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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 879440, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032767

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic drastically modified social life and lifestyle, in particular, among children and adolescents, promoting sedentary behaviors and unhealthy eating habits. The aims of this study were to assess the rate and the factors associated with outpatient drop-out in childhood obesity management, and to evaluate how the Covid-19 pandemic influenced weight status and lifestyle of children and adolescents with obesity. One hundred and forty-five children and adolescents with obesity were identified, including 80 subjects evaluated before the Covid-19 pandemic (group A) and 65 subjects in the period straddling the Covid-19 pandemic (group B). Anamnestic (family history of obesity, dietary habits, physical activity, screen time), socio-cultural (economic status, employment and schooling of parents, household composition, place of living) and clinical (weight, height, BMI, waist circumference) data were retrospectively analyzed for each subject in both groups at baseline (V0) and 12-months (V1) at in-person assessment. Glycemic and lipid profiles were assessed at V0. Drop-out rate did not differ significantly between the two groups. BMI SDS at V0 (OR=2.52; p=0.004), female sex (OR=0.41; p=0.035), and the presence of a single parent in the household (OR=5.74; p=0.033) significantly influenced drop-out in both groups. Weight loss between V0 and V1 was significantly greater among group A patients compared to group B (p=0.031). In group B, hours spent in physical activity significantly decreased from V0 to V1, being significantly lower than group A at V1; on the contrary, screen time significantly increased in the same period. The consumption of sugary drinks and snacks was significantly greater in group B than group A at V1. Our study documented that the Covid-19 pandemic, although not affecting the drop-out rate of obese children in a follow-up program, negatively influenced lifestyle and reduced the effectiveness of outpatient counseling in childhood obesity treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome , Obesity Management , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Counseling , Female , Humans , Outpatients , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Retrospective Studies
5.
J Occup Environ Med ; 64(8): e443-e451, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029125

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study investigated the benefits of adding psychological services for frontline workers with delayed recovery from COVID-19 due to psychosocial stressors and/or mental disorders. METHODS: Both standardized psychological evaluation and at least 3 sessions of work-focused cognitive behavioral therapy were provided to 103 participants. Benefits were assessed by comparing the pretreatment and posttreatment recovery, work status, and self-ratings of work-related and adaptive daily functioning. RESULTS: Duration of recovery and return to work were reduced along with improvements in work relevant (40%) and adaptive functioning (31%). The majority (80%) returned to work within 12 weeks despite variable presenting problems, course of illness, demographic, and job factors. CONCLUSIONS: Brief work-focused cognitive behavioral therapy seems to be an effective adjunct to customary outpatient medical care for COVID-19 in frontline essential workers for whom the return-to-work process may be negatively affected by stress, anxiety, and depressed mood.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Mental Health , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Obstet Gynecol ; 140(2): 262-265, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029091

ABSTRACT

Two years into the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we have now seen three main variant waves. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all pregnant patients with COVID-19 at our institution from March 22, 2020, to February 26, 2022, to evaluate disease severity and perinatal outcomes among the variants. Patients were categorized as pre-Delta (March 22, 2020-May 31, 2021), Delta (July 1, 2021-December 15, 2021), or Omicron (December 16, 2021- February 26, 2022) based on variant tracking from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and genotype sequencing at our institution. There were fewer cases of severe-critical disease (1.8% Omicron vs 13.3% pre-Delta and 24.1% Delta) and adverse perinatal outcomes during the Omicron wave compared with the pre-Delta and Delta waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Obstet Gynecol ; 140(2): 195-203, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029090

