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1.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 37(9): 2013-2020, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1999924

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic had a major impact on the health services worldwide. We aimed to investigate the impact of the pandemic on colorectal cancer (CRC) care in the Netherlands in 2020. METHODS: CRC patients, diagnosed in 2018-2020 in the Netherlands, were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR). The year 2020 was divided in four periods reflecting COVID-19 developments in the Netherlands (pre-COVID, 1st peak, recovery period, 2nd peak) and compared with the same periods in 2018/2019. Patient characteristics and treatment were compared using the Chi-squared test. Median time between diagnosis and treatment, and between (neo)adjuvant therapy and surgery were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: In total, 38,021 CRC patients were diagnosed in 2018/2019 (n = 26,816) and 2020 (n = 11,205). Median time between diagnosis and initial treatment decreased on average 4 days and median time between neoadjuvant radiotherapy and surgery in clinical stage II or III rectal cancer patients increased on average 34 days during the three COVID-19 periods compared to the same periods of 2018/2019. The proportion of colon cancer patients that underwent elective surgery significantly decreased with 3.0% during the 1st peak. No differences were found in the proportion of patients who received (neo)adjuvant therapy, systemic therapy, or no anti-cancer treatment. CONCLUSION: Only minor changes in the care for CRC patients occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, mostly during the 1st peak. In conclusion, the impact on CRC care in the Netherlands was found to be limited. However, long-term effects cannot be precluded.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Rectal Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , Rectal Neoplasms/epidemiology
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994049

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer, among which are malignant neoplasms of the rectum and rectosigmoid junction, is the fourth most common cancer cause of death globally. The goal of this study was to evaluate independent predictors of in-hospital mortality in adult and elderly patients undergoing emergency admission for malignant neoplasm of the rectum and rectosigmoid junction. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS), 2005-2014, to evaluate adult (age 18-64 years) and elderly (65+ years) patients with malignant neoplasm of the rectum and rectosigmoid junction who underwent emergency surgery. A multivariable logistic regression model with backward elimination process was used to identify the association of predictors and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 10,918 non-elderly adult and 12,696 elderly patients were included in this study. Their mean (standard deviation (SD)) age was 53 (8.5) and 77.5 (8) years, respectively. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval, P-value) of some of the pertinent risk factors for mortality for operated adults were 1.04 for time to operation (95%CI: 1.02-1.07, p < 0.001), 2.83 for respiratory diseases (95%CI: 2.02-3.98), and 1.93 for cardiac disease (95%CI: 1.39-2.70), among others. Hospital length of stay was a significant risk factor as well for elderly patients-OR: 1.02 (95%CI: 1.01-1.03, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: In adult patients who underwent an operation, time to operation, respiratory diseases, and cardiac disease were some of the main risk factors of mortality. In patients who did not undergo a surgical procedure, malignant neoplasm of the rectosigmoid junction, respiratory disease, and fluid and electrolyte disorders were risk factors of mortality. In this patient group, hospital length of stay was only significant for elderly patients.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Heart Diseases , Rectal Neoplasms , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Length of Stay , Middle Aged , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Rectum/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e2211065, 2022 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1825767

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a large impact on health care systems, not least the treatment of malignant diseases, including colorectal cancer. Objective: To investigate the treatment of colorectal cancer and short-term outcomes during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, compared with the year before. Design, Setting, and Participants: This register-based cohort study used information from the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry during the years 2020 and 2019. Patients were from the Stockholm-Gotland region, 1 of 6 health care regions in Sweden, with approximately one-fifth of the country's population and 8 hospitals. All patients with a diagnosis of colorectal cancer from March 1 to August 31, 2019, and March 1 to August 31, 2020, were eligible. Data were analyzed from May to June 2021. Exposures: Diagnosis of colorectal cancer during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The study aimed to compare the number of patients, time to surgery, operation methods, short-term complications, and residents' involvement in surgical practice between 2019 and 2020. Subanalyses were conducted for colon and rectal cancer. Results: A total of 1140 patients (583 men [51%]; median [IQR] age, 74 [26-99] years in 2019 and 73 [24-96] years in 2020) were enrolled. Fewer patients received a diagnosis of colorectal cancer in March through August 2020 compared with the same months in 2019 (550 vs 590 patients). Overall, patient characteristics were similar, but pretherapeutic tumor stage was more advanced in 2020 compared with 2019, with an increased proportion of T4 tumors (30% [172 patients] vs 22% [132 patients]; χ23 = 21.1; P < .001). The proportion of patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, time to surgery, and 30-day complications were similar, but the proportion of patients treated with ostomy almost doubled between 2019 and 2020, from 17% (53 patients) to 30% (96 patients) (absolute risk, 13.0%; 95% CI, 6.8% to 20.0%). Residents participated in fewer resections in 2020 than in 2019 (35% [108 patients] vs 27% [83 patients]; absolute risk, -7.90%; 95% CI, -15.00% to -0.55%). On the other hand, the treatment and outcomes for rectal cancer were comparable between the years. Significantly more patients were transferred to the nonemergency, COVID-free hospital in the region in 2020. Conclusions and Relevance: In this Swedish register-based cohort study of patients who received a diagnosis of colorectal cancer during the most intense period of the COVID-19 pandemic, a significant increase in ostomy formation for patients with colon cancer and a lower participation of residents during surgery were observed. These changes most likely were aimed at reducing complications and intensive care unit care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Rectal Neoplasms , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Rectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Sweden/epidemiology
6.
Updates Surg ; 74(2): 619-628, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783001

