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1.
Crit Care Clin ; 38(3): 473-489, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878083

ABSTRACT

Initial reporting suggested that kidney involvement following COVID-19 infection was uncommon but this is now known not to be the case. Acute kidney injury (AKI) may arise through several mechanisms and complicate up to a quarter of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection being associated with an increased risk for both morbidity and death. Mechanisms of injury include direct kidney damage predominantly through tubular injury, although glomerular injury has been reported; the consequences of the treatment of patients with severe hypoxic respiratory failure; secondary infection; and exposure to nephrotoxic drugs. The mainstay of treatment remains the prevention of worsening kidney damage and in some cases they need for renal replacement therapies (RRT). Although the use of other blood purification techniques has been proposed as potential treatments, results to-date have not been definitive.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Renal Replacement Therapy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(supl.2): 373-381, 2021. graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1862360

ABSTRACT

Abstract COVID-19 is a pandemic associated with systemic clinical manifestations. In this study, we aimed to present a narrative review on kidney involvement in COVID-19. Kidney involvement could be derived from direct cytopathic effects, immunological mechanisms, indirect effects on renal tissue through other mediators, and dysfunction or injury of other organs. The evolution of COVID-19 may be complicated with acute kidney injury (AKI) in a significant percentage of patients, and renal dysfunction seems to be associated with worse prognosis. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) seem to be more susceptible to the severe forms of COVID-19. Patients with renal replacement therapy (RRT) are also a vulnerable population as consequence of their advanced age, underlying comorbidities, impaired immune response, and clustering in hemodialysis centers, with requirements for frequent contact with healthcare services. Kidney transplant patients may be at high-risk due to long-term immunosuppression and comorbidities, hence, managing immunosuppression is imperative. Lastly, renal replacement therapy may be required during COVID-19, and different modalities are discussed based on clinical findings and laboratorial aspects. Therefore, COVID-19 seems to affect kidney by different mechanisms, which contributes for AKI development and increases the severity of the disease. Also, patients with CKD and kidney transplant recipients are at higher risk for COVID-19 and mortality.


Resumo COVID-19 é uma pandemia associada a manifestações clínicas sistêmicas. Neste estudo, apresenta-se revisão narrativa acerca do envolvimento renal na COVID-19. Envolvimento renal parece ser relacionado a efeitos citopáticos diretos, mecanismos imunológicos, efeitos indiretos de outros mediadores no tecido renal, além de disfunção e lesão de outros órgãos. A evolução da COVID-19 pode ser complicada por lesão renal aguda (LRA) em percentual significativo dos pacientes, e a disfunção renal parece ser associada a pior prognóstico. Pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC) parecem ser mais suscetíveis a formas severas da COVID-19. Pacientes em terapia de substituição renal (TSR) contínua também constituem população vulnerável em razão de idade avançada, comorbidades subjacentes, resposta imune disfuncional e aglomeração em unidades de diálise, com necessidade de visitas frequentes aos serviços de saúde. Pacientes transplantados renais podem estar em alto risco dadas imunossupressão a longo prazo e comorbidades; assim, o manejo da imunossupressão é mandatório. Finalmente, TSR pode ser necessária durante a COVID-19, e diferentes modalidades são discutidas conforme manifestações clínicas e aspectos laboratoriais. Assim, COVID-19 parece acometer os rins por diferentes mecanismos, os quais contribuem para o desenvolvimento de LRA e aumento da severidade da doença. Ainda, pacientes com DRC e transplantados renais apresentam elevado risco para desenvolvimento de COVID-19 e de mortalidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Renal Replacement Therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Acute Kidney Injury , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Risk Groups , Comorbidity , Risk Factors , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney/physiopathology
3.
Ther Apher Dial ; 26(3): 566-582, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816498