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the use of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO)200 improves respiratory function. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used data from pregnant patients hospitalized with severe bilateral coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia at four teaching hospitals between March 2020 and December 2021. Two cohorts were identified: 1) those receiving standard of care alone (SoC cohort) and 2) those receiving iNO200 for 30 minutes twice daily in addition to standard of care alone (iNO200 cohort). Inhaled nitric oxide, as a novel therapy, was offered only at one hospital. The prespecified primary outcome was days free from any oxygen supplementation at 28 days postadmission. Secondary outcomes were hospital length of stay, rate of intubation, and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay. The multivariable-adjusted regression analyses accounted for age, body mass index, gestational age, use of steroids, remdesivir, and the study center. RESULTS: Seventy-one pregnant patients were hospitalized for severe bilateral COVID-19 pneumonia: 51 in the SoC cohort and 20 in the iNO200 cohort. Patients receiving iNO200 had more oxygen supplementation-free days (iNO200: median [interquartile range], 24 [23-26] days vs standard of care alone: 22 [14-24] days, P=.01) compared with patients in the SoC cohort. In the multivariable-adjusted analyses, iNO200 was associated with 63.2% (95% CI 36.2-95.4%; P<.001) more days free from oxygen supplementation, 59.7% (95% CI 56.0-63.2%; P<.001) shorter ICU length of stay, and 63.6% (95% CI 55.1-70.8%; P<.001) shorter hospital length of stay. No iNO200-related adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: In pregnant patients with severe bilateral COVID-19 pneumonia, iNO200 was associated with a reduced need for oxygen supplementation and shorter hospital stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Nitric Oxide , Oxygen , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 20: eAO6320, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026532

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the pattern of triggering and exacerbation of dermatological diseases between March and July 2020 and to compare this pattern to the corresponding period of 2019. METHODS: This was a quantitative, descriptive, comparative and documentary study that was carried out through the retrospective analysis of medical records (March to July 2019 and 2020) of individuals assisted at a private dermatology practice service located in the southern area of the city of São Paulo (SP). RESULTS: We evaluated 992 medical consultations in 2019 and 1,176 in 2020. In 2020, we observed a significant increase in cases of telogen effluvium (276%), psoriasis (1,400%), atopic dermatitis (178%), seborrheic dermatitis (200%), herpes zoster (1,200%) and vitiligo (433%). All diseases had stress as a possible initial trigger. In addition, fragile nail syndrome and contact dermatitis, pathologies associated with behavioral measures, also had an important increase in the prevalence (6,400% and 5,500%, respectively). However, the number of aesthetic procedures decreased by approximately 54% during the pandemic period. CONCLUSION: During the pandemic period, the pattern of incidence of dermatoses had changed compared with the previous year. An emphasis was observed on diseases triggered by a psychological component, as well as those pathologies that have behavioral measures as the main cause. For this reason, the impacts of COVID-19 is greater than only among those infected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dermatitis, Atopic , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Social Isolation
9.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 20: eAO6237, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026530

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the profile of professionals assisting homeless and socially vulnerable populations tested for COVID-19, and to determine potential associations with exposure at the workplace, on the way to work, or at home, among infected professionals. To describe disease symptoms and progression and to investigate potential associations with age, sex and exposure at the workplace, on the way to work, or at home. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of data of 173 workers employed by Serviço Franciscano de Solidariedade tested for SARS-CoV-2. Between May 20 and June 2, 2020, professionals and volunteers were tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies, by means of qualitative rapid chromatographic immunoassay in whole blood. A questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics and working conditions, history and date of onset of symptoms and risk factors. Quantitative variables were expressed as mean and standard deviation, or median, maximum, and minimum values. Data normality was investigated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. RESULTS: A total of 46 (26.6%) participants had positive serologic tests. Of participants with negative serologic test results, 109 (85.8%) were asymptomatic. History of symptoms was the most significant independent factor associated with positive serology. Serologic test results and symptoms differed significantly according to housing (p=0.045) and working (p<0.001) conditions. More than half of participants (52.4%) living in shared households tested positive, compared to 23% of participants living in family households. Participants working remotely from home did not test positive. In seropositive participants, onset of symptoms was associated with workplace exposure and shared housing conditions. CONCLUSION: History of symptoms was associated with positive serology for COVID-19. Shared housing conditions tended to be associated with higher risk of infection. Onset of symptoms was associated with higher levels of workplace exposure and shared housing conditions in seropositive participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeless Persons , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(8): e38082, 2022 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022390

