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1.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 22(1): 123, 2022 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098309

ABSTRACT

The genome of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contains many insertions/deletions (indels) from the genomes of other SARS-related coronaviruses. Some of the identified indels have recently reported to involve relatively long segments of 10-300 consecutive bases and with diverse RNA sequences around gaps between virus species, both of which are different characteristics from the classical shorter in-frame indels. These non-classical complex indels have been identified in non-structural protein 3 (Nsp3), the S1 domain of the spike (S), and open reading frame 8 (ORF8). To determine whether the occurrence of these non-classical indels in specific genomic regions is ubiquitous among broad species of SARS-related coronaviruses in different animal hosts, the present study compared SARS-related coronaviruses from humans (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2), bats (RaTG13 and Rc-o319), and pangolins (GX-P4L), by performing multiple sequence alignment. As a result, indel hotspots with diverse RNA sequences of different lengths between the viruses were confirmed in the Nsp2 gene (approximately 2500-2600 base positions in the overall 29,900 bases), Nsp3 gene (approximately 3000-3300 and 3800-3900 base positions), N-terminal domain of the spike protein (21,500-22,500 base positions), and ORF8 gene (27,800-28,200 base positions). Abnormally high rate of point mutations and complex indels in these regions suggest that the occurrence of mutations in these hotspots may be selectively neutral or even benefit the survival of the viruses. The presence of such indel hotspots has not been reported in different human SARS-CoV-2 strains in the last 2 years, suggesting a lower rate of indels in human SARS-CoV-2. Future studies to elucidate the mechanisms enabling the frequent development of long and complex indels in specific genomic regions of SARS-related coronaviruses would offer deeper insights into the process of viral evolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , SARS Virus , Animals , Humans , Open Reading Frames/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , SARS Virus/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Phylogeny , COVID-19/genetics , Chiroptera/genetics , Pangolins
2.
Biomolecules ; 12(8)2022 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023131

ABSTRACT

The emerging SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 belong to the family of "common cold" RNA coronaviruses, and they are responsible for the 2003 epidemic and the current pandemic with over 6.3 M deaths worldwide. The ORF3a gene is conserved in both viruses and codes for the accessory protein ORF3a, with unclear functions, possibly related to viral virulence and pathogenesis. The tyrosine-based YXXΦ motif (Φ: bulky hydrophobic residue-L/I/M/V/F) was originally discovered to mediate clathrin-dependent endocytosis of membrane-spanning proteins. Many viruses employ the YXXΦ motif to achieve efficient receptor-guided internalisation in host cells, maintain the structural integrity of their capsids and enhance viral replication. Importantly, this motif has been recently identified on the ORF3a proteins of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. Given that the ORF3a aa sequence is not fully conserved between the two SARS viruses, we aimed to map in silico structural differences and putative sequence-driven alterations of regulatory elements within and adjacently to the YXXΦ motifs that could predict variations in ORF3a functions. Using robust bioinformatics tools, we investigated the presence of relevant post-translational modifications and the YXXΦ motif involvement in protein-protein interactions. Our study suggests that the predicted YXXΦ-related features may confer specific-yet to be discovered-functions to ORF3a proteins, significant to the new virus and related to enhanced propagation, host immune regulation and virulence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS Virus , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Peptides , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006226

ABSTRACT

Bats are a major global reservoir of alphacoronaviruses (alphaCoVs) and betaCoVs. Attempts to discover the causative agents of COVID-19 and SARS have revealed horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae) to be the most probable source of the virus. We report the first detection of bat coronaviruses (BtCoVs) in insectivorous bats in Poland and highlight SARS-related coronaviruses found in Rhinolophidae bats. The study included 503 (397 oral swabs and 106 fecal) samples collected from 20 bat species. Genetically diverse BtCoVs (n = 20) of the Alpha- and Betacoronavirus genera were found in fecal samples of two bat species. SARS-related CoVs were in 18 out of 58 lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros) samples (31%, 95% CI 20.6-43.8), and alphaCoVs were in 2 out of 55 Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) samples (3.6%, 95% CI 0.6-12.3). The overall BtCoV prevalence was 4.0% (95% CI 2.6-6.1). High identity was determined for BtCoVs isolated from European M. daubentonii and R. hipposideros bats. The detection of SARS-related and alphaCoVs in Polish bats with high phylogenetic relatedness to reference BtCoVs isolated in different European countries but from the same species confirms their high host restriction. Our data elucidate the molecular epidemiology, prevalence, and geographic distribution of coronaviruses and particularly SARS-related types in the bat population.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Coronaviridae , SARS Virus , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Animals , Phylogeny , Poland/epidemiology , SARS Virus/genetics
4.
mBio ; 13(4): e0145422, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950003

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases have shaped the human population genetic structure, and genetic variation influences the susceptibility to many viral diseases. However, a variety of challenges have made the implementation of traditional human Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS) approaches to study these infectious outcomes challenging. In contrast, mouse models of infectious diseases provide an experimental control and precision, which facilitates analyses and mechanistic studies of the role of genetic variation on infection. Here we use a genetic mapping cross between two distinct Collaborative Cross mouse strains with respect to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) disease outcomes. We find several loci control differential disease outcome for a variety of traits in the context of SARS-CoV infection. Importantly, we identify a locus on mouse chromosome 9 that shows conserved synteny with a human GWAS locus for SARS-CoV-2 severe disease. We follow-up and confirm a role for this locus, and identify two candidate genes, CCR9 and CXCR6, that both play a key role in regulating the severity of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and a distantly related bat sarbecovirus disease outcomes. As such we provide a template for using experimental mouse crosses to identify and characterize multitrait loci that regulate pathogenic infectious outcomes across species. IMPORTANCE Host genetic variation is an important determinant that predicts disease outcomes following infection. In the setting of highly pathogenic coronavirus infections genetic determinants underlying host susceptibility and mortality remain unclear. To elucidate the role of host genetic variation on sarbecovirus pathogenesis and disease outcomes, we utilized the Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse genetic reference population as a model to identify susceptibility alleles to SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 infections. Our findings reveal that a multitrait loci found in chromosome 9 is an important regulator of sarbecovirus pathogenesis in mice. Within this locus, we identified and validated CCR9 and CXCR6 as important regulators of host disease outcomes. Specifically, both CCR9 and CXCR6 are protective against severe SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and SARS-related HKU3 virus disease in mice. This chromosome 9 multitrait locus may be important to help identify genes that regulate coronavirus disease outcomes in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , SARS Virus , Virus Diseases , Animals , Collaborative Cross Mice , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Mice , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
Biosci Rep ; 41(9)2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915305

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the global pandemic of the Coronavirus disease in late 2019 (COVID-19). Vaccine development efforts have predominantly been aimed at 'Extra-viral' Spike (S) protein as vaccine vehicles, but there are concerns regarding 'viral immune escape' since multiple mutations may enable the mutated virus strains to escape from immunity against S protein. The 'Intra-viral' Nucleocapsid (N-protein) is relatively conserved among mutant strains of coronaviruses during spread and evolution. Herein, we demonstrate novel vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2 by using the whole conserved N-protein or its fragment/peptides. Using ELISA assay, we showed that high titers of specific anti-N antibodies (IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, IgM) were maintained for a reasonably long duration (> 5 months), suggesting that N-protein is an excellent immunogen to stimulate host immune system and robust B-cell activation. We synthesized three peptides located at the conserved regions of N-protein among CoVs. One peptide showed as a good immunogen for vaccination as well. Cytokine arrays on post-vaccination mouse sera showed progressive up-regulation of various cytokines such as IFN-γ and CCL5, suggesting that TH1 associated responses are also stimulated. Furthermore, vaccinated mice exhibited an elevated memory T cells population. Here, we propose an unconventional vaccine strategy targeting the conserved N-protein as an alternative vaccine target for coronaviruses. Moreover, we generated a mouse monoclonal antibody specifically against an epitope shared between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, and we are currently developing the First-in-Class humanized anti-N-protein antibody to potentially treat patients infected by various CoVs in the future.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mice , Models, Animal , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Subunit/genetics , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology
7.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911654