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic produced unprecedented challenges, at a global level, in the provision of cancer care. With the ongoing need in the delivery of life-saving cancer treatment, the surgical management of patients with colorectal cancer required prompt significant transformation. The aim of this retrospective study is to report the outcome of a bespoke regional Cancer Hub model in the delivery of elective and essential colorectal cancer surgery, at the height of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. 168 patients underwent colorectal cancer surgery from April 1st to June 30th of 2020. Approximately 75% of patients operated upon underwent colonic resection, of which 47% were left-sided, 34% right-sided and 12% beyond total mesorectal excision surgeries. Around 79% of all resectional surgeries were performed via laparotomy, and the remainder 21%, robotically or laparoscopically. Thirty-day complication rate, for Clavien-Dindo IIIA and above, was 4.2%, and 30-day mortality rate was 0.6%. Re-admission rate, within 30 days post-discharge, was 1.8%, however, no patient developed COVID-19 specific complications post-operatively and up to 28 days post-discharge. The established Cancer Hub offered elective surgical care for patients with colorectal cancer in a centralised, timely and efficient manner, with acceptable post-operative outcomes and no increased risk of contracting COVID-19 during their inpatient stay. We offer a practical model of care that can be used when elective surgery "hubs" for streamlined delivery of elective care needs to be established in an expeditious fashion, either due to the COVID-19 pandemic or any other future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rectal Neoplasms , Aftercare , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Surgery ; 171(5): 1209-1214, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has significantly impacted healthcare worldwide. Lack of screening and limited access to healthcare has delayed diagnosis and treatment of various malignancies. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic on sphincter-preserving surgery in patients with rectal cancer. METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective study of patients undergoing surgery for newly diagnosed rectal cancer. Patients operated on during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020-February 2021) comprised the study group (COVID-19 era), while patients operated on prior to the pandemic (March 2016-February 2020) served as the control group (pre-COVID-19). RESULTS: This study included 234 patients diagnosed with rectal cancer; 180 (77%) patients in the pre-COVID-19 group and 54 patients (23%) in the COVID-19-era group. There were no differences between the groups in terms of mean patient age, sex, or body mass index. The COVID-19-era group presented with a significantly higher rate of locally advanced disease (stage T3/T4 79% vs 58%; P = .02) and metastatic disease (9% vs 3%; P = .05). The COVID-19-era group also had a much higher percentage of patients treated with total neoadjuvant therapy (52% vs 15%; P = .001) and showed a significantly lower rate of sphincter-preserving surgery (73% vs 86%; P = .028). Time from diagnosis to surgery in this group was also significantly longer (median 272 vs 146 days; P < .0001). CONCLUSION: Patients undergoing surgery for rectal cancer during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic presented later and at a more advanced stage. They were more likely to be treated with total neoadjuvant therapy and were less likely candidates for sphincter-preserving surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rectal Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Staging , Pandemics , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
8.
Colorectal Dis ; 24(5): 659-663, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626721