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a common disease and a major public health problem. HF mortality prediction is critical for developing individualized prevention and treatment plans. However, due to their lack of interpretability, most HF mortality prediction models have not yet reached clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop an interpretable model to predict the mortality risk for patients with HF in intensive care units (ICUs) and used the SHapley Additive exPlanation (SHAP) method to explain the extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) model and explore prognostic factors for HF. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we achieved model development and performance comparison on the eICU Collaborative Research Database (eICU-CRD). We extracted data during the first 24 hours of each ICU admission, and the data set was randomly divided, with 70% used for model training and 30% used for model validation. The prediction performance of the XGBoost model was compared with three other machine learning models by the area under the curve. We used the SHAP method to explain the XGBoost model. RESULTS: A total of 2798 eligible patients with HF were included in the final cohort for this study. The observed in-hospital mortality of patients with HF was 9.97%. Comparatively, the XGBoost model had the highest predictive performance among four models with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.824 (95% CI 0.7766-0.8708), whereas support vector machine had the poorest generalization ability (AUC=0.701, 95% CI 0.6433-0.7582). The decision curve showed that the net benefit of the XGBoost model surpassed those of other machine learning models at 10%~28% threshold probabilities. The SHAP method reveals the top 20 predictors of HF according to the importance ranking, and the average of the blood urea nitrogen was recognized as the most important predictor variable. CONCLUSIONS: The interpretable predictive model helps physicians more accurately predict the mortality risk in ICU patients with HF, and therefore, provides better treatment plans and optimal resource allocation for their patients. In addition, the interpretable framework can increase the transparency of the model and facilitate understanding the reliability of the predictive model for the physicians.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Machine Learning , Cohort Studies , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(8): e29186, 2022 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022318

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients use social media as an alternative information source, where they share information and provide social support. Although large amounts of health-related data are posted on Twitter and other social networking platforms each day, research using social media data to understand chronic conditions and patients' lifestyles is limited. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we contributed to closing this gap by providing a framework for identifying patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on Twitter and learning from their personal experiences. We enabled the analysis of patients' tweets by building a classifier of Twitter users that distinguishes patients from other entities. This study aimed to uncover the potential of using Twitter data to promote the well-being of patients with IBD by relying on the wisdom of the crowd to identify healthy lifestyles. We sought to leverage posts describing patients' daily activities and their influence on their well-being to characterize lifestyle-related treatments. METHODS: In the first stage of the study, a machine learning method combining social network analysis and natural language processing was used to automatically classify users as patients or not. We considered 3 types of features: the user's behavior on Twitter, the content of the user's tweets, and the social structure of the user's network. We compared the performances of several classification algorithms within 2 classification approaches. One classified each tweet and deduced the user's class from their tweet-level classification. The other aggregated tweet-level features to user-level features and classified the users themselves. Different classification algorithms were examined and compared using 4 measures: precision, recall, F1 score, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. In the second stage, a classifier from the first stage was used to collect patients' tweets describing the different lifestyles patients adopt to deal with their disease. Using IBM Watson Service for entity sentiment analysis, we calculated the average sentiment of 420 lifestyle-related words that patients with IBD use when describing their daily routine. RESULTS: Both classification approaches showed promising results. Although the precision rates were slightly higher for the tweet-level approach, the recall and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the user-level approach were significantly better. Sentiment analysis of tweets written by patients with IBD identified frequently mentioned lifestyles and their influence on patients' well-being. The findings reinforced what is known about suitable nutrition for IBD as several foods known to cause inflammation were pointed out in negative sentiment, whereas relaxing activities and anti-inflammatory foods surfaced in a positive context. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a pipeline for identifying patients with IBD on Twitter and collecting their tweets to analyze the experimental knowledge they share. These methods can be adapted to other diseases and enhance medical research on chronic conditions.


Subject(s)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Social Media , Chronic Disease , Data Collection/methods , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
12.
Intern Med ; 61(14): 2127-2134, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022244

ABSTRACT

Objective Based on the increasing incidence of smell and taste dysfunction among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, such issues have been considered an early symptom of infection. However, few studies have investigated the type of taste components that are most frequently affected in COVID-19 patients. This study investigated the difference in frequencies of the types of taste component disorders among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Methods In this retrospective, single-center, observational study, patients' background characteristics, clinical course, laboratory and radiological findings, and details on taste and/or smell disorders were collected and analyzed from medical records. Patients A total of 227 COVID-19 patients were enrolled, among whom 92 (40.5%) complained of taste disorders. Results Multiple types of taste disorders (hypogeusia/ageusia and hypersensitivity, or hypersensitivity and changing tastes) were reported in 10 patients. In particular, 23 patients reported hypersensitivity to at least 1 type of taste, and 2 patients complained of a bitter taste on consuming sweet foods. Impairment of all taste components was found in 48 patients (52.2%). The most frequent taste disorder was salty taste disorder (81 patients, 89.0%). Hypersensitivity to salty taste was most frequently observed (19 patients, 20.9%). Conclusion Patients with COVID-19 develop multiple types of taste disorders, among which salty taste disorder was the most frequent, with many patients developing hypersensitivity to salty taste. As smell and taste are subjective senses, further studies with the combined use of objective examinations will be required to confirm the findings.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Dysgeusia/complications , Dysgeusia/etiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology
13.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271271, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021869

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In pandemic COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), the prognosis of patients has been determined using clinical data and CT (computed tomography) scans, but it is still unclear whether chest CT characteristics are correlated to COVID-19 severity. AIM: To explore the potential association between clinical data and 25-point CT score and investigate their predictive significance in COVID-19-positive patients at Fayoum University Hospital in Egypt. METHODS: This study was conducted on 252 Egyptian COVID-19 patients at Fayoum University Hospital in Egypt. The patients were classified into two groups: a mild group (174 patients) and a severe group (78 patients). The results of clinical laboratory data, and CT scans of severe and mild patients, were collected, analyzed, and compared. RESULTS: The severe group show high significance levels of CRP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine, urea, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), neutrophil percent, and heart rate (HR) than the mild group. Lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia, hypocalcemia, and decreased oxygen saturation (SpO2) were the most observed abnormalities in severe COVID-19 patients. Lymphopenia, low SpO2 and albumin levels, elevated serum LDH, ferritin, urea, and CRP levels were found to be significantly correlated with severity CT score (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: The clinical severity of COVID-19 and the CT score are highly correlated. Our findings indicate that the CT scoring system can help to predict COVID-19 disease outcomes and has a strong correlation with clinical laboratory testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Egypt/epidemiology , Ferritins , Hospitals, University , Humans , Lymphopenia , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Urea
14.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271132, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypokalemia is a frequent electrolyte imbalance in patients with COVID-19. The aim of this study was to estimate the association between hypokalemia and clinical prognosis in patients with moderate COVID-19. METHODS: A single-center, retrospective, observational study was conducted on 81 non-ICU admitted patients with moderate COVID-19 according to the criteria issued by the Chinese Health Bureau in the Third People's Hospital of Yangzhou (Northern Jiangsu People's Hospital New District Branch) from 4th to 25th August 2021. The demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were reviewed and collected, then the correlation between hypokalemia and prognosis was determined. RESULTS: The level of serum potassium of patients ranged from 2.80 mmol/L to 4.70 mmol/L. Hypokalemia was detected in 39 out of the 81 included patients (48.15%) during hospitalization. Patients with hypokalemia had prolonged days of negative nucleic acid conversion and hospital stay. Correlation analysis showed that the level of serum potassium was negatively correlated with days of negative nucleic acid conversion and length of hospital stay. Bivariate logistic regression analysis proved that hypokalemia was a risk factor for prolonged hospital stay in patients with moderate COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Hypokalemia was prevalent in patients with moderate COVID-19 in Yangzhou, China. Hypokalemia was associated with the prolonged hospital stay in patients with moderate COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypokalemia , Nucleic Acids , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Hypokalemia/complications , Hypokalemia/epidemiology , Potassium , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
15.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270192, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has led to overloading of health systems all over the world. For reliable risk stratification, knowledge on factors predisposing to SARS-CoV-2 infection and to severe COVID-19 disease course is needed for decision-making at the individual, provider, and government levels. Data to identify these factors should be easily obtainable. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Retrospective cohort study of nationwide e-health databases in Estonia. We used longitudinal health records from 66,295 people tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA from 26 February 2020 to 28 February 2021 and 254,958 randomly selected controls from the reference population with no known history of SARS-CoV-2 infection or clinical COVID-19 diagnosis (case to control ratio 1:4) to predict risk factors of infection and severe course of COVID-19. We analysed sociodemographic and health characteristics of study participants. The SARS-CoV-2 infection risk was slightly higher among women, and was higher among those with comorbid conditions or obesity. Dementia (RRR 3.77, 95%CI 3.30⎼4.31), renal disease (RRR 1.88, 95%CI 1.56⎼2.26), and cerebrovascular disease (RRR 1.81, 95%CI 1.64⎼2.00) increased the risk of infection. Of all SARS-CoV-2 infected people, 92% had a non-severe disease course, 4.8% severe disease (requiring hospitalisation), 1.7% critical disease (needing intensive care), and 1.5% died. Male sex, increasing age and comorbid burden contributed significantly to more severe COVID-19, and the strength of association for male sex increased with the increasing severity of COVID-19 outcome. The strongest contributors to critical illness (expressed as RRR with 95% CI) were renal disease (7.71, 4.71⎼12.62), the history of previous myocardial infarction (3.54, 2.49⎼5.02) and obesity (3.56, 2.82⎼4.49). The strongest contributors to a lethal outcome were renal disease (6.48, 3.74⎼11.23), cancer (3.81, 3.06⎼4.75), liver disease (3.51, 1.36⎼9.02) and cerebrovascular disease (3.00, 2.31⎼3.89). CONCLUSIONS: We found divergent effect of age and gender on infection risk and severity of COVID-19. Age and gender did not contribute substantially to infection risk, but did so for the risk of severe disease Co-morbid health conditions, especially those affecting renin-angiotensin system, had an impact on both the risk of infection and severe disease course. Age and male sex had the most significant impact on the risk of severe COVID-19. Taking into account the role of ACE2 receptors in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as its modulating action on the renin-angiotensin system in cardiovascular and renal diseases, further research is needed to investigate the influence of hormonal status on ACE2 expression in different tissues, which may be the basis for the development of COVID-19 therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Estonia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
16.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269471, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021787

