted with participants after they have experienced the intervention. Qualitative data will be analysed using content analysis. DISCUSSION: This study will provide novel information regarding the efficacy and acceptability of virtually delivered programs to improve upper extremity recovery, and the use of wearable sensors to assist with behaviour change. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04232163 . January 18, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke Rehabilitation , Adult , Arm , Hand Strength , Humans , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Upper Extremity
5.
Neurol Sci ; 43(2): 791-798, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649119

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 pandemic has affected most components of health systems including rehabilitation. The study aims to compare demographic and clinical data of patients admitted to an intensive rehabilitation unit (IRU) after severe acquired brain injuries (sABIs), before and during the pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this observational retrospective study, all patients admitted to the IRU between 2017 and 2020 were included. Demographics were collected, as well as data from the clinical and functional assessment at admission and discharge from the IRU. Patients were grouped in years starting from March 2017, and the 2020/21 cohort was compared to those admitted between March 2017/18, 2018/19, and 2019/20. Lastly, the pooled cohort March 2017 to March 2020 was compared with the COVID-19 year alone. RESULTS: This study included 251 patients (F: 96 (38%): median age 68 years [IQR = 19.25], median time post-onset at admission: 42 days, [IQR = 23]). In comparison with the pre-pandemic years, a significant increase of hemorrhagic strokes (p < 0.001) and a decrease of traumatic brain injuries (p = 0.048), a reduction of the number of patients with a prolonged disorder of consciousness admitted to the IRU (p < 0.001) and a lower length of stay (p < 0.001) were observed in 2020/21. CONCLUSIONS: These differences in the case mix of sABI patients admitted to IRU may be considered another side-effect of the pandemic. Facing this health emergency, rehabilitation specialists need to adapt readily to the changing clinical and functional needs of patients' addressing the IRUs.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , COVID-19 , Aged , Brain Injuries/complications , Brain Injuries/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Recovery of Function , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 628, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621274

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for a pandemic affecting billions of people worldwide. Apart from the extreme global economic impact, the pandemic will likely have a lasting impact through long-term sequelae not yet fully understood. Fully understanding the mechanisms driving the various symptoms and sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection will allow for the eventual development of therapeutics to prevent or treat such life-altering symptoms. In this study, we developed a behavioral test of anosmia in SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters. We find a moderately strong correlation between the level of anosmia and the score of histological damage within the olfactory epithelium. We also find a moderately strong correlation between the level of anosmia and the thickness of the olfactory epithelium, previously demonstrated to be severely damaged upon infection. Thus, this food-searching behavioral test can act as a simple and effective screening method in a hamster model for various therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2-related anosmia.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Olfactory Mucosa/pathology , Animals , Anosmia/pathology , Behavior, Animal , COVID-19/complications , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Mesocricetus , Recovery of Function , Vero Cells
7.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 103(5): 929-936, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559192

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes in activities of daily living (ADLs) and the conditions of rehabilitation for acute COVID-19 patients in Japan. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational survey. SETTING: Four tertiary hospitals with intensive care units and one secondary hospital in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: COVID-19 patients (N=478) admitted to 5 hospitals INTERVENTIONS: : Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Walking ability and swallowing status were assessed using the FIM locomotion item and Food Intake Scale at admission and discharge. The physiatrists of each hospital were also surveyed regarding the factors that influenced decisions to provide rehabilitation. RESULTS: Excluding patients who died, the proportion of critical patients who could walk independently at discharge was 63%, and the proportion of those who were able to take 3 meals orally at discharge was 90%. Rehabilitation was provided to 13.4% of all patients and to 58.3% of patients with critical symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: After COVID-19 treatment, patients, especially those with critical symptoms, still have functional disabilities related to walking and swallowing. It is possible that sufficient rehabilitation could not be provided during the period studied.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Japan , Recovery of Function , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
8.
Respir Med ; 191: 106709, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556145