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has challenged the global healthcare system through rapid proliferation and lack of existing treatment resulting in over 180 million cases and 3.8 million deaths since December 2019. Although pediatric patients only comprise 1%-2% of diagnosed cases, their incidence of acute kidney injury ranges from 8.2% to 18.2% compared to 49% in adults. Severe infection, initiated by dysregulated host response, can lead to multiorgan failure. In this review, we focus on the use of various blood filters approved for use in pediatric kidney replacement therapy to mitigate adverse effects of severe illness. Therapeutic effects of these blood filters range from cytokine removal (CytoSorb, HA330, HCO/MCO), endotoxin removal (Toraymyxin, CPFA), both cytokine and endotoxin removal (oXiris), and nonspecific removal of proteins (PMMA) that have already been established and can be used to mitigate the various effects of the cytokine storm syndrome in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Cytokines/metabolism , Endotoxins , Female , Humans , Male , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods
4.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 82(2): 172-180, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787123

ABSTRACT

We conducted a retrospective cohort study to report the clinical characteristics, incidence and outcomes of patients with severe COVID-19 with acute kidney injury (AKI). One-hundred and sixtytwo intensive care unit (ICU) admitted patients in a tertiary level hospital in the city of Buenos Aires with COVID-19 diagnosis were included. We hypothesized that COVID-19 related AKI would develop in the period of more severe hypoxemia as an early event and late AKI would be more probably related to intensive care unit complications. For this purpose, we divided subjects into two groups: those with early AKI and late AKI, before and after day 14 from symptom onset, respectively. A stepwise multivariate analysis was conducted to find possible AKI predictors. AKI incidence was 43.2% (n = 70) of the total patients admitted into ICU with severe COVID-19, 11.1% (n = 18) required renal replacement therapy. In-hospital mortality was higher (58.6%) for the AKI group. AKI occurred on a median time of 10 (IQR 5.5-17.5) days from symptom onset. A history of hypertension or heart failure, age and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) requirement were identified as risk factors. Late AKI (n = 25, 35.7%) was associated with sepsis and nephrotoxic exposure, whereas early AKI occurred closer to the timing of IMV initiation and was more likely to have an unknown origin. In conclusion, AKI is frequent among critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 and it is associated with higher in-hospital mortality.


Llevamos a cabo un estudio retrospectivo con el objetivo de describir las características clínicas, incidencia y desenlaces de los pacientes con injuria renal aguda (IRA) asociada a la COVID-19. Se incluyeron 162 pacientes con diagnóstico de COVID-19 admitidos en una unidad de cuidados intensivos en un hospital de tercer nivel en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Nuestra hipótesis consistió en que la IRA asociada a COVID-19 sería un evento temprano asociado a la gravedad de la hipoxemia y la IRA tardía se relacionaría con complicaciones propias de la UCI. Por ello se clasificó la IRA en temprana y tardía, según sucediera antes o después de los 14 días desde el inicio de síntomas. Se realizó un análisis multivariado mediante regresión logística escalonada para evaluar posibles factores de riesgo. La incidencia de IRA fue de 43.2% (n = 70), 11.1% (n = 18) requirieron terapia de reemplazo renal. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria fue mayor (58.6%) en el grupo con IRA. El diagnóstico de IRA se realizó en una mediana de 10 (IQR = 5.5-17.5) días desde el inicio de los síntomas. El antecedente de hipertensión e insuficiencia cardíaca, la edad y el requerimiento de ventilación mecánica invasiva (VMI) fueron identificados como factores de riesgo para IRA. La IRA tardía (n = 25, 35.7%) estuvo asociada a sepsis y exposición a nefrotóxicos, mientras que la IRA temprana (n = 45, 64.2%) estuvo temporalmente asociada al inicio de la VMI y en muchos casos no se pudo filiar una etiología. En conclusión, la IRA es una complicación frecuente en pacientes con COVID-19 grave y está asociada a una alta mortalidad intrahospitalaria.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Renal Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
6.
Kidney360 ; 1(12): 1339-1344, 2020 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776861