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute hypoxic respiratory failure (AHRF) is a hallmark of severe COVID-19 pneumonia and often requires supplementary oxygen therapy. Critically ill COVID-19 patients may require invasive mechanical ventilation, which carries significant morbidity and mortality. Understanding of the relationship between dynamic changes in blood oxygen indices and clinical variables is lacking. We evaluated the changes in blood oxygen indices-PaO2, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, oxygen content (CaO2) and oxygen extraction ratio (O2ER) in COVID-19 patients through the first 30-days of intensive care unit admission and explored relationships with clinical outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study of all adult COVID-19 patients in a single institution requiring invasive mechanical ventilation between March 2020 and March 2021. We collected baseline characteristics, clinical outcomes and blood oxygen indices. 36,383 blood gas data points were analysed from 184 patients over 30-days. Median participant age was 59.5 (IQR 51.0, 67.0), BMI 30.0 (IQR 25.2, 35.5) and the majority were men (62.5%) of white ethnicity (70.1%). Median duration of mechanical ventilation was 15-days (IQR 8, 25). Hospital survival at 30-days was 72.3%. Non-survivors exhibited significantly lower PaO2 throughout intensive care unit admission: day one to day 30 averaged mean difference -0.52 kPa (95% CI: -0.59 to -0.46, p<0.01). Non-survivors exhibited a significantly lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio with an increased separation over time: day one to day 30 averaged mean difference -5.64 (95% CI: -5.85 to -5.43, p<0.01). While all patients had sub-physiological CaO2, non-survivors exhibited significantly higher values. Non-survivors also exhibited significantly lower oxygen extraction ratio with an averaged mean difference of -0.08 (95% CI: -0.09 to -0.07, p<0.01) across day one to day 30. CONCLUSIONS: As a novel cause of acute hypoxic respiratory failure, COVID-19 offers a unique opportunity to study a homogenous cohort of patients with hypoxaemia. In mechanically ventilated adult COVID-19 patients, blood oxygen indices are abnormal with substantial divergence in PaO2/FiO2 ratio and oxygen extraction ratio between survivors and non-survivors. Despite having higher CaO2 values, non-survivors appear to extract less oxygen implying impaired oxygen utilisation. Further exploratory studies are warranted to evaluate and improve oxygen extraction which may help to improve outcomes in severe hypoxaemic mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Hypoxia , Male , Oxygen , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0267835, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021713