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim was to describe the range of possibilities and our group's clinical outcomes when performing different types of anastomosis during transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME). METHOD: A retrospective analysis was performed based on four taTME series from 2016 to 2021. Inclusion criteria were patients with rectal cancer in whom a sphincter-saving low anterior resection by taTME was performed. Four different techniques were employed for the anastomosis construction: (A) abdominal view, (B) transanal view, (C) hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis and (D) pull-through. Intra-operative and postoperative data were collected and compared. RESULTS: A total of 161 patients were included. Tumour height was lower in groups C and D (4 [3-5] vs. 7 [6-8] group A vs. 6 [5-7] group B, P = 0.000), requiring a hand-sewn anastomosis. A transanal extraction of the specimen was more commonly performed in groups C and D (over 60% vs. 30% in groups A and B, P = 0.000). The rate of temporary stoma was similar between groups A, B and C (ranging from 84% to 98%) but was significantly lower in group D (P = 0.000). The overall rate of complications was similar between groups; however, group D had longer length of stay (15 days vs. 5-6 in groups A, B and C, P = 0.026). CONCLUSION: Every type of anastomosis construction after a taTME procedure seems to be safe and feasible and should be chosen based on surgeon's experience, tumour height and the length of the rectal cuff after the rectal transection. Colorectal surgeons should be familiar with these techniques in order to choose the one that benefits each patient the most.


Subject(s)
Laparoscopy , Rectal Neoplasms , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery , Anastomosis, Surgical/methods , Humans , Laparoscopy/methods , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Rectum/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/methods
9.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 104(4): 269-273, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597258

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic led to an unprecedented time for the management of colorectal cancer, with uncertainty as to cancer-specific risks and the circumventing of gold standard oncological strategies. Our study aimed to acquire a snapshot of the practice of multidisciplinary team (MDT) management and variability in response to rapidly emerging guidelines. METHODS: The survey was disseminated to 150 colorectal cancer MDTs across England and Wales taken from the National Bowel Cancer Audit data set between 15 April and 30 June 2020 for completion by colorectal surgeons. RESULTS: Sixty-seven MDTs responded to the survey. Fifty-seven centres reported that they continued to perform colorectal cancer resections during the initial lockdown period. Fifty centres (74.6%) introduced routine preoperative COVID-19 testing and 50 (74.6%) employed full personal protective equipment for elective cases. Laparoscopic resections were continued by 25 centres (42.1%), whereas 28 (48.3%) changed to an open approach. Forty-nine (79.0%) centres reported experiencing patient-led surgical cancellations in 0-25% of their listings. If surgery was delayed significantly then 24 centres (38.7%) employed alternative neoadjuvant therapy, with short-course radiotherapy being their preferred adjunct of choice for rectal cancer. Just over 50% of the MDTs stated that they were uncomfortable or very uncomfortable with their management strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates variability in the MDT management of colorectal cancer during the initial COVID-19 lockdown, incorporating adaptive patient behaviour and initially limited data on oncological safety profiles leading to challenging decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rectal Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
10.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4439-4442, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Radiotherapy and radiochemotherapy are common treatments for rectal and anal cancer. Anticipation of treatment may cause distress and sleep disorders. This study aimed to identify risk factors for sleep disorders. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 42 patients with rectal or anal cancer scheduled for radiotherapy, 16 characteristics were analyzed for associations with pre-radiotherapy sleep disorders including age, gender, performance score, comorbidity, patient's or family history of additional cancer/melanoma, distress score, emotional/physical/practical problems, tumor site and stage, surgery and relation to COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of pre-radiotherapy sleep disorders was 42.9%. Sleep disorders were significantly associated with Karnofsky performance score 60-80 (p=0.044), Charlson comorbidity index ≥3 (p=0.0012), distress score 6-10 (p=0.00012), and more emotional (p=0.0012), physical (p=0.0004) or practical (p=0.033) problems. A trend was found for female gender (p=0.061). CONCLUSION: Sleep disorders were common in patients with rectal or anal cancer scheduled for radiotherapy. Risk factors can help identify patients requiring psychooncological support already prior to the start of radiotherapy.


Subject(s)
Anus Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Anus Neoplasms/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Aged , Anus Neoplasms/pathology , Anus Neoplasms/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dose Fractionation, Radiation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Prevalence , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Rectal Neoplasms/psychology , Sex Characteristics , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Treatment Outcome
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361975