ABSTRACT

Background: AKI has been reported in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and it is associated with higher mortality. The aim of our study is to describe characteristics, outcomes, and 60-day hospital mortality of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and AKI in the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in which all adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 who were admitted to ICUs of Montefiore Medical Center and developing AKI were included. The study period ranged from March 10 to April 11, 2020. The 60-day follow-up data through June 11, 2020 were obtained. Results: Of 300 adults admitted to the ICUs with COVID-19 pneumonia, 224 patients (75%) presented with AKI or developed AKI subsequent to admission. A total of 218 (97%) patients required invasive mechanical ventilation for moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A total of 113 (50%) patients had AKI on day 1 of ICU admission. The peak AKI stages observed were stage 1 in 49 (22%), stage 2 in 35 (16%), and stage 3 in 140 (63%) patients, respectively. Among patients with AKI, 114 patients (51%) required RRT. The mortality rate of patients requiring RRT was 70%. Of the 34 patients who were survivors, 25 (74%) were able to be weaned off RRT completely before hospital discharge. Nonsurvivors were older and had significantly higher admission and peak creatinine levels, admission hemoglobin, and peak phosphate levels compared with survivors. The 60-day hospital mortality was 67%. Conclusions: COVID-19 requiring ICU admission is associated with high incidence of severe AKI, necessitating RRT in approximately half of such patients. The majority of patients with COVID-19 and AKI in ICU developed moderate to severe ARDS, requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Timing or severity of AKI did not affect outcomes. The 60-day hospital mortality is high (67%). Patients with AKI requiring RRT have high mortality, but survivors have good rates of RRT recovery. Podcast: This article contains a podcast at https://www.asn-online.org/media/podcast/K360/2020_12_31_KID0004282020.mp3.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Renal Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies
7.
Kidney360 ; 1(7): 614-622, 2020 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776848

ABSTRACT

Background: AKI is a manifestation of COVID-19 (CoV-AKI). However, there is paucity of data from the United States, particularly from a predominantly black population. We report the phenotype and outcomes of AKI at an academic hospital in New Orleans. Methods: We conducted an observational study in patients hospitalized at Ochsner Medical Center over a 1-month period with COVID-19 and diagnosis of AKI (KDIGO). We examined the rates of RRT and in-hospital mortality as outcome measures. Results: Among 575 admissions (70% black) with COVID-19 [173 (30%) to an intensive care unit (ICU)], we found 161 (28%) cases of AKI (61% ICU and 14% general ward admissions). Patients were predominantly men (62%) and hypertensive (83%). Median body mass index (BMI) was higher among those with AKI (34 versus 31 kg/m2, P<0.0001). AKI over preexisting CKD occurred in 35%. Median follow-up was 25 (1-45) days. The in-hospital mortality rate for the AKI cohort was 50%. Vasopressors and/or mechanical ventilation were required in 105 (65%) of those with AKI. RRT was required in 89 (55%) patients. Those with AKI requiring RRT (AKI-RRT) had higher median BMI (35 versus 33 kg/m2, P=0.05) and younger age (61 versus 68, P=0.0003). Initial values of ferritin, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and lactate dehydrogenase were higher among those with AKI; and among them, values were higher for those with AKI-RRT. Ischemic acute tubular injury (ATI) and rhabdomyolysis accounted for 66% and 7% of causes, respectively. In 13%, no obvious cause of AKI was identified aside from COVID-19 diagnosis. Conclusions: CoV-AKI is associated with high rates of RRT and death. Higher BMI and inflammatory marker levels are associated with AKI as well as with AKI-RRT. Hemodynamic instability leading to ischemic ATI is the predominant cause of AKI in this setting.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , New Orleans , Renal Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Risk Factors , United States
8.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(6): 2188-2195, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776798