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a life-threatening condition that has a significant effect on the occurrence of morbidity and mortality among patients with severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To the best of researchers' knowledge, there is no Study on ARDS of COVID-19 in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the prevalence of ARDS and associated factors among severe COVID-19 patients at Wollega University Referral Hospital. METHODS: An institution-based retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from September 20, 2020, to June 10, 2021. Real-Time Reverse transcription-polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR) test was used to test Patients for COVID-19. Epi-data version 3.2 was used for data entry, and the final data analysis was through STATA version 14. After checking the assumption P-value<0.25 in the bivariable analysis was used to select a candidate variable for multi-variable analysis, and a p-value of <0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. RESULTS: In this study, the prevalence of ARDS was 32%. Almost all the patients had the clinical feature of cough (93.7%), followed by shortness of breath (79.9%), fever (77.7%), and headache (67%). Age older than 65 years (AOR = 3.35, 95%CI = 1.31, 8.55), male gender (AOR = 5.63, 95%CI = 2.15, 14.77), and low oxygen saturation level (AOR = 4.60, 95%CI = 1.15, 18.35) were the independent predictors of ARDS among severe COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of ARDS among patients with severe COVID-19 was high in the study area. Therefore, elders and patients with critical conditions (low oxygen saturation) better to get special attention during COVID-19 case management to enhance good care and monitoring of the patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Hospitals, University , Humans , Male , Referral and Consultation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities
18.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0266814, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein (a)-Lp(a) has proinflammatory, prothrombotic and proatherogenic properties and may theoretically influence the course of COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore whether patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 with Lp(a) ≥30mg/dl may develop a worse course of the disease, increased incidence of thromboembolic complications, intubation and ICU hospitalization or death. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of 124 patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 in the Department of Internal Diseases and Clinical Pharmacology between 29 November 2020 and 15 April 2021. The only exclusion criterion was age≥80 years. Patients were divided into two groups: 1. COVID-19 patients with Lp(a) <30mg/dl regarded as not elevated n = 80; 2. COVID-19 patients with Lp(a) ≥30 regarded as elevated n = 44. RESULTS: A total of 124 COVID-19 patients were included in the study (66 men and 58 women) with a mean age of 62.8±11 years. COVID-19 patients with elevated Lp(a) level had significantly longer hospitalization time (11 vs. 9.5 days; p = 0.0362), more extensive radiological changes in CT scan (35 vs. 30%; p = 0.0301) and higher oxygen demand on admission (8 vs. 5L/min; p = 0.0428). Elevated Lp(a) was also associated with significantly higher OR for High Flow Nasal Oxygen Therapy (HFNOT) OR = 3.5 95%CI(1.2;8.9), p = 0.0140, Intubation and ICU OR = 4.1 95%CI(1.1;15.2) p = 0.0423, Death OR = 2.8 95%CI(0.9;8.5), p = 0.0409. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated Lp(a) might be one of the factors which contribute to a more severe course of COVID-19; however, further studies including larger groups of patients are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lipoprotein(a) , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Lipoprotein(a)/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
19.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0265159, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021626