ABSTRACT

This is a case of a 75-year-old man who presented with a 7-month history of a reducible rectal mass. The patient came to the emergency department with a prolapsed necrotic bowel involving a strangulated segment with the rectal mass. He underwent an abdominotransanal resection through a combined abdominal and perineal approach. His postoperative course was unremarkable. Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies showed a rectal carcinosarcoma. Because of a state-mandated lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the patient failed to follow-up. He was later seen to have metastatic progression. Owing to the poor functional status of the patient, the shared decision of the multidisciplinary team, the patient and his family was to manage him with palliative intent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinosarcoma , Rectal Neoplasms , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , SARS-CoV-2
12.
ANZ J Surg ; 91(10): 2091-2096, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in global disruptions to the delivery of healthcare. The national responses of Australia and New Zealand has resulted in unprecedented changes to the care of colorectal cancer patients, amongst others. This paper aims to determine the impact of COVID-19 on colorectal cancer diagnosis and management in Australia and New Zealand. METHODS: This is a multicentre retrospective cohort study using the prospectively maintained Binational Colorectal Cancer Audit (BCCA) registry. Data is contributed by over 200 surgeons in Australia and New Zealand. Patients receiving colorectal cancer surgery during the pandemic were compared to averages from the same period over the preceding 3 years. RESULTS: There were fewer operations in 2020 than the historical average. During April to June, patients were younger, more likely to have operations in public hospitals and more likely to have urgent or emergency operations. By October to December, proportionally less patients had Stage I disease, proportionally more had Stage II or III disease and there was no difference in Stage IV disease. Patients were less likely to have rectal cancer, were increasingly likely to have urgent or emergency surgery and more likely to have a stoma created. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the response to COVID-19 has had measurably negative effects on the diagnosis and management of colorectal cancer in two countries that have had significantly fewer COVID-19 cases than many other countries. The long-term effects on survival and recurrence are yet to be known, but could be significant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Rectal Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Cir Esp (Engl Ed) ; 99(7): 500-505, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283991

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The pandemic has had an impact on colorectal cancer surgery in hospitals. In 2020, up to 75% of colorectal cancer patients are estimated to require surgery. No objective data on the impact of the pandemic on the management of surgical waiting lists is available. We conducted a survey in colorectal surgery units to assess the impact on colorectal cancer surgery waiting lists. METHOD: All personnel in charge of colorectal surgery units nationwide received a survey (from February to April, 2020) with eight questions divided into three sections-cessation date of colorectal cancer surgeries, number of patients waiting for treatment, and use of neoadjuvant therapy to postpone surgery. RESULTS: Sixty-seven units participated in the study, with 79.1% of units ceasing some type of activity (32.8% total and 46.3% partial cessation) and 20.9% continuing all surgical activity. In addition, 65% of units used or prolonged neoadjuvant therapy in rectal cancer patients and 40% of units performed at least five emergency colorectal cancer surgeries. It was estimated that at least one month of intense surgical activity will be required to catch up. CONCLUSIONS: Currently, patients from units with a long waiting list must be redistributed, at least within the country. In the future, in the event of a second wave of the pandemic, an effective program to manage each unit's resources should be developed to prevent total collapse.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Colonic Neoplasms/surgery , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control/organization & administration , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Patient Selection , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Spain/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Waiting Lists
15.
Minerva Surg ; 76(4): 324-331, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215852

ABSTRACT

Laparoscopic anterior resection (LAR) is currently a routine practice in specialized high-volume centers, with equivalent oncological outcomes in historical, open surgery. Appropriate pelvic dissection can be measured by the adequacy of circumferential margin (CRM) and distal margin, both are risk factors of local recurrence. Among the various operative procedures for colorectal cancer, low anterior resection (LAR) for rectal cancer is one of the most demanding procedures because it requires resection of cancer with surrounding mesorectal tissue and reconstruction with anastomosis in the narrow pelvis while preserving the autonomic nerves of the urogenital organs particularly in the male pelvis. Low anterior resection is associated with a relatively high incidence of postoperative morbidities, including anastomotic leakage and other operative site infections, and asymptomatic patients infected with COVID-19 submitted to elective could be at higher risk which sometimes result in postoperative mortality. Therefore, recognition of the incidence and risk factors of postoperative complications following low anterior resection is essential to prevent it. The importance of some risk factors such as age, nutrition status of the patient, experience of the surgeon and many other factors that influence outcome of colorectal surgery which could be modified preoperatively to prevent postoperative complications. In the other hand long term postoperative complications may promote tumor recurrence and decrease survival. The aims of this review are to provide an overview of the current literature on postoperative complications of rectal surgery and to describe risk factors and strategies to prevent, treat or reduce complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Laparoscopy , Rectal Neoplasms , Humans , Male , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(7): 3116-3121, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194852