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 disease can cause damage to various organs, especially the kidneys, so the main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different aspects of kidney damages caused by COVID-19 in a narrative review study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To conduct this study, all studies related to the topic under discussion during 2020-2021 were reviewed by systematic search in internationally available databases including Web of Science, Science Direct, Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Finally, 42 completely related studies were selected to extract the results. RESULTS: The prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI) varies in different parts of the world and has reached almost 70%. The results showed that, in general, a high percentage of COVID-19 patients had symptoms of renal dysfunction at the time of hospitalization, and the most important of these symptoms were proteinuria, hematuria, and increased serum creatinine. Based on the results, it can be said that AKI most likely occurs early in the disease and in parallel with lung damage. So far, various drugs have been used to control or treat COVID-19 and reduce inflammation in patients. Regardless of their usefulness, some of these drugs may adversely affect kidney function and damage the kidneys. The study results show that chronic kidney disease (CKD) in COVID-19 patients plays a minor role in renal replacement therapy (RRT), and the highest impact on the need for RRT is COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that one of the major negative effects of COVID-19 on the human body is kidney damage, among which acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most important one. In addition, the prevalence of AKI due to COVID-19 varies widely around the world. Although any medication may damage the kidneys, COVID-19 or anti-inflammatory drugs are not an exception to this rule, but more research is needed to gain more information.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Humans , Kidney , Proteinuria , Renal Replacement Therapy/adverse effects
9.
J Bras Nefrol ; 44(2): 155-163, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731637

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This article describes the main differences between COVID-19-induced acute kidney injury (AKI-COVID19) in patients with previous normal renal function (AKI-NRF) and those with chronic kidney disease (AKI-CKD) treated in a high complexity clinic in Barranquilla (Colombia). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The patients included in this study (n: 572) were those with a positive diagnosis of COVID-19 confirmed by detection of a positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2. Of these patients, 188 developed AKI during their hospital stay. Patients' epidemiological data, serum parameters, and clinical frailty status were recorded. Statistical analysis and comparison among AKI-NRF, AKI-CKD, and non-AKI patients were performed. RESULTS: The incidence of COVID-19-induced AKI was 33%, with the majority classified as AKIN 1, 16% requiring renal replacement therapy, and AKI-COVID19 mortality of 68%. A significantly higher prevalence of hypertension, cardiac disease, and serum reactive C-protein and lower albumin values in AKI-CKD patients was recorded. Mortality rate, invasive ventilation requirement, and D-dimer levels were significantly higher in AKI-NRF patients. CONCLUSION: Different clinical patterns between AKI-NRF and AKI-CKD were documented.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 821681, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708117

ABSTRACT

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a valuable 'home treatment' option, even more so during the ongoing Coronavirus pandemic. However, the long-term use of PD is limited by unfavourable tissue remodelling in the peritoneal membrane, which is associated with inflammation-induced angiogenesis. This appears to be driven primarily through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), while the involvement of other angiogenic signaling pathways is still poorly understood. Here, we have identified the crucial contribution of mesothelial cell-derived angiogenic CXC chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1) to peritoneal angiogenesis in PD. CXCL1 expression and peritoneal microvessel density were analysed in biopsies obtained by the International Peritoneal Biobank (NCT01893710 at www.clinicaltrials.gov), comparing 13 children with end-stage kidney disease before initiating PD to 43 children on chronic PD. The angiogenic potential of mesothelial cell-derived CXCL1 was assessed in vitro by measuring endothelial tube formation of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) treated with conditioned medium from human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) stimulated to release CXCL1 by treatment with either recombinant IL-17 or PD effluent. We found that the capillary density in the human peritoneum correlated with local CXCL1 expression. Both CXCL1 expression and microvessel density were higher in PD patients than in the age-matched patients prior to initiation of PD. Exposure of HMECs to recombinant CXCL1 or conditioned medium from IL-17-stimulated HPMCs resulted in increased endothelial tube formation, while selective inhibition of mesothelial CXCL1 production by specific antibodies or through silencing of relevant transcription factors abolished the proangiogenic effect of HPMC-conditioned medium. In conclusion, peritoneal mesothelium-derived CXCL1 promotes endothelial tube formation in vitro and associates with peritoneal microvessel density in uremic patients undergoing PD, thus providing novel targets for therapeutic intervention to prolong PD therapy.