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Prospective and longitudinal data on pulmonary injury over one year after acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are sparse. We aim to determine reductions in pulmonary function and respiratory related quality of life up to 12 months after acute COVID-19. METHODS: Patients with acute COVID-19 were enrolled into an ongoing single-centre, prospective observational study and prospectively examined 6 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months after onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Chest CT-scans, pulmonary function and symptoms assessed by St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire were used to evaluate respiratory limitations. Patients were stratified according to severity of acute COVID-19. RESULTS: Median age of all patients was 57 years, 37.8% were female. Higher age, male sex and higher BMI were associated with acute-COVID-19 severity (p < 0.0001, 0.001 and 0.004 respectively). Also, pulmonary restriction and reduced carbon monoxide diffusion capacity was associated with disease severity. In patients with restriction and impaired diffusion capacity, FVC improved over 12 months from 61.32 to 71.82, TLC from 68.92 to 76.95, DLCO from 60.18 to 68.98 and KCO from 81.28 to 87.80 (percent predicted values; p = 0.002, 0.045, 0.0002 and 0.0005). The CT-score of lung involvement in the acute phase was associated with restriction and reduction in diffusion capacity in follow-up. Respiratory symptoms improved for patients in higher severity groups during follow-up, but not for patients with initially mild disease. CONCLUSION: Severity of respiratory failure during COVID-19 correlates with the degree of pulmonary function impairment and respiratory quality of life in the year after acute infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Quality of Life , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity/physiology , Recovery of Function , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Function Tests , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Total Lung Capacity/physiology , Vital Capacity/physiology
9.
Neurology ; 98(3): e315-e325, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), disorders of consciousness (DoC) have emerged as a serious complication. The prognosis and pathophysiology of COVID-DoC remain unclear, complicating decisions about continuing life-sustaining treatment. We describe the natural history of COVID-DoC and investigate its associated brain connectivity profile. METHODS: In a prospective longitudinal study, we screened consecutive patients with COVID-19 at our institution. We enrolled critically ill adult patients with a DoC unexplained by sedation or structural brain injury and who were planned to undergo a brain MRI. We performed resting-state fMRI and diffusion MRI to evaluate functional and structural connectivity compared to healthy controls and patients with DoC resulting from severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). We assessed the recovery of consciousness (command following) and functional outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended [GOSE] and the Disability Rating Scale [DRS]) at hospital discharge and 3 and 6 months after discharge. We also explored whether clinical variables were associated with recovery from COVID-DoC. RESULTS: After screening 1,105 patients with COVID-19, we enrolled 12 with COVID-DoC. The median age was 63.5 years (interquartile range 55-76.3 years). After the exclusion of 1 patient who died shortly after enrollment, all of the remaining 11 patients recovered consciousness 0 to 25 days (median 7 [5-14.5] days) after the cessation of continuous IV sedation. At discharge, all surviving patients remained dependent: median GOSE score 3 (1-3) and median DRS score 23 (16-30). Ultimately, however, except for 2 patients with severe polyneuropathy, all returned home with normal cognition and minimal disability: at 3 months, median GOSE score 3 (3-3) and median DRS score 7 (5-13); at 6 months, median GOSE score 4 (4-5), median DRS score 3 (3-5). Ten patients with COVID-DoC underwent advanced neuroimaging; functional and structural brain connectivity in those with COVID-DoC was diminished compared to healthy controls, and structural connectivity was comparable to that in patients with severe TBI. DISCUSSION: Patients who survived invariably recovered consciousness after COVID-DoC. Although disability was common after hospitalization, functional status improved over the ensuing months. While future research is necessary, these prospective findings inform the prognosis and pathophysiology of COVID-DoC. TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04476589.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Consciousness Disorders , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Consciousness Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Consciousness Disorders/virology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function
11.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(12): 1109-1114, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526236

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics and functional outcomes of patients undergoing acute inpatient rehabilitation after hospitalization for COVID-19. DESIGN: Using a retrospective chart review, patients were identified who were admitted to inpatient rehabilitation after COVID-19. Patient information collected included sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, length of stay, discharge disposition, self-care, mobility, and cognitive functioning. These patients were compared with patients (controls) without COVID-19 with similar impairment codes treated at the same facility before the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: There were 43 patients who were admitted to the inpatient rehabilitation hospital after COVID-19 infection and 247 controls. Patients who had COVID-19 were significantly more likely to be African American and to have been admitted to a long-term acute care hospital. They also had a longer length of rehabilitation stay. The groups did not differ by age, sex, or insurance. Functionally, although presenting with significantly worse mobility, self-care, and motor scores, the patients previously infected with COVID-19 had similar functional outcomes at time of discharge to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients with a history of COVID-19 had worse function at time of admission to acute rehabilitation, inpatient rehabilitation significantly improved their function to comparable levels as patients who did not have COVID-19. TO CLAIM CME CREDITS: Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCME. CME OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) Identify how characteristics of patients with COVID-19 admitted to acute rehabilitation differ from those with similar admission codes but without COVID-19; (2) Describe changes in functional measures at admission and discharge of COVID-19 patients compared with patients without COVID-19; and (3) Recognize how inpatient rehabilitation may help reduce inequities in outcomes after severe COVID-19 infection. LEVEL: Advanced. ACCREDITATION: The Association of Academic Physiatrists is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.The Association of Academic Physiatrists designates this Journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Functional Status , Hospitals, Rehabilitation/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Disability Evaluation , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Recovery of Function , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
12.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(11): 2958-2969, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526711