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since minimally invasive surgery and general anesthesia are both aerosol-generating procedures, their use became controversial during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Moreover, social distancing resulted in serious psychological consequences for inpatients. This case report investigates pain distraction during awake laparotomy, as well as new possibilities for emotional postoperative support to inpatients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 72-year-old man affected by middle rectal adenocarcinoma underwent lower anterior resection plus total mesorectal excision under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. A 3D mobile theatre (3DMT) was intraoperatively used for pain distraction. A postoperative "Cuddle delivery" service was instituted: video-messages from relatives and close friends were delivered daily to the patient through the 3DMT. Emotional correlations were investigated through a clinical interview by the psychologist of our Hospital. RESULTS: Intraoperative, as well as postoperative pain, resulted well-controlled: visual analogue scale (VAS) ≤3. Conversion to general anesthesia and postoperative intensive support/monitoring were unnecessary. The "Cuddle delivery" initiative positively fed our patient's mood and attitude, strengthening his bond to life. CONCLUSIONS: During pandemic, awake laparotomy under loco-regional anesthesia may be a crucial option in delivering acute care surgery to selected patients when intensive care beds are unavailable. Our procedure introduces potential ways to optimize this approach.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Computers, Handheld , Family , Pain Management/methods , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Pain, Procedural/therapy , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Video Recording , Aged , Anesthesia, Epidural/methods , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Laparotomy/methods , Male , Motion Pictures , Pain Measurement , Postoperative Care , Proctectomy/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Wakefulness
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e213304, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155203

ABSTRACT

Importance: During the COVID-19 pandemic, cancer therapy may put patients at risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality. The impacts of proposed alternatives on reducing infection risk are unknown. Objective: To investigate how the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with the risks and benefits of standard radiation therapy (RT). Design, Setting, and Participants: This comparative effectiveness study used estimated individual patient-level data extracted from published Kaplan-Meier survival figures from 8 randomized clinical trials across oncology from 1993 to 2014 that evaluated the inclusion of RT or compared different RT fractionation regimens. Included trials were Dutch TME and TROG 01.04 examining rectal cancer; CALGB 9343, OCOG hypofractionation trial, FAST-Forward, and NSABP B-39 examining early stage breast cancer, and CHHiP and HYPO-RT-PC examining prostate cancer. Risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality associated with receipt of RT in the treatment arms were simulated and trials were reanalyzed. Data were analyzed between April 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020. Exposures: COVID-19 risk associated with treatment was simulated across different pandemic scenarios, varying infection risk per fractions (IRFs) and case fatality rates (CFRs). Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall survival was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards modeling under different pandemic scenarios. Results: Estimated IPLD from a total of 14 170 patients were included in the simulations. In scenarios with low COVID-19-associated risks (IRF, 0.5%; CFR, 5%), fractionation was not significantly associated with outcomes. In locally advanced rectal cancer, short-course RT was associated with better outcomes than long-course chemoradiation (TROG 01.04) and was associated with similar outcomes as RT omission (Dutch TME) in most settings (eg, TROG 01.04 median HR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.46-0.96]; Dutch TME median HR, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.80-1.03] in a scenario with IRF 5% and CFR 20%). Moderate hypofractionation in early stage breast cancer (OCOG hypofractionation trial) and prostate cancer (CHHiP) was not associated with survival benefits in the setting of COVID-19 (eg, OCOG hypofractionation trial median HR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.74-1.06]; CHHiP median HR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.75-1.01] under high-risk scenario with IRF 10% and CFR 30%). More aggressive hypofractionation (FAST-Forward, HYPO-RT-PC) and accelerated partial breast irradiation (NSABP B-39) were associated with improved survival in higher risk scenarios (eg, FAST-Forward median HR, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.49-0.68]; HYPO-RT-PC median HR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.48-0.75] under scenario with IRF 10% and CFR 30%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this comparative effectiveness study of data from 8 clinical trials of patients receiving radiation therapy to simulate COVID-19 risk and mortality rates, treatment modification was not associated with altered risk from COVID-19 in lower-risk scenarios and was only associated with decreased mortality in very high COVID-19-risk scenarios. This model, which can be adapted to dynamic changes in COVID-19 risk, provides a flexible, quantitative approach to assess the potential impact of treatment modifications and supports the continued delivery of standard evidence-based care with appropriate precautions against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/radiotherapy , COVID-19 , Dose Fractionation, Radiation , Pandemics , Patient Care/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Rectal Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Algorithms , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Comparative Effectiveness Research , Datasets as Topic , Female , Humans , Infection Control , Male , Proportional Hazards Models , Radiation Dose Hypofractionation , Radiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk , Risk Assessment , Standard of Care
18.
Colorectal Dis ; 23(7): 1699-1711, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150113

ABSTRACT

AIM: The Covid-19 pandemic has delayed elective colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery. The aim of this study was to see whether or not this may affect overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). METHOD: A systematic review was carried out according to PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO ID: CRD42020189158). Medline, EMBASE and Scopus were interrogated. Patients aged over 18 years with a diagnosis of colon or rectal cancer who received elective surgery as their primary treatment were included. Delay to elective surgery was defined as the period between CRC diagnosis and the day of surgery. Meta-analysis of the outcomes OS and DFS were conducted. Forest plots, funnel plots and tests of heterogeneity were produced. An estimated number needed to harm (NNH) was calculated for statistically significant pooled hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS: Of 3753 articles identified, seven met the inclusion criteria. Encompassing 314 560 patients, three of the seven studies showed that a delay to elective resection is associated with poorer OS or DFS. OS was assessed at a 1 month delay, the HR for six datasets was 1.13 (95% CI 1.02-1.26, p = 0.020) and at 3 months the pooled HR for three datasets was 1.57 (95% CI 1.16-2.12, p = 0.004). The estimated NNH for a delay at 1 month and 3 months was 35 and 10 respectively. Delay was nonsignificantly negatively associated with DFS on meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: This review recommends that elective surgery for CRC patients is not postponed longer than 4 weeks, as available evidence suggests extended delays from diagnosis are associated with poorer outcomes. Focused research is essential so patient groups can be prioritized based on risk factors in future delays or pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Rectal Neoplasms , Adult , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Gastrointest Cancer ; 53(2): 403-409, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1137181

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with colorectal cancer undergoing elective surgery. METHODS: The medical records of patients with colorectal cancer who underwent elective surgery in our department during the COVID-19 pandemic (February 1 to May 31, 2020) were collected and analyzed. We compared the clinical data with colorectal cancer during the same 4-month period in 2018 and 2019. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients with colorectal cancer underwent elective surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was 66% of the number of patients that underwent the procedure during the same period in 2018 and 2019. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the proportion of patients without any digestive system symptoms decreased to 3% and severe clinical symptoms decreased by 20.9%. The proportion of right colon cancer decreased by 17.9%, while the proportion of rectal cancer increased by 52.2%, as compared with 2018 and 2019. The fraction of protective stoma was significantly higher than in 2018 (23.9% vs. 8.7%, p = 0.011). Compared with 2019, the average post-operative stay was significantly shorter than in 2018 (9.6 ± 3.7 vs. 12.1 ± 9.1, p = 0.015). Compared with 2019, the number of patients with perineural invasion (a feature of adverse prognosis) significantly increased (p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of patients undergoing elective surgery for colorectal cancer was reduced. However, the tumor stage of patients did not change substantially. We suggest that the clinical diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer should strictly comply with national and professional standards.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Rectal Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colonic Neoplasms/surgery , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Pandemics , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery
20.
J Robot Surg ; 16(1): 59-64, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077657

ABSTRACT

The recent COVID-19 pandemic led to the cancellation of elective surgery across the United Kingdom. Re-establishing elective surgery in a manner that ensures patient and staff safety has been a priority. We report our experience and patient outcomes from setting up a "COVID protected" robotic unit for colorectal and renal surgery that housed both the da Vinci Si (Intuitive, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) and the Versius (CMR Surgical, Cambridge, UK) robotic systems. "COVID protected" robotic surgery was undertaken in a day-surgical unit attached to the main hospital. A standard operating procedure was developed in collaboration with the trust COVID-19 leadership team and adapted to national recommendations. 60 patients underwent elective robotic surgery in the initial 10-weeks of the study. This included 10 colorectal procedures and 50 urology procedures. Median length of stay was 4 days for rectal cancer procedures, 2 days less than prior to the COVID period, and 1 day for renal procedures. There were no instances of in-patient coronavirus transmission. Six rectal cancer patients waited more than 62 days for their surgery because of the initial COVID peak but none had an increase T-stage between pre-operative staging and post-operative histology. Robotic surgery can be undertaken in "COVID protected" units within acute hospitals in a safe way that mitigates the increased risk of undergoing major surgery in the current pandemic. Some benefits were seen such as reduced length of stay for colorectal patients that may be associated with having a dedicated unit for elective robotic surgical services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Laparoscopy , Rectal Neoplasms , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Urologic Neoplasms , Humans , Pandemics , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Urologic Neoplasms/surgery
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