Subject(s)
Chemokine CXCL1/metabolism , Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology , Peritoneal Dialysis/methods , Peritoneum/blood supply , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , COVID-19/pathology , Cells, Cultured , Child , Child, Preschool , Epithelium/metabolism , Humans , Infant , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Peritoneum/pathology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Vascular Remodeling/physiology
11.
Semin Dial ; 35(4): 325-329, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685435

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of our study is to compare clotting of CRRT filters in patients with COVID-19-associated AKI versus septic shock-associated AKI. METHODS: Retrospective study of adult ICU patients with COVID-19 compared to those with septic shock admitted to a tertiary hospital April-October 2020. Independent t test and chi-square test used to determine statistical significance of CRRT filter clotting between the two groups. Time-to-event data analyzed with Kaplan-Meier curves. Analyses performed on Microsoft Excel and MedCalc. RESULTS: Twenty-seven ICU patients with AKI requiring CRRT were included, 13 with COVID-19 and 14 non-COVID-19 patients with septic shock. The mean half-life of CRRT hemofilter was similar in COVID-19 patients compared to non-COVID-19 patients (27.4 vs. 27.5 h, p = 0.79). The number of CRRT hemofilter changes per day was similar in both groups (0.6 filter changes per day, p = 0.84). However, significantly more patients with COVID-19 were on systemic heparin (69% vs. 13%, p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: We found that COVID-19 patients with AKI requiring CRRT had similar CRRT hemofilter half-life compared with sepsis-associated AKI patients with use of regional citrate and systemic heparin. Further studies are needed to find which methods of anticoagulation are optimal in patients with COVID-19 infection with AKI requiring CRRT.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Shock, Septic , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Citrates , Citric Acid , Half-Life , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Renal Dialysis , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , Retrospective Studies
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22548, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1628380

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to examine the IgG antibody response in critically ill patients with the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and to examine the association of early antibody response with mortality and viral clearance. We collected blood samples from 40 consecutive real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) confirmed critically ill MERS patients on ICU days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28. MERS-CoV antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using wells coated with MERS-CoV S1 antigen. Patients were admitted to ICU after a median (Q1, Q3) of 9 (4, 13) days from onset of symptoms with an admission Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score of 11 (6.5, 12). Among the study cohort, 38 patients (95%) received invasive ventilation, 35 (88%) vasopressors, 21 (53%) renal replacement therapy and 17 (43%) corticosteroids. Median (Q1,Q3) ELISA optical density (OD) ratio significantly increased with time (p < 0.001) from 0.11 (0.07, 1.43) on day 1; to 0.69 (0.11, 2.08) on day 3, 2.72 (1.84, 3.54) on day 7, 2.51 (0.35, 3.35) on day 14 and 3.77 (3.70, 3.84) on day 28. Early antibody response (day 1-3) was observed in 13/39 patients (33%) and was associated with lower mortality (hazard ratio: 0.31, 95% CI 0.10, 0.96, p = 0.04) but was not associated with faster clearance of MERS-CoV RNA. In conclusion, among critically ill patients with MERS, early antibody response was associated with lower mortality but not with faster clearance of MERS-CoV RNA. These findings have important implications for understanding pathogenesis and potential immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness/mortality , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Intensive Care Units , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Renal Replacement Therapy , Survival Analysis
14.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 50, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666634