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are well known as a diverse family of viruses that affect a wide range of hosts. Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome, a variety of bat-associated coronaviruses have been identified in many countries. However, they do not represent all the specific geographic locations of their hosts. In this study, full-length genomes representing newly identified bat coronaviruses in South Korea were obtained using an RNA sequencing approach. The analysis, based on genome structure, conserved replicase domains, spike gene, and nucleocapsid genes revealed that bat Alphacoronaviruses are from three different viral species. Among them, the newly identified B20-97 strain may represent a new putative species, closely related to PEDV. In addition, the newly-identified MERS-related coronavirus exhibited shared genomic nucleotide identities of less than 76.4% with other Merbecoviruses. Recombination analysis and multiple alignments of spike and RBD amino acid sequences suggested that this strain underwent recombination events and could possibly use hDPP4 molecules as its receptor. The bat SARS-related CoV B20-50 is unlikely to be able to use hACE2 as its receptor and lack of an open reading frame in ORF8 gene region. Our results illustrate the diversity of coronaviruses in Korean bats and their evolutionary relationships. The evolution of the bat coronaviruses related ORF8 accessory gene is also discussed.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus , Chiroptera , Coronaviridae , Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , SARS Virus , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronaviridae/genetics , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Phylogeny , SARS Virus/genetics
8.
J Gene Med ; 24(7): e3435, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898849

ABSTRACT

Since its emersion, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a significant global dilemma. Several mutations in the severe acute respiratory virus (SARS-Co-2) genome has given rise to different variants with various levels of transmissibility, severity and mortality. Up until November 2021, the variants of concern declared by the World Health Organization were Alpha, Beta, Delta and Gamma. Since then, a novel variant named Omicron (B.1.1.529) has been developed. BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2 and BA.3 are four known subvariants of Omicron. The Omicron variant involves new mutations in its spike protein, most of which are in its receptor binding site, and increase its transmissibility and decrease its antibody and vaccine response. Understanding the virology and mutations of Omicron is necessary for developing diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Moreover, important issues, such as the risk of re-infection, the response to different kinds of vaccines, the need for a booster vaccine dose and the increased risk of Omicron infection in pediatrics, need to be addressed. In this article, we provide an overview of the biological and immunopathological properties of Omicron and its subvariants, its clinical signs and symptoms, Omicron and pediatrics, vaccines against Omicron, re-infection with Omicron, diagnostic approaches and specific challenges of Omicron in the successful control and management of the rapid global spread of this variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS Virus , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Humans , Reinfection , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
mBio ; 13(3): e0046322, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807326

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2, the causative agents of SARS, which broke out in 2003, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019), which broke out in 2019, probably originated in Rhinolophus sinicus and R. affinis, respectively. Rhinolophus bats are important hosts for coronaviruses. Many SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been detected in bats from different areas of China; however, the diversity of bat SARSr-CoVs is increasing, and their transmission mechanisms have attracted much attention. Here, we report the findings of SARSr-CoVs in R. sinicus and R. affinis from South China from 2008 to 2021. The full-length genome sequences of the two novel SARSr-CoVs obtained from Guangdong shared 83 to 88% and 71 to 72% nucleotide identities with human SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, respectively, while sharing high similarity with human SARS-CoV in hypervariable open reading frame 8 (ORF8). Significant recombination occurred between the two novel SARSr-CoVs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the two novel bat SARSr-CoVs from Guangdong were more distant than the bat SARSr-CoVs from Yunnan to human SARS-CoV. We found that transmission in bats contributes more to virus diversity than time. Although our results of the sequence analysis of the receptor-binding motif (RBM) and the expression pattern of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) inferred that these viruses could not directly infect humans, risks still exist after some unpredictable mutations. Thus, this study increased our understanding of the genetic diversity and transmission of SARSr-CoVs carried by bats in the field. IMPORTANCE Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2 probably originated from the SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) carried by Rhinolophus bats from Yunnan, China. Systematic investigations of the reservoir hosts carrying SARSr-CoVs in Guangdong and the reservoir distribution and transmission are urgently needed to prevent future outbreaks. Here, we detected SARSr-CoV in Rhinolophus bat samples from Guangdong in 2009 and 2021 and found that the transmission of SARSr-CoV from different host populations contributes more to increased virus diversity than time. Bat SARSr-CoVs in Guangdong had genetic diversity, and Guangdong was also the hot spot for SARSr-CoVs. We once again prove that R. sinicus plays an important role in the maintenance of the SARS-CoVs. Besides, the SARSr-CoVs are mainly transmitted through the intestines in bats, and these SARSr-CoVs found in Guangdong could not use human ACE2 (hACE2), but whether they can pass through intermediate hosts or directly infect humans requires further research. Our findings demonstrate the ability of SARSr-CoVs to spread across species.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , China/epidemiology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
10.
J Virol ; 96(8): e0003722, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779311

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to pose an enormous threat to economic activity and public health worldwide. Previous studies have shown that the nonstructural protein 5 (nsp5, also called 3C-like protease) of alpha- and deltacoronaviruses cleaves Q231 of the NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), a key kinase in the RIG-I-like receptor pathway, to inhibit type I interferon (IFN) production. In this study, we found that both SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 and SARS-CoV nsp5 cleaved NEMO at multiple sites (E152, Q205, and Q231). Notably, SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 exhibited a stronger ability to cleave NEMO than SARS-CoV nsp5. Sequence and structural alignments suggested that an S/A polymorphism at position 46 of nsp5 in SARS-CoV versus SARS-CoV-2 may be responsible for this difference. Mutagenesis experiments showed that SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 (S46A) exhibited poorer cleavage of NEMO than SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 wild type (WT), while SARS-CoV nsp5 (A46S) showed enhanced NEMO cleavage compared with the WT protein. Purified recombinant SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 WT and SARS-CoV nsp5 (A46S) proteins exhibited higher hydrolysis efficiencies than SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 (S46A) and SARS-CoV nsp5 WT proteins in vitro. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 exhibited stronger inhibition of Sendai virus (SEV)-induced interferon beta (IFN-ß) production than SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 (S46A), while introduction of the A46S substitution in SARS-CoV nsp5 enhanced suppression of SEV-induced IFN-ß production. Taken together, these data show that S46 is associated with the catalytic activity and IFN antagonism by SARS-CoV-2 nsp5. IMPORTANCE The nsp5-encoded 3C-like protease is the main coronavirus protease, playing a vital role in viral replication and immune evasion by cleaving viral polyproteins and host immune-related molecules. We showed that both SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 and SARS-CoV nsp5 cleave the NEMO at multiple sites (E152, Q205, and Q231). This specificity differs from NEMO cleavage by alpha- and deltacoronaviruses, demonstrating the distinct substrate recognition of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV nsp5. Compared with SARS-CoV nsp5, SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 encodes S instead of A at position 46. This substitution is associated with stronger catalytic activity, enhanced cleavage of NEMO, and increased interferon antagonism of SARS-CoV-2 nsp5. These data provide new insights into the pathogenesis and transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Interferon Type I , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Interferon Type I/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferon Type I/metabolism , SARS Virus/enzymology , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Virus Replication/genetics
11.
J Virol ; 96(8): e0016922, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765080

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1) and SARS-CoV-2 are highly pathogenic to humans and have caused pandemics in 2003 and 2019, respectively. Genetically diverse SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been detected or isolated from bats, and some of these viruses have been demonstrated to utilize human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor and to have the potential to spill over to humans. A pan-sarbecovirus vaccine that provides protection against SARSr-CoV infection is urgently needed. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine against recombinant SARSr-CoVs carrying two different spike proteins (named rWIV1 and rRsSHC014S, respectively). Although serum neutralizing assays showed limited cross-reactivity between the three viruses, the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine provided full protection against SARS-CoV-2 and rWIV1 and partial protection against rRsSHC014S infection in human ACE2 transgenic mice. Passive transfer of SARS-CoV-2-vaccinated mouse sera provided low protection for rWIV1 but not for rRsSHC014S infection in human ACE2 mice. A specific cellular immune response induced by WIV1 membrane protein peptides was detected in the vaccinated animals, which may explain the cross-protection of the inactivated vaccine. This study shows the possibility of developing a pan-sarbecovirus vaccine against SARSr-CoVs for future preparedness. IMPORTANCE The genetic diversity of SARSr-CoVs in wildlife and their potential risk of cross-species infection highlight the necessity of developing wide-spectrum vaccines against infection of various SARSr-CoVs. In this study, we tested the protective efficacy of the SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine (IAV) against two SARSr-CoVs with different spike proteins in human ACE2 transgenic mice. We demonstrate that the SARS-CoV-2 IAV provides full protection against rWIV1 and partial protection against rRsSHC014S. The T-cell response stimulated by the M protein may account for the cross protection against heterogeneous SARSr-CoVs. Our findings suggest the feasibility of the development of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines, which can be a strategy of preparedness for future outbreaks caused by novel SARSr-CoVs from wildlife.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections , Cross Protection , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Inactivated , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chiroptera , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Protection/immunology , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Viral Zoonoses/prevention & control
12.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705877

ABSTRACT

Recombination creates mosaic genomes containing regions with mixed ancestry, and the accumulation of such events over time can complicate greatly many aspects of evolutionary inference. Here, we developed a sliding window bootstrap (SWB) method to generate genomic bootstrap (GB) barcodes to highlight the regions supporting phylogenetic relationships. The method was applied to an alignment of 56 sarbecoviruses, including SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the SARS epidemic and COVID-19 pandemic, respectively. The SWB analyses were also used to construct a consensus tree showing the most reliable relationships and better interpret hidden phylogenetic signals. Our results revealed that most relationships were supported by just a few genomic regions and confirmed that three divergent lineages could be found in bats from Yunnan: SCoVrC, which groups SARS-CoV related coronaviruses from China; SCoV2rC, which includes SARS-CoV-2 related coronaviruses from Southeast Asia and Yunnan; and YunSar, which contains a few highly divergent viruses recently described in Yunnan. The GB barcodes showed evidence for ancient recombination between SCoV2rC and YunSar genomes, as well as more recent recombination events between SCoVrC and SCoV2rC genomes. The recombination and phylogeographic patterns suggest a strong host-dependent selection of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 appears as a mosaic genome composed of regions sharing recent ancestry with three bat SCoV2rCs from Yunnan (RmYN02, RpYN06, and RaTG13) or related to more ancient ancestors in bats from Yunnan and Southeast Asia. Finally, our results suggest that viral circular RNAs may be key molecules for the mechanism of recombination.


Subject(s)
DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic/methods , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Evolution, Molecular , Genomics/methods , Recombination, Genetic , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , China , Chiroptera/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Genome, Viral , Phylogeography
13.
FASEB J ; 36(3): e22234, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702985

ABSTRACT

The transmembrane protease angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a protective regulator within the renin angiotensin system and additionally represents the cellular receptor for SARS-CoV. The release of soluble ACE2 (sACE2) from the cell surface is hence believed to be a crucial part of its (patho)physiological functions, as both, ACE2 protease activity and SARS-CoV binding ability, are transferred from the cell membrane to body fluids. Yet, the molecular sources of sACE2 are still not completely investigated. In this study, we show different sources and prerequisites for the release of sACE2 from the cell membrane. By using inhibitors as well as CRISPR/Cas9-derived cells, we demonstrated that, in addition to the metalloprotease ADAM17, also ADAM10 is an important novel shedding protease of ACE2. Moreover, we observed that ACE2 can also be released in extracellular vesicles. The degree of either ADAM10- or ADAM17-mediated ACE2 shedding is dependent on stimulatory conditions and on the expression level of the pro-inflammatory ADAM17 regulator iRhom2. Finally, by using structural analysis and in vitro verification, we determined for the first time that the susceptibility to ADAM10- and ADAM17-mediated shedding is mediated by the collectrin-like part of ACE2. Overall, our findings give novel insights into sACE2 release by several independent molecular mechanisms.


Subject(s)
ADAM10 Protein/metabolism , ADAM17 Protein/metabolism , Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , SARS Virus/metabolism , ADAM10 Protein/genetics , ADAM17 Protein/genetics , Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Extracellular Vesicles/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Nature ; 603(7903): 913-918, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671589

ABSTRACT

Two different sarbecoviruses have caused major human outbreaks in the past two decades1,2. Both of these sarbecoviruses, SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2, engage ACE2 through the spike receptor-binding domain2-6. However, binding to ACE2 orthologues of humans, bats and other species has been observed only sporadically among the broader diversity of bat sarbecoviruses7-11. Here we use high-throughput assays12 to trace the evolutionary history of ACE2 binding across a diverse range of sarbecoviruses and ACE2 orthologues. We find that ACE2 binding is an ancestral trait of sarbecovirus receptor-binding domains that has subsequently been lost in some clades. Furthermore, we reveal that bat sarbecoviruses from outside Asia can bind to ACE2. Moreover, ACE2 binding is highly evolvable-for many sarbecovirus receptor-binding domains, there are single amino-acid mutations that enable binding to new ACE2 orthologues. However, the effects of individual mutations can differ considerably between viruses, as shown by the N501Y mutation, which enhances the human ACE2-binding affinity of several SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern12 but substantially decreases it for SARS-CoV-1. Our results point to the deep ancestral origin and evolutionary plasticity of ACE2 binding, broadening the range of sarbecoviruses that should be considered to have spillover potential.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Evolution, Molecular , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Binding Sites , COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Humans , Protein Binding , SARS Virus/classification , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
15.
ILAR J ; 62(1-2): 48-59, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621613

ABSTRACT

In silico predictions combined with in vitro, in vivo, and in situ observations collectively suggest that mouse adaptation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 virus requires an aromatic substitution in position 501 or position 498 (but not both) of the spike protein's receptor binding domain. This effect could be enhanced by mutations in positions 417, 484, and 493 (especially K417N, E484K, Q493K, and Q493R), and to a lesser extent by mutations in positions 486 and 499 (such as F486L and P499T). Such enhancements, due to more favorable binding interactions with residues on the complementary angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 interface, are, however, unlikely to sustain mouse infectivity on their own based on theoretical and experimental evidence to date. Our current understanding thus points to the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Omicron variants of concern infecting mice, whereas Delta and "Delta Plus" lack a similar biomolecular basis to do so. This paper identifies 11 countries (Brazil, Chile, Djibouti, Haiti, Malawi, Mozambique, Reunion, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela) where targeted local field surveillance of mice is encouraged because they may have come in contact with humans who had the virus with adaptive mutation(s). It also provides a systematic methodology to analyze the potential for other animal reservoirs and their likely locations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS Virus , Animals , Humans , Mice , Mutation/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
16.
Virol Sin ; 37(2): 248-255, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616811

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a highly contagious zoonotic disease caused by SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Since its outbreak in Guangdong Province of China in 2002, SARS has caused 8096 infections and 774 deaths by December 31st, 2003. Although there have been no more SARS cases reported in human populations since 2004, the recent emergence of a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) indicates the potential of the recurrence of SARS and other coronavirus disease among humans. Thus, developing a rapid response SARS vaccine to provide protection for human populations is still needed. Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV can induce neutralizing antibodies, which is a pivotal immunogenic antigen for vaccine development. Here we constructed a recombinant chimeric vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) VSVΔG-SARS, in which the glycoprotein (G) gene is replaced with the SARS-CoV S gene. VSVΔG-SARS maintains the bullet-like shape of the native VSV, with the heterogeneous S protein incorporated into its surface instead of G protein. The results of safety trials revealed that VSVΔG-SARS is safe and effective in mice at a dose of 1 â€‹× â€‹106 TCID50. More importantly, only a single-dose immunization of 2 â€‹× â€‹107 TCID50 can provide high-level neutralizing antibodies and robust T cell responses to non-human primate animal models. Thus, our data indicate that VSVΔG-SARS can be used as a rapid response vaccine candidate. Our study on the recombinant VSV-vectored SARS-CoV vaccines can accumulate experience and provide a foundation for the new coronavirus disease in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS Virus , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Immunization , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Macaca mulatta , Mice , SARS Virus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/genetics , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/metabolism
17.
Gene ; 818: 146136, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611737

ABSTRACT

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) associated Cas protein (CRISPR-Cas) has turned out to be a very important tool for the rapid detection of viruses. This can be used for the identification of the target site in a virus by identifying a 3-6 nt length Protospacer Adjacent Motif (PAM) adjacent to the potential target site, thus motivating us to adopt CRISPR-Cas technique to identify SARS-CoV-2 as well as other members of Coronaviridae family. In this regard, we have developed a fast and effective method using k-mer technique in order to identify the PAM by scanning the whole genome of the respective virus. Subsequently, palindromic sequences adjacent to the PAM locations are identified as the potential target sites. Palindromes are considered in this work as they are known to identify viruses. Once all the palindrome-PAM combinations are identified, PAMs specific for the RNA-guided DNA Cas9/Cas12 endonuclease are identified to bind and cut the target sites. In this regard, PAMs such as 5'-TGG-3' and 5'-TTTA-3' in NSP3 and Exon for SARS-CoV-2, 5'-GGG-3' and 5'-TGG-3' in Exon and NSP2 for MERS-CoV and 5'-AGG-3' and 5'-TTTG-3' in Helicase and NSP3 respectively for SARS-CoV-1 are identified corresponding to SpCas9 and FnCas12a endonucleases. Finally, to recognise the target sites of Coronaviridae family as cleaved by SpCas9 and FnCas12a, complements of the palindromic target regions are designed as primers or guide RNA (gRNA). Therefore, such complementary gRNAs along with respective Cas proteins can be considered in assays for the identification of SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-1.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Inverted Repeat Sequences/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Base Sequence , CRISPR-Associated Protein 9/metabolism , Gene Editing , Humans
18.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611142

ABSTRACT

We found and genetically described two novel SARS-like coronaviruses in feces and oral swabs of the greater (R. ferrumequinum) and the lesser (R. hipposideros) horseshoe bats in southern regions of Russia. The viruses, named Khosta-1 and Khosta-2, together with related viruses from Bulgaria and Kenya, form a separate phylogenetic lineage. We found evidence of recombination events in the evolutionary history of Khosta-1, which involved the acquisition of the structural proteins S, E, and M, as well as the nonstructural genes ORF3, ORF6, ORF7a, and ORF7b, from a virus that is related to the Kenyan isolate BtKY72. The examination of bats by RT-PCR revealed that 62.5% of the greater horseshoe bats in one of the caves were positive for Khosta-1 virus, while its overall prevalence was 14%. The prevalence of Khosta-2 was 1.75%. Our results show that SARS-like coronaviruses circulate in horseshoe bats in the region, and we provide new data on their genetic diversity.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , SARS Virus/genetics , Animals , Base Sequence , Chiroptera/classification , Evolution, Molecular , Feces/virology , Metagenomics , Mouth/virology , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Recombination, Genetic , Russia , SARS Virus/classification , Species Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
19.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(22): 7162-7184, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1552083

ABSTRACT

The last two decades have witnessed the emergence of three deadly coronaviruses (CoVs) in humans: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There are still no reliable and efficient therapeutics to manage the devastating consequences of these CoVs. Of these, SARS-CoV-2, the cause of the currently ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has posed great global health concerns. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an unprecedented crisis with devastating socio-economic and health impacts worldwide. This highlights the fact that CoVs continue to evolve and have the genetic flexibility to become highly pathogenic in humans and other mammals. SARS-CoV-2 carries a high genetic homology to the previously identified CoV (SARS-CoV), and the immunological and pathogenic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS contain key similarities and differences that can guide therapy and management. This review presents salient and updated information on comparative pathology, molecular pathogenicity, immunological features, and genetic characterization of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2; this can help in the design of more effective vaccines and therapeutics for countering these pathogenic CoVs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Pathology, Molecular/methods , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Global Health/economics , Humans , Male , Mammals , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virulence
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22042, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510622

ABSTRACT

The mutation of SARS-CoV-2 influences viral function as residue replacements affect both physiochemical properties and folding conformations. Although a large amount of data on SARS-CoV-2 is available, the investigation of how viral functions change in response to mutations is hampered by a lack of effective structural analysis. Here, we exploit the advances of protein structure fingerprint technology to study the folding conformational changes induced by mutations. With integration of both protein sequences and folding conformations, the structures are aligned for SARