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1.
RMD Open ; 8(2)2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098013

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic literature review (SLR) on the screening and prophylaxis of opportunistic and chronic infections in autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD). METHODS: SLR (inception-12/2021) based on the following search domains: (1) infectious agents, (2) AIIRD, (3) immunosuppressives/immunomodulators used in rheumatology, (4) screening terms and (5) prophylaxis terms. Articles were retrieved having the terms from (1) AND (2) AND (3) plus terms from (4) OR(5). Databases searched: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: studies on postoperative infections, paediatric AIIRD, COVID-19, vaccinations and non-Εnglish literature. Study quality was assessed with Newcastle-Ottawa scale for non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs), RoB-Cochrane for RCTs, AMSTAR2 for SLRs. RESULTS: From 5641 studies were retrieved, 568 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility, with 194 articles finally included. For tuberculosis, tuberculin skin test (TST) is affected by treatment with glucocorticoids and conventional synthetic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and its performance is inferior to interferon gamma release assay (IGRA). Agreement between TST and IGRA is moderate to low. For hepatitis B virus (HBV): risk of reactivation is increased in patients positive for hepatitis B surface antigen. Anti-HBcore positive patients are at low risk for reactivation but should be monitored periodically with liver function tests and/or HBV-viral load. Risk for Hepatitis C reactivation is existing but low in patients treated with biological DMARDs. For Pneumocystis jirovecii, prophylaxis treatment should be considered in patients treated with prednisolone ≥15-30 mg/day for >2-4 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Different screening and prophylaxis approaches are described in the literature, partly determined by individual patient and disease characteristics.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , COVID-19 , Opportunistic Infections , Rheumatic Diseases , Adult , Humans , Child , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Hepatitis B virus , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/etiology , Opportunistic Infections/prevention & control , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy
2.
Clin Rheumatol ; 41(12): 3897-3913, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014174

ABSTRACT

Outcomes of COrona VIrus Disease-19 (COVID-19) in patients with rheumatic diseases (RDs) reported in various studies are heterogenous owing to the influence of age and comorbidities which have a significant bearing on the infection risk, severity, morbidity, and mortality. Diabetes mellitus (DM) and RDs are closely linked with underlying pathobiology and treatment of RDs affecting the risk for DM as well as the glycemic control. Hence, we undertook this narrative review to study the influence of DM on outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with RDs. Additionally, aspects of patient attitudes and immune response to COVID-19 vaccination were also studied. The databases of MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) were searched for relevant articles. Studies from mixed cohorts revealed insufficient data to comment on the influence of DM on the risk of infection, while most studies showed twice the odds for hospitalization and mortality with DM. Specific cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus revealed a similar association. Poor health was noted in patients with spondyloarthritis and DM during the pandemic. The presence of DM did not affect patient attitudes towards vaccination and did not predispose to additional vaccine-related adverse effects. Immune response to inactivated vaccines was reduced but mRNA vaccines were maintained in patients with DM. Detailed assessment of DM with its duration, end-organ damage, and glycemic control along with a focused association of DM with various aspects of COVID-19 like risk, hospitalization, severity, mortality, post-COVID sequelae, immune response to infection, and vaccination are needed in the future. Key Points • Diabetes mellitus is associated with the severity of infection, COVID-19-related hospitalization, and mortality in rheumatic diseases across most studies but studies analyzing its specific role are lacking. • Poor outcomes of COVID-19 in RA and poor health in spondyloarthritis are strongly associated with diabetes mellitus. • Diabetes mellitus may negatively influence the humoral response to inactivated vaccines but does not seem to affect the immune responses to mRNA vaccines. • Diabetes mellitus does not influence the attitude towards vaccination or deviation from the prescribed medications during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Rheumatic Diseases , Spondylarthritis , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Immunity , Spondylarthritis/complications , Vaccines, Inactivated
3.
Clin Rheumatol ; 41(12): 3661-3673, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990657

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To describe clinical characteristics of patients in Japan with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and pre-existing rheumatic disease and examine the possible risk factors associated with severe COVID-19. METHODS: Adults with rheumatic disease and a COVID-19 diagnosis who were registered in the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance (C19-GRA) physician-reported registry from Japan between 15 May 2020 and 12 May 2021 were included. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with severe COVID-19 progression, defined as death or requiring oxygen inhalation. RESULTS: In total, 222 patients were included in the study. Rheumatoid arthritis (48.2%), gout (14.4%), and systemic lupus erythematosus (8.1%) were the most common types of rheumatic disease, 55.1% of patients were in remission and 66.2% had comorbid disease. Most patients were hospitalised (86.9%) for COVID-19, 43.3% received oxygen, and 9.0% died. Older age (≥ 65 years), corticosteroid use, comorbid diabetes, and lung diseases are associated with higher risk for severe COVID-19 progression (odds ratio (OR) 3.52 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.69-7.33], OR 2.68 [95% CI 1.23-5.83], OR 3.56 [95% CI 1.42-8.88], and OR 2.59 [95% CI 1.10-6.09], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study described clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with rheumatic diseases in Japan. Several possible risk factors for severe COVID-19 progression were suggested. Key points • Clinical characteristics of 222 adult patients in Japan with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and pre-existing rheumatic diseases were described. • Most patients were hospitalised (86.9%) for COVID-19 in Japan, 43.3% received oxygen, and 9.0% died. • The COVID-19 characteristics of patients with rheumatic diseases did not show any obvious different pattern from those of the general population in Japan. • In this study, older age (≥ 65 years), corticosteroid use, comorbid diabetes, and lung diseases are associated with higher risk for severe COVID-19 progression.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Physicians , Rheumatic Diseases , Rheumatology , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Japan/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Registries , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Oxygen , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use
4.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 61(8): 3161-3171, 2022 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973248

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To calculate the rates of COVID-19 infection and COVID-19-related death among people with rare autoimmune rheumatic diseases (RAIRD) during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in England compared with the general population. METHODS: We used Hospital Episode Statistics to identify all people alive on 1 March 2020 with ICD-10 codes for RAIRD from the whole population of England. We used linked national health records (demographic, death certificate, admissions and PCR testing data) to calculate rates of COVID-19 infection and death up to 31 July 2020. Our primary definition of COVID-19-related death was mention of COVID-19 on the death certificate. General population data from Public Health England and the Office for National Statistics were used for comparison. We also describe COVID-19-related hospital admissions and all-cause deaths. RESULTS: We identified a cohort of 168 680 people with RAIRD, of whom 1874 (1.11%) had a positive COVID-19 PCR test. The age-standardized infection rate was 1.54 (95% CI: 1.50, 1.59) times higher than in the general population. A total of 713 (0.42%) people with RAIRD died with COVID-19 on their death certificate and the age-sex-standardized mortality rate for COVID-19-related death was 2.41 (2.30-2.53) times higher than in the general population. There was no evidence of an increase in deaths from other causes in the RAIRD population. CONCLUSIONS: During the first wave of COVID-19 in England, people with RAIRD had a 54% increased risk of COVID-19 infection and more than twice the risk of COVID-19-related death compared with the general population. These increases were seen despite shielding policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cause of Death , England/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/mortality
5.
Rom J Intern Med ; 60(3): 173-181, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910948

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (CIRD) who receive intravenous therapy requiring hospitalization are likely to be more affected than those with receiving oral therapy during COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to investigate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on adherence to treatment in patients with CIRD receiving intravenous treatments. Methods: We evaluated patients with CIRD who were treated with intravenous immunosuppressive therapy such as rituximab (RTX), cyclophosphamide (CTX), infliximab (IFX), tocilizumab (TCZ) and abatacept (ABA) in our inpatient rheumatology clinic. The patients' medical treatment compliance and clinical follow-up were evaluated. Treatment discontinuation was decided according to postponement of at least one dose and discontinuation of CIRD treatments. Demographics and clinical characteristics were compared between treatment-incompliant (TI) and treatment-compliant (TC) groups. Results: A total of 181 CIRD patients were enrolled. Rheumatoid arthritis was the most common disease requiring intravenous immunosuppressive treatment followed by axial spondyloarthritis and Behçet's disease. Joint involvement was the most common followed by lung and kidney involvements. Rituximab was the most widely used intravenous immunosuppressive treatment for the CIRD. 34% patients have postponed at least one dose of their intravenous CIRD treatment and 25% discontinued. Fear of COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 positivity were the most common reasons. The TI group had a longer disease duration and a higher frequency of inflammatory arthritis than the TC group (p=0.013 and p=0.044, respectively). Conclusions: Fear of COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 positivity seemed to be the major reasons for discontinuing/postponing intravenous treatments in CIRD patients. Patients with long disease duration and less systemic involvement may be more prone to discontinuing their treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Abatacept , Chronic Disease , Cyclophosphamide , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Infliximab , Pandemics , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
6.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2082207, 2022 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908673

ABSTRACT

Safety concerns about novel vaccines and necessity of COVID-19 vaccination for children, especially with underlying medical conditions, are the obstacle of COVID-19 vaccination program among pediatric population. The study was conducted to investigate the vaccine hesitancy reasons among the parents, and to monitor the adverse events of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines in children and teenagers with underlying medical conditions in China. Children with underlying medical conditions encountered to the Immunization Advisory Clinic for COVID-19 vaccine counseling were enrolled. They were given immunization recommendation and followed up at 72 h and 28 d after immunization to monitor the immunization compliance after consultation and adverse events. A total of 324 children aged 3-17 y were included. The top three primary medical conditions for counseling were allergy (33.6%), neurological diseases (31.2%) and rheumatic diseases (8.3%). COVID-19 vaccination was promptly recommended for 242 (74.7%) children. Seventy-one (65.7%) children who had allergy issues were recommend to take vaccination, which was significantly lower than that of other medical conditions (p < .05). The follow-up record showed that 180 children received 340 doses of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine after consultation. Overall, 39 (21.6%) children reported at least one adverse event within 28 d of either vaccination. No serious adverse reactions were observed. No difference of adverse effects between the first dose and the second dose of vaccination except fever. Parents' hesitancy in COVID-19 vaccination for children with underling medical conditions are mainly due to the safety concerns. Specialist consultation is helpful to improve the vaccine uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Counseling , Adolescent , Child , Humans , China , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Hypersensitivity/complications , Vaccination/adverse effects , Child, Preschool , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Vaccination Hesitancy
7.
Clin Rheumatol ; 41(7): 2213-2223, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1888895

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 pandemic has already had a tremendous impact on the process of human society; the survival of mankind and the healthy living environment deterioration with the influence will last for many years. This meta-analysis aims to assess the risk of COVID-19 in patients with rheumatic diseases. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) were systematically searched with no language restriction up to July 5, 2021. The pooled rates were synthesized by fixed effect model or random effect model depending on heterogeneity. RESULTS: A total of 83 articles were included in this meta-analysis. The incidence of COVID-19 in patient with rheumatic diseases was 0.0190 (95% CI: 0.0136-0.0252), and the hospitalization rate, intensive care unit admission rate, mechanical ventilation rate, and case fatality rate of patients with rheumatic diseases infected with COVID-19 were 0.4396 (95% CI: 0.3899-0.4898), 0.0635 (95% CI: 0.0453-0.0836), 0.0461 (95% CI: 0.0330-0.0609), and 0.0346 (95% CI: 0.0218-0.0493), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our research shows that patients with rheumatic diseases have great risk of COVID-19. Differences in COVID-19 incidence, hospitalization rates, and mortality rates in regions were statistically significant. We still need to pay attention to the risk of COVID-19 in patients with rheumatic diseases. KEY POINTS: • Although the risk of COVID-19 in patients with rheumatic diseases has been discussed in previous meta-analysis, their research directions were inconsistent, and few studies focus on prevalence or serious outcomes of COVID-19 in patient with rheumatic diseases, while the quality of these articles was variable. • The incidence of COVID-19 and serious clinical outcomes in patients with rheumatic diseases were still high along with differential risks in most regions. • The use of glucocorticoids and conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs did not affect the hospitalization rate and mortality in rheumatism patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 55: 152025, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852059

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) disruption, rheumatic disease flare/activity, and prolonged COVID-19 symptom duration among COVID-19 survivors with systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs). METHODS: We surveyed people with pre-existing SARDs who had confirmed COVID-19 at Mass General Brigham to investigate post-acute sequelae of COVID-19. We obtained data on demographics, clinical characteristics, COVID-19 symptoms/course, and patient-reported measures. We examined baseline predictors of prolonged COVID-19 symptom duration (defined as lasting ≥28 days) using logistic regression. RESULTS: We analyzed surveys from 174 COVID-19 survivors (mean age 52 years, 81% female, 80% White, 50% rheumatoid arthritis) between March 2021 and January 2022. Fifty-one percent of 127 respondents on any DMARD reported a disruption to their regimen after COVID-19 onset. For individual DMARDs, 56-77% had any change, except for hydroxychloroquine (23%) and rituximab (46%). SARD flare after COVID-19 was reported by 41%. Global patient-reported disease activity was worse at the time of survey than before COVID-19 (mean 6.6±2.9 vs. 7.6±2.3, p<0.001). Median time to COVID-19 symptom resolution was 25 days (IQR 11, 160). Prolonged symptom duration of ≥28 days occurred in 45%. Hospitalization for COVID-19 (OR 3.54, 95%CI 1.27-9.87) and initial COVID-19 symptom count (OR 1.38 per symptom, 95%CI 1.17-1.63) were associated with prolonged symptom duration. Respondents experiencing prolonged symptom duration had higher RAPID3 scores (p=0.007) and more pain (p<0.001) and fatigue (p=0.03) compared to those without prolonged symptoms. CONCLUSION: DMARD disruption, SARD flare, and prolonged COVID-19 symptom duration were common in this prospective study of COVID-19 survivors, suggesting substantial impact on SARDs after acute COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy
9.
Clin Rheumatol ; 41(6): 1899-1910, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical outcomes of patients with rheumatic diseases infected with COVID-19 were inconsistent characteristics across regions and time periods. We need to revisit and sort out the clinical characteristics of these patients at the beginning of the global COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: We collected data from confirmed COVID-19 patients from two military-run field hospitals and classified them into the rheumatic disease group and no rheumatic disease groups, and the latter was further distinguished by ARD and non-ARD. We compared the primary outcome, which we defined as mortality, and the secondary outcome, which we defined as the ICU occupancy rate, the duration of hospitalization and the duration of viral clearance, between the patients with and without rheumatic diseases after PSM. A study-level meta-analysis of four studies was conducted on the mortality of the COVID-19 patients with and without rheumatic diseases. RESULTS: A total of 4353 COVID-19 patients were included in our cohort study; 91 had rheumatic diseases. The mean age of the entire cohort was 59.37, and 2281 (52.40%) patients were female. The mortalities after PSM were 1.11% and 3.46% in the rheumatic diseases and no rheumatic disease groups, respectively. The ICU occupancy rates after PSM were 2.22% and 4.61% in the rheumatic diseases and no rheumatic disease groups. The duration of hospitalization and viral clearance in the rheumatic disease group were 15.97 and 43.69, respectively; moreover, the same parameters in the no rheumatic diseases after PSM were 15.48 and 45.48. No significant differences were found in either the primary or secondary outcomes. After excluding the gout cases, the results were still similar. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups upon meta-analysis (RR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.35-2.13). CONCLUSIONS: Rheumatic diseases seemed to aggravate the course of COVID-19 infection. However, the poor outcomes of COVID-19 seemed to be unassociated with rheumatic diseases undergoing an adequate medical intervention. KEY POINTS: • We compared the outcomes and prognosis of COVID-19 patients in China at the beginning of the outbreak regarding the presence or absence of rheumatic disease patients and made some meaningful conclusions for future outbreaks of similar infectious diseases. • We compared similar recent studies from other countries and explored the changes and differences in patient outcomes associated with COVID-19 as it continued to spread worldwide during the year, providing clinical evidence to further explore the role rheumatic diseases play in COVID-19 patient outcomes. • We provided evidence for the treatment of relevant patients and made rationalized recommendations for treatment strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Reumatismo ; 74(1)2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835041

ABSTRACT

Post-coronavirus disease (COVID) syndrome (PCS) is a term used to describe the clinical condition of patients who have recovered from COVID-19 but are still experiencing prolonged effects of infection or persistent symptoms for longer than expected. Although PCS has been previously studied in the general population, it has not been investigated in a specific population of patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease (IRD). This study aims to evaluate the presence and frequency of PCS among our rheumatology outpatients. This is a cross-sectional study of patients with IRD whose symptoms persisted for 12 weeks after the detection of COVID-19 infection. The patients were assessed with a survey form during their routine clinic follow-up or by contacting them by phone. Patients' demographics, diagnosis, medication, comorbidities, outcome of COVID-19, and symptoms related to PCS were collected. Fifty-three patients with IRD and COVID (mean age: 48.5 13.99 years, 71.7% women) were included. PCS was observed in 36 (67.9%) patients. Twenty-two (41.5%) of them had three or more symptoms; 14 (26.4%) had one or two symptoms. Although more than 30 symptoms were detected, the most frequent were fatigue and weakness. No significant relationship was detected between the development of PCS and gender, age, disease duration, presence of COVID-related complications, and the need for oxygen support, except for smoking which showed a protective effect (p=0.008). PCS was detected in more than half of the patients. There was no independent risk factor for the development of PCS, except smoking.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Post-Concussion Syndrome , Rheumatic Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Post-Concussion Syndrome/diagnosis , Post-Concussion Syndrome/epidemiology , Post-Concussion Syndrome/etiology , Prevalence , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology
11.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 61(SI2): SI143-SI150, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806579

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the frequency of, and risk factors for, disease flare following COVID-19 vaccination in patients with systemic rheumatic disease (SRD). METHODS: An international study was conducted from 2 April to 16 August 2021, using an online survey of 5619 adults with SRD for adverse events following COVID-19 vaccination, including flares of disease requiring a change in treatment. We examined risk factors identified a priori based on published associations with SRD activity and SARS-CoV-2 severity, including demographics, SRD type, comorbidities, vaccine type, cessation of immunosuppressive medications around vaccination and history of reactions to non-COVID-19 vaccines, using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Flares requiring a change in treatment following COVID-19 vaccination were reported by 4.9% of patients. Compared with rheumatoid arthritis, certain SRD, including systemic lupus erythematosus (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.03, 2.20), psoriatic arthritis (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.20, 3.18) and polymyalgia rheumatica (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.08, 2.48) were associated with higher odds of flare, while idiopathic inflammatory myopathies were associated with lower odds for flare (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.31-0.96). The Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine was associated with higher odds of flare relative to the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.07, 1.95), as were a prior reaction to a non-COVID-19 vaccine (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.76, 3.54) and female sex (OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.55, 4.72). CONCLUSION: SRD flares requiring changes in treatment following COVID-19 vaccination were uncommon in this large international study. Several potential risk factors, as well as differences by disease type, warrant further examination in prospective cohorts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Self Report , Symptom Flare Up , Vaccination/adverse effects
12.
RMD Open ; 8(1)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779411

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: While COVID-19 vaccination prevents severe infections, poor immunogenicity in immunocompromised people threatens vaccine effectiveness. We analysed the clinical characteristics of patients with rheumatic disease who developed breakthrough COVID-19 after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We included people partially or fully vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 who developed COVID-19 between 5 January and 30 September 2021 and were reported to the Global Rheumatology Alliance registry. Breakthrough infections were defined as occurring ≥14 days after completion of the vaccination series, specifically 14 days after the second dose in a two-dose series or 14 days after a single-dose vaccine. We analysed patients' demographic and clinical characteristics and COVID-19 symptoms and outcomes. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in 197 partially or fully vaccinated people with rheumatic disease (mean age 54 years, 77% female, 56% white). The majority (n=140/197, 71%) received messenger RNA vaccines. Among the fully vaccinated (n=87), infection occurred a mean of 112 (±60) days after the second vaccine dose. Among those fully vaccinated and hospitalised (n=22, age range 36-83 years), nine had used B cell-depleting therapy (BCDT), with six as monotherapy, at the time of vaccination. Three were on mycophenolate. The majority (n=14/22, 64%) were not taking systemic glucocorticoids. Eight patients had pre-existing lung disease and five patients died. CONCLUSION: More than half of fully vaccinated individuals with breakthrough infections requiring hospitalisation were on BCDT or mycophenolate. Further risk mitigation strategies are likely needed to protect this selected high-risk population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Rheumatology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
RMD Open ; 8(1)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research on the disease severity of COVID-19 in patients with rheumatic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) has been inconclusive, and long-term prospective data on the development of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in these patients are lacking. METHODS: Adult patients with rheumatic IMIDs from the Amsterdam Rheumatology and Immunology Center, Amsterdam were invited to participate. All patients were asked to recruit their own sex-matched and age-matched control subject. Clinical data were collected via online questionnaires (at baseline, and after 1-4 and 5-9 months of follow-up). Serum samples were collected twice and analysed for the presence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. Subsequently, IgG titres were quantified in samples with a positive test result. FINDINGS: In total, 3080 consecutive patients and 1102 controls with comparable age and sex distribution were included for analyses. Patients were more frequently hospitalised compared with controls when infected with SARS-CoV-2; 7% vs 0.7% (adjusted OR: 7.33, 95% CI: 0.96 to 55.77). Only treatment with B-cell targeting therapy was independently associated with an increased risk of COVID-19-related hospitalisation (adjusted OR: 14.62, 95% CI: 2.31 to 92.39). IgG antibody titres were higher in hospitalised compared with non-hospitalised patients, and slowly declined with time in similar patterns for patients in all treatment subgroups and controls. INTERPRETATION: We observed that patients with rheumatic IMIDs, especially those treated with B-cell targeting therapy, were more likely to be hospitalised when infected with SARS-CoV-2. Treatment with conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biological DMARDs other than B-cell targeting agents is unlikely to have negative effects on the development of long-lasting humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Prospective Studies , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Rheumatol Int ; 42(6): 973-987, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772906

ABSTRACT

Most of the published data relate to classical forms of rheumatic diseases (RD) and information on rare inflammatory disorders such as Behçet's syndrome (BS) and familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is limited. We studied the frequency of side effects and disease flares after COVID-19 vaccination with either Pfizer/BioNTech or Sinovac/CoronaVac in 256 patients with BS, 247 with FMF, and 601 with RD. Telephone interviews were conducted using a questionnaire survey in a cross-sectional design in patients with BS, FMF, and RD followed by a single university hospital. Study participants were vaccinated either with CoronaVac (BS:109, FMF: 90, and RD: 343,) or BioNTech (BS: 147, FMF: 157 and RD: 258). The majority have received double dose (BS: 94.9%, FMF 92.3% and RD: 86.2%). BioNTech ensured a significantly better efficacy than CoronaVac against COVID-19 in all patient groups (BS: 1.4% vs 10.1%; FMF: 3.2% vs 12.2%, RD:2.7% vs 6.4%). Those with at least one adverse event (AE) were significantly more frequent among those vaccinated with BioNTech than those with CoronaVac (BS: 86.4% vs 45%; FMF: 83.4% vs 53.3%; and RD: 83.3% vs 45.5%). The majority of AEs were mild to moderate and transient and this was true for either vaccine. There were also AEs that required medical attention in all study groups following CoronaVac (BS: 5.5%, FMF: 3.3%, and RD:2.9%) or BioNTech (BS: 5.4%, FMF: 1.9%, and RD: 4.7%). The main causes for medical assistance were disease flare and cardiovascular events. Patients with BS (16.0%) and FMF (17.4%) were found to flare significantly more frequently when compared to those with RD (6.0%) (p < 0.001). This was true for either vaccine. BS patients reported mainly skin-mucosa lesions; there were however, 11 (4.3%) who developed major organ attack such as uveitis, thrombosis or stroke. Flare in FMF patients were associated mainly with acute serositis with or without fever. Arthralgia/arthritis or inflammatory back pain were observed mainly in the RD group. Our study demonstrates that BS and FMF patients vaccinated with either CoronaVac or BioNTech demonstrated similar AE profile and frequency compared to RD patients. AEs that required physician consultation or hospitalization occurred in all study groups after either CoronaVac or BioNTech. Increased frequency of flares in BS and FMF compared to that seen in RD might reflect defects in innate immunity and deserves further investigation. Caution should be required when monitoring these patients after vaccination.


Subject(s)
Behcet Syndrome , COVID-19 , Familial Mediterranean Fever , Rheumatic Diseases , Behcet Syndrome/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Familial Mediterranean Fever/complications , Humans , Pain/complications , RNA , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated
15.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e049749, 2022 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769910

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic is not only a traumatic event, but a collective stressor unfolding over time, causing devastating implications for the mental health. This study aimed to shed light on the mental health status of patients with rheumatic disease (RD) during the massive outbreak of COVID-19 in China, especially the prevalence and severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared with healthy individuals. METHODS: A total of 486 patients with RD and 486 age-matched and sex-matched healthy individuals were recruited into the study. For each participant, we collected demographic and clinical characteristics data. The PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) and four items from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used to investigate the prevalence and severity of PTSD and sleep quality, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with healthy control subjects (n=486), patients with RD (n=486) had a higher prevalence of PTSD (12.1% vs 4.1%; p<0.001). Higher total scores on the PCL-5 and on all four items from the PSQI (p≤0.001) were also observed. Female, old age, poor sleep quality, long duration of RD, poor subjective evaluation of the disease and pessimistic subjective perception of the epidemic were identified as risk factors of PTSD in patients with RD during the COVID-19 epidemic. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 outbreak, patients with RD presented a higher prevalence and severity of PTSD and showed more sleep disturbances. Our findings confirm the importance of psychological assessment and mental healthcare out of regular clinical care for patients with RD during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
16.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 81(7): 998-1005, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765099