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term outcome of COVID-19-associated collapsing glomerulopathy is unknown. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 76 native kidney biopsies from patients with history of COVID-19 between March 2020 and April 2021. Presenting and outcome data were obtained for all 23 patients with collapsing glomerulopathy and for seven patients with noncollapsing podocytopathies. We performed APOL1 genotyping by Sanger sequencing, immunostaining for spike and nucleocapsid proteins, and in situ hybridization for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: The 23 patients with COVID-19-associated collapsing glomerulopathy were median age 57 years (range, 35-72), included 16 men, and were predominantly (91%) Black. Severity of COVID-19 was mild or moderate in most (77%) patients. All but one patient presented with AKI, 17 had nephrotic-range proteinuria, and six had nephrotic syndrome. Fourteen (61%) patients required dialysis at presentation. Among 17 patients genotyped, 16 (94%) were high-risk APOL1. Among 22 (96%) patients with median follow-up at 155 days (range, 30-412), 11 (50%) received treatment for COVID-19, and eight (36%) received glucocorticoid therapy for podocytopathy. At follow-up, 19 (86%) patients were alive, and 15 (68%) were dialysis free, including seven of 14 who initially required dialysis. The dialysis-free patients included 64% (seven of 11) of those treated for COVID-19 and 75% (six of eight) of those treated with glucocorticoids for podocytopathy. Overall, 36% achieved partial remission of proteinuria, 32% had no remission, and 32% reached combined end points of ESKD or death. Viral infection of the kidney was not detected. CONCLUSIONS: Half of 14 patients with COVID-19-associated collapsing glomerulopathy requiring dialysis achieved dialysis independence, but the long-term prognosis of residual proteinuric CKD remains guarded, indicating a need for more effective therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Kidney Glomerulus/pathology , Podocytes/pathology , Renal Insufficiency/pathology , Renal Insufficiency/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Recovery of Function , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
13.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 136, 2021 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511742

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: All over the world, SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is causing a significant short-term morbidity and mortality, but the medium-term impact on lung function and quality of life of affected patients are still unknown. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, 39 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were recruited from a single COVID-19 hospital in Southern Switzerland. At three months patients underwent radiological and functional follow-up through CT scan, lung function tests, and 6 min walking test. Furthermore, quality of life was assessed through self-reported questionnaires. RESULTS: Among 39 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, 32 (82% of all participants) presented abnormalities in CT scan and 25 (64.1%) had lung function tests impairment at three months. Moreover, 31 patients (79.5%) reported a perception of poor health due to respiratory symptoms and all 39 patients showed an overall decreased quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Medium-term follow up at three months of patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia shows the persistence of abnormalities in CT scans, a significant functional impairment assessed by lung function tests and a decreased quality of life in affected patients. Further studies evaluating the long-term impact are warranted to guarantee an appropriate follow-up to patients recovering from SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Quality of Life , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Convalescence , Female , Forced Expiratory Volume , Health Status , Humans , Length of Stay , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity , Recovery of Function , Respiratory Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vital Capacity , Walk Test
14.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 382, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506095

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are few reports of new functional impairment following critical illness from COVID-19. We aimed to describe the incidence of death or new disability, functional impairment and changes in health-related quality of life of patients after COVID-19 critical illness at 6 months. METHODS: In a nationally representative, multicenter, prospective cohort study of COVID-19 critical illness, we determined the prevalence of death or new disability at 6 months, the primary outcome. We measured mortality, new disability and return to work with changes in the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 12L (WHODAS) and health status with the EQ5D-5LTM. RESULTS: Of 274 eligible patients, 212 were enrolled from 30 hospitals. The median age was 61 (51-70) years, and 124 (58.5%) patients were male. At 6 months, 43/160 (26.9%) patients died and 42/108 (38.9%) responding survivors reported new disability. Compared to pre-illness, the WHODAS percentage score worsened (mean difference (MD), 10.40% [95% CI 7.06-13.77]; p < 0.001). Thirteen (11.4%) survivors had not returned to work due to poor health. There was a decrease in the EQ-5D-5LTM utility score (MD, - 0.19 [- 0.28 to - 0.10]; p < 0.001). At 6 months, 82 of 115 (71.3%) patients reported persistent symptoms. The independent predictors of death or new disability were higher severity of illness and increased frailty. CONCLUSIONS: At six months after COVID-19 critical illness, death and new disability was substantial. Over a third of survivors had new disability, which was widespread across all areas of functioning. Clinical trial registration NCT04401254 May 26, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Disabled Persons , Recovery of Function/physiology , Return to Work/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Health Status , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Prospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
15.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 221, 2021 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505719