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and may require renal replacement therapy (RRT). Dipstick urinalysis is frequently obtained, but data regarding the prognostic value of hematuria and proteinuria for kidney outcomes is scarce. METHODS: Patients with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) PCR, who had a urinalysis obtained on admission to one of 20 hospitals, were included. Nested models with degree of hematuria and proteinuria were used to predict AKI and RRT during admission. Presence of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and baseline serum creatinine were added to test improvement in model fit. RESULTS: Of 5,980 individuals, 829 (13.9%) developed an AKI during admission, and 149 (18.0%) of those with AKI received RRT. Proteinuria and hematuria degrees significantly increased with AKI severity (P < 0.001 for both). Any degree of proteinuria and hematuria was associated with an increased risk of AKI and RRT. In predictive models for AKI, presence of CKD improved the area under the curve (AUC) (95% confidence interval) to 0.73 (0.71, 0.75), P < 0.001, and adding baseline creatinine improved the AUC to 0.85 (0.83, 0.86), P < 0.001, when compared to the base model AUC using only proteinuria and hematuria, AUC = 0.64 (0.62, 0.67). In RRT models, CKD status improved the AUC to 0.78 (0.75, 0.82), P < 0.001, and baseline creatinine improved the AUC to 0.84 (0.80, 0.88), P < 0.001, compared to the base model, AUC = 0.72 (0.68, 0.76). There was no significant improvement in model discrimination when both CKD and baseline serum creatinine were included. CONCLUSIONS: Proteinuria and hematuria values on dipstick urinalysis can be utilized to predict AKI and RRT in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. We derived formulas using these two readily available values to help prognosticate kidney outcomes in these patients. Furthermore, the incorporation of CKD or baseline creatinine increases the accuracy of these formulas.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Hematuria/diagnosis , Proteinuria/diagnosis , Urinalysis/methods , Acute Kidney Injury/ethnology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Aged , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/ethnology , Confidence Intervals , Creatinine/blood , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data
15.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 32(3): 744-753, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662743

ABSTRACT

People with comorbidities are more prone to severe coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) infection. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are commonly associated with other comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or cardiovascular disease. However, there are limited data about the clinical features and laboratory parameters of COVID-19 in CKD patients. The primary objective was to study the admission clinical and laboratory parameters of COVID-19 in CKD patients. The secondary objective was to correlate the clinical and laboratory parameters at admission with mortality in CKD patients. Data were collected retrospectively from patients' medical records between July 2020 and October 2020. All CKD patients with either COVID-19 antigen or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-confirmed infection were included in the study. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded. Data of deceased and recovered patients were compared and analyzed. The mortality rate due to COVID-19 in CKD patients was 34.44%. CKD patients presented with atypical symptoms such as dyspnea (78.88%) and fatigue (73.33%) being more common than fever and sore throat. Elderly patients with comorbidities were at a higher risk of mortality (P = 0.003). CKD patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) were at a higher risk of mortality than those who did not require RRT (P = 0.02). High values of high-sensitive C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, and red cell distribution width at admission were associated with a higher risk of mortality. Liver dysfunction and hypoxia at admission were also associated with a higher risk of mortality. Logistic regression analysis showed that improvements in serum albumin, serum sodium, and serum lactate were the best predictors of recovery among cases of COVID-19. In the absence of a definitive therapy or vaccine, CKD patients should be advised to follow strict social isolation practices as per the recommendations for the high-risk group of patients. These practices should be extended to dialysis units as well, which are a major hub for outbreak of infections. A meticulous triage of patients should be carried out after acquiring proper medical history because this will help to identify patients who are at an increased risk of poor outcome of the infection. Furthermore, they should be given more aggressive treatment and access to intensive care unit upon diagnosis of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
16.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261958, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622349