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Some adults with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) are at increased risk of COVID-19-related death. Excluding post-COVID-19 multisystem inflammatory syndrome of children, children and young people (CYP) are overall less prone to severe COVID-19 and most experience a mild or asymptomatic course. However, it is unknown if CYP with RMDs are more likely to have more severe COVID-19. This analysis aims to describe outcomes among CYP with underlying RMDs with COVID-19. METHODS: Using the European Alliance of Associations for Rheumatology COVID-19 Registry, the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) Registry, and the CARRA-sponsored COVID-19 Global Paediatric Rheumatology Database, we obtained data on CYP with RMDs who reported SARS-CoV-2 infection (presumptive or confirmed). Patient characteristics and illness severity were described, and factors associated with COVID-19 hospitalisation were investigated. RESULTS: 607 CYP with RMDs <19 years old from 25 different countries with SARS-CoV-2 infection were included, the majority with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA; n=378; 62%). Forty-three (7%) patients were hospitalised; three of these patients died. Compared with JIA, diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed connective tissue disease, vasculitis, or other RMD (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.7 to 11) or autoinflammatory syndrome (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.1 to 8.6) was associated with hospitalisation, as was obesity (OR 4.0; 95% CI 1.3 to 12). CONCLUSIONS: This is the most significant investigation to date of COVID-19 in CYP with RMDs. It is important to note that the majority of CYP were not hospitalised, although those with severe systemic RMDs and obesity were more likely to be hospitalised.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Juvenile , COVID-19 , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Rheumatic Diseases , Adolescent , Arthritis, Juvenile/complications , Arthritis, Juvenile/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Musculoskeletal Diseases/epidemiology , Obesity/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
17.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 18(4): 191-204, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758247

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought challenges for people with rheumatic disease in addition to those faced by the general population, including concerns about higher risks of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and poor outcomes of COVID-19. The data that are now available suggest that rheumatic disease is associated with a small additional risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and that outcomes of COVID-19 are primarily influenced by comorbidities and particular disease states or treatments. Despite considerable advances in our knowledge of which therapeutic agents provide benefits in COVID-19, and of what constitutes effective vaccination strategies, the specific considerations that apply to people with rheumatic disease are yet to be definitively addressed. An overview of the most important COVID-19 studies to date that relate to people with rheumatic disease can contribute to our understanding of the clinical-care requirements of this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Humans , Pandemics , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 61(SI2): SI180-SI188, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684803

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Successful vaccination is key to overcoming the COVID-19 pandemic. Immunosuppressive medication is known to potentially compromise vaccination responses, and expansion of our knowledge on vaccination efficacy in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD) is therefore of utmost importance. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre observational study and evaluated the efficacy of approved COVID-19 vaccines in 303 adult AIIRD patients. Serum levels of IgG antibodies against the S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins (anti-S IgG) were measured at least two weeks after vaccination. In a subgroup of patients without humoral response, T-cell responses were determined using an interferon-γ gamma release assay. RESULTS: Overall seropositivity rate was 78.5% and was significantly lower in patients under immunosuppressive therapy (75.7 vs 93.2%, P = 0.009). No difference regarding the vaccination type was observed. Glucocorticoids, mycophenolate-mofetil, TNF inhibitors, tocilizumab, abatacept and rituximab were all associated with non-response after proper vaccination. The risk was highest under RTX therapy (OR 0.004, 95% CI 0.001, 0.023, P < 0.0001). A strong negative correlation was observed between time since vaccination with an mRNA vaccine and anti-S antibody levels (r=-0.6149, P < 0.0001). In patients without humoral response, a T-cell response was found in 50%. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination in patients with AIIRD is effective using any approved vaccine. Humoral response might be impaired depending on the individual immunosuppressive medication. The risk of non-response is highest under rituximab therapy. Anti-S IgG antibody levels wane over time after mRNA vaccination. Importantly, 50% of humoral non-responders showed a T-cellular response, suggesting T-cell-mediated protection to a certain extent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Pandemics , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
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