ABSTRACT

The last year of Covid-19 pandemic has been characterized by the continuous chase between the vaccination campaign and the appearance of new variants that puts further obstacles to the possibility of eradicating the virus and returning to normality in a short period. In the present paper we develop a deterministic compartmental model to describe the evolution of the Covid-19 in Italy as a combined effect of vaccination campaign, new variant spreading and mobility restrictions. Particular attention is given to the mechanism of waning immunity, appropriately timed with respect to the effective progress of the vaccination campaign in Italy. We perform a retrospective analysis in order to explore the role that different mechanisms, such as behavioral changes, variation of the population mobility, seasonal variability of the virus infectivity, and spreading of new variants have had in shaping the epidemiological curve. We find that, in the large time window considered, the most relevant mechanism is the seasonal variation in the stability of the virus, followed by the awareness mechanism, that induces individuals to increase/relax self-protective measures when the number of active cases increases/decreases. The appearance of the Delta variant and the mobility variations have had instead only marginal effects. In absence of vaccines the emerging scenario would have been dramatic with a percentage difference in the number of total infections and total deaths, in both cases, larger than fifty per cent. The model also predicts the appearance of a more contagious variant (the Omicron variant) and its becoming dominant in January 2022.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
20.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0264510, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021614

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is a major challenge for patients, healthcare professionals, and populations worldwide. While initial reporting focused mainly on lung involvement, the ongoing pandemic showed that multiple organs can be involved, and prognosis is largely influenced by multi-organ involvement. Our aim was to obtain nationwide retrospective population-based data on hospitalizations with COVID-19 and AKI in Germany. MATERIALS & METHODS: We performed a query of G-DRG data for the year 2020 via the Institute for the hospital remuneration system (Institut für das Entgeltsystem im Krankenhaus GmbH, InEK) data portal and therefore included hospitalizations with a secondary diagnosis of RT-PCR proven COVID-19 infection, aged over 15 years. We included hospitalizations with acute kidney injury (AKI) stages 1 to 3. Age-specific and age-standardized hospitalization and in-hospital mortality rates (ASR) per 100.000 person years were calculated, with the German population of 2011 as the standard. RESULTS: In 2020, there were 16.776.845 hospitalizations in German hospitals. We detected 154.170 hospitalizations with RT-PCR proven COVID-19 diagnosis. The age-standardized hospitalization rate for COVID-19 in Germany was 232,8 per 100.000 person years (95% CI 231,6-233,9). The highest proportion of hospitalizations associated with COVID-19 were in the age group over 80 years. AKI was diagnosed in 16.773 (10.9%) of the hospitalizations with COVID-19. The relative risk of AKI for males was 1,49 (95%CI 1,44-1,53) compared to females. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) was performed in 3.443 hospitalizations, 20.5% of the hospitalizations with AKI. For all hospitalizations with COVID-19, the in-hospital mortality amounted to 19.7% (n = 30.300). The relative risk for in-hospital mortality was 3,87 (95%CI 3,80-3,94) when AKI occurred. The age-standardized hospitalization rates for COVID-19 took a bimodal course during the observation period. The first peak occurred in April (ASR 23,95 per 100.000 person years (95%CI 23,58-24,33)), hospitalizations peaked again in November 2020 (72,82 per 100.000 person years (95%CI 72,17-73,48)). The standardized rate ratios (SRR) for AKI and AKI-related mortality with the overall ASR for COVID-19 hospitalizations in the denominator, decreased throughout the observation period and remained lower in autumn than they were in spring. In contrast to all COVID-19 hospitalizations, the SRR for overall mortality in COVID-19 hospitalizations diverged from hospitalizations with AKI in autumn 2020. DISCUSSION: Our study for the first time provides nationwide data on COVID-19 related hospitalizations and acute kidney injury in Germany in 2020. AKI was a relevant complication and associated with high mortality. We observed a less pronounced increase in the ASR for AKI-related mortality during autumn 2020. The proportion of AKI-related mortality in comparison to the overall mortality decreased throughout the course of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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