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the gradual resumption of sports activities after the lock-down period for coronavirus pandemic, a new problem is emerging: Allow all athletes to be able to return to compete after SARS-CoV-2 infection in total safety. Several protocols have been proposed for healed athletes but all of them have been formulated for the adult population. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the adequacy of Italian practical recommendations for return-to-paly, in order to exclude cardiorespiratory complications due to COVID-19 in children and adolescents. METHODS: Between April 2020 and January 2021 the Italian Sports Medical Federation formulated cardiorespiratory protocols to be applied to athletes recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection. The protocols take into account the severity of the infection. Protocols include lung function tests, cardiopulmonary exercise test, echocardiographic evaluation, blood chemistry tests. RESULTS: From September 2020 to February 2021, 45 children and adolescents (aged from 9 to 18 years; male = 26) with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection were evaluated according to the protocols in force for adult. 55.5% of the subjects (N = 25) reported an asymptomatic infection; 44.5% reported a mild symptomatic infection. Results of lung function test have exceeded the limit of 80% of the theoretical value in all patients. The cardiorespiratory capacity of all patients was within normal limits (average value of maximal oxigen uptake 41 ml/kg/min). No arrhythmic events or reduction in the ejection fraction were highlighted. CONCLUSION: The data obtained showed that, in the pediatric population, mild coronavirus infection does not cause cardiorespiratory complications in the short and medium term. Return to play after Coronavirus infection seems to be safe but it will be necessary to continue with the data analysis in order to modulate and optimize the protocols especially in the pediatric field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Return to Sport , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Child , Clinical Protocols , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Recovery of Function , Respiratory Function Tests , Time Factors
16.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(10): 1601-1609, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502239

ABSTRACT

AKI is a common complication in hospitalized and critically ill patients. Its incidence has steadily increased over the past decade. Whether transient or prolonged, AKI is an independent risk factor associated with poor short- and long-term outcomes, even if patients do not require KRT. Most patients with early AKI improve with conservative management; however, some will require dialysis for a few days, a few weeks, or even months. Approximately 10%-30% of AKI survivors may still need dialysis after hospital discharge. These patients have a higher associated risk of death, rehospitalization, recurrent AKI, and CKD, and a lower quality of life. Survivors of critical illness may also suffer from cognitive dysfunction, muscle weakness, prolonged ventilator dependence, malnutrition, infections, chronic pain, and poor wound healing. Collaboration and communication among nephrologists, primary care physicians, rehabilitation providers, physical therapists, nutritionists, nurses, pharmacists, and other members of the health care team are essential to create a holistic and patient-centric care plan for overall recovery. Integration of the patient and family members in health care decisions, and ongoing education throughout the process, are vital to improve patient well-being. From the nephrologist standpoint, assessing and promoting recovery of kidney function, and providing appropriate short- and long-term follow-up, are crucial to prevent rehospitalizations and to reduce complications. Return to baseline functional status is the ultimate goal for most patients, and dialysis independence is an important part of that goal. In this review, we seek to highlight the varying aspects and stages of recovery from AKI complicating critical illness, and propose viable strategies to promote recovery of kidney function and dialysis independence. We also emphasize the need for ongoing research and multidisciplinary collaboration to improve outcomes in this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Kidney/physiopathology , Renal Dialysis , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Humans , Recovery of Function , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis/mortality , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
17.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(11): 1027-1030, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483697

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Rehabilitation experts play an important role in preventing hospital-acquired debility, increasing patients' abilities to safely perform activities of daily living, and facilitating discharge to the home setting for patients with COVID-19. Surges in COVID-19 hospitalization rates combined with increases in length of hospital stay and decreases in postacute care placements have necessitated the opening of COVID-19 field hospitals around the country. Most field hospitals lack the resources to offer a full suite of rehabilitation services, but there are opportunities for small teams of rehabilitation experts to increase their reach by using innovative strategies. This article describes the implementation of a small team of rehabilitation experts in a COVID-19 field hospital and strategies used by this team to maximize patient activity and mobility, facilitate timely discharge, and maximize the number of patients discharged to the home setting. Strategies include training nonclinical staff to assist with activity and mobility promotion and using a rehabilitation triage system to determine needs of individual patients and facilitate efficient resource utilization. The authors reflect on successful aspects of these strategies, as well as barriers to rehabilitation implementation, and make recommendations for other field hospitals seeking to implement rehabilitation during the COVID-19 pandemic or future health crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Mobile Health Units/organization & administration , Activities of Daily Living , Baltimore , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Subacute Care
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(20)2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480938

ABSTRACT

Enriched environments and tools are believed to promote grasp rehabilitation after stroke. We designed S2, an interactive grasp rehabilitation system consisting of smart objects, custom orthoses for selective grasp constraining, and an electrode array system for forearm NMES. Motor improvements and perceived usability of a new enriched upper limb training system for sub-acute stroke patients was assessed in this interim analysis. INCLUSION CRITERIA: sub-acute stroke patients with MMSE>20, ipsilesional MI>80%, and contralesional MI<80%. Effects of 30-min therapy supplements, conventional vs. S2 prototype, are compared through a parallel two-arms dose-matched open-label trial, lasting 27 sessions. Clinical centres: Asklepios Neurologische Klinik Falkenstein, Königstein im Taunus, Germany, and Clinica Villa Beretta, Costa Masnaga, Italy. Assessment scales: ARAT, System Usability, and Technology Acceptance. METHODOLOGY: 26 participants were block randomized, allocated to the study (control N=12, experimental N=14) and underwent the training protocol. Among them, 11 participants with ARAT score at inclusion below 35, n = 6 in the experimental group, and n = 5 in the control group were analysed. RESULTS: participants in the enriched treatment group displayed a larger improvement in the ARAT scale (+14.9 pts, pval=0.0494). Perceived usability differed between clinics. No adverse effect was observed in relation to the treatments. Trial status: closed. CONCLUSIONS: The S2 system, developed according to shared clinical directives, was tested in a clinical proof of concept. Variations of ARAT scores confirm the feasibility of clinical investigation for hand rehabilitation after stroke.


Subject(s)
Stroke Rehabilitation , Stroke , Exercise Therapy , Hand Strength , Humans , Recovery of Function , Treatment Outcome , Upper Extremity
20.
Neurocrit Care ; 36(2): 357-371, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early neurorehabilitation improves outcomes in patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC) after brain injury, but its applicability in COVID-19 is unknown. We describe our experience implementing an early neurorehabilitation protocol for patients with COVID-19-associated DoC in the intensive care unit (ICU) and evaluate factors associated with recovery. METHODS: During the initial COVID-19 surge in New York City between March 10 and May 20, 2020, faced with a disproportionately high number of ICU patients with prolonged unresponsiveness, we developed and implemented an early neurorehabilitation protocol, applying standard practices from brain injury rehabilitation care to the ICU setting. Twenty-one patients with delayed recovery of consciousness after severe COVID-19 participated in a pilot early neurorehabilitation program that included serial Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) assessments, multimodal treatment, and access to clinicians specializing in brain injury medicine. We retrospectively compared clinical features of patients who did and did not recover to the minimally conscious state (MCS) or better, defined as a CRS-R total score (TS) ≥ 8, before discharge. We additionally examined factors associated with best CRS-R TS, last CRS-R TS, hospital length of stay, and time on mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: Patients underwent CRS-R assessments a median of six (interquartile range [IQR] 3-10) times before discharge, beginning a median of 48 days (IQR 40-55) from admission. Twelve (57%) patients recovered to MCS after a median of 8 days (IQR 2-14) off continuous sedation; they had lower body mass index (p = 0.009), lower peak serum C-reactive protein levels (p = 0.023), higher minimum arterial partial pressure of oxygen (p = 0.028), and earlier fentanyl discontinuation (p = 0.018). CRS-R scores fluctuated over time, and the best CRS-R TS was significantly higher than the last CRS-R TS (median 8 [IQR 5-23] vs. 5 [IQR 3-18], p = 0.002). Earlier fentanyl (p = 0.001) and neuromuscular blockade (p = 0.015) discontinuation correlated with a higher last CRS-R TS. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of our cohort of patients with prolonged unresponsiveness following severe COVID-19 recovered to MCS or better before hospital discharge, achieving a clinical benchmark known to have relatively favorable long-term prognostic implications in DoC of other etiologies. Hypoxia, systemic inflammation, sedation, and neuromuscular blockade may impact diagnostic assessment and prognosis, and fluctuations in level of consciousness make serial assessments essential. Early neurorehabilitation of these patients in the ICU can be accomplished but is associated with unique challenges. Further research should evaluate factors associated with longer-term neurologic recovery and benefits of early rehabilitation in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurological Rehabilitation , COVID-19/complications , Consciousness , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Humans , Recovery of Function , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
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