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Multicenter studies involving patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) associated with the disease caused by the new coronavirus (COVID-19) and treated with renal replacement therapy (RRT) in developing countries are scarce. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the demographic profile, clinical picture, risk factors for mortality, and outcomes of critically ill patients with AKI requiring dialysis (AKI-RRT) and with COVID-19 in the megalopolis of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective, observational study was conducted in the intensive care units of 13 public and private hospitals in the metropolitan region of the municipality of São Paulo. Patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit, aged ≥ 18 years, and treated with RRT due to COVID-19-associated AKI were included. RESULTS: The study group consisted of 375 patients (age 64.1 years, 68.8% male). Most (62.1%) had two or more comorbidities: 68.8%, arterial hypertension; 45.3%, diabetes; 36.3%, anemia; 30.9%, obesity; 18.7%, chronic kidney disease; 15.7%, coronary artery disease; 10.4%, heart failure; and 8.5%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Death occurred in 72.5% of the study population (272 patients). Among the 103 survivors, 22.3% (23 patients) were discharged on RRT. In a multiple regression analysis, the independent factors associated with death were the number of organ dysfunctions at admission and RRT efficiency. CONCLUSION: AKI-RRT associated with COVID-19 occurred in patients with an elevated burden of comorbidities and was associated with high mortality (72.5%). The number of organ dysfunctions during hospitalization and RRT efficiency were independent factors associated with mortality. A meaningful portion of survivors was discharged while dependent on RRT (22.3%).


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
18.
J Intensive Care Med ; 37(6): 736-742, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term health sequelae and outcomes of various organ failures in ICU survivors of Covid-19. The aim of our research was to study the characteristics of 120-day ICU survivors of the initial pandemic surge and report their long term (>6 months) outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a telephone questionnaire-based follow up study of 120- day survivors of Covid-19 admitted to ICUs at Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY from 3/10/2020 to 4/11/2020. The study period was 2 months (11/1/2020-12/31/2020). RESULTS: 126 out of 300 (42%) survived to 120-days post-hospital discharge. The median age of survivors was 54 (47-61) years. Seventy-eight (62%) patients developed acute kidney injury (AKI); thirty-five (44.9%) of them required renal replacement therapy (RRT). One hundred-five (83.3%) required invasive mechanical ventilation; ten of them required tracheotomy. 103 (81.7%) completed the telephone questionnaire-based study, at a median (IQR) of 216.5 (200-234.5) days after hospital discharge. 29 (28.2%) patients reported persistent shortness of breath, 24, (23.3%) complained of persistent cough, and persistent anosmia in 9 (8.8%). AKI resolved completely in 58 (74.4%) patients. Of 35 AKI patients who required initiation of RRT during hospitalization, 27 (77%) were liberated from RRT and 20 (57%) had resolution of AKI. Of 20 patients without AKI resolution, 12 developed chronic kidney disease, whereas 8 still require RRT. Thirty-three (32.4%) patients developed post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 10 (11.8%) reported major depression. Many of the patients (68%) regained baseline functional status. Readmissions occurred in 22.3% patients within first 6 months after discharge. CONCLUSION: Persistent symptoms of long Covid have been reported in ICU survivors of Covid-19 for extended durations. Outcomes of Covid-19 associated acute kidney injury are excellent. There is a high incidence of PTSD and depression in COVID-19 ICU survivors. Functional outcomes are good, but these patients remain at increased risk of hospital readmission.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Replacement Therapy , Survivors
19.
J Bras Nefrol ; 43(4): 551-571, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575271

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is associated with higher mortality and a worse prognosis. Nevertheless, most patients with COVID-19 have mild symptoms, and about 5% can develop more severe symptoms and involve hypovolemia and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. In a pathophysiological perspective, severe SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by numerous dependent pathways triggered by hypercytokinemia, especially IL-6 and TNF-alpha, leading to systemic inflammation, hypercoagulability, and multiple organ dysfunction. Systemic endotheliitis and direct viral tropism to proximal renal tubular cells and podocytes are important pathophysiological mechanisms leading to kidney injury in patients with more critical infection, with a clinical presentation ranging from proteinuria and/or glomerular hematuria to fulminant AKI requiring renal replacement therapies. Glomerulonephritis, rhabdomyolysis, and nephrotoxic drugs are also associated with kidney damage in patients with COVID-19. Thus, AKI and proteinuria are independent risk factors for mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We provide a comprehensive review of the literature emphasizing the impact of acute kidney involvement in the evolutive prognosis and mortality of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Humans , Proteinuria , Renal Replacement Therapy , SARS-CoV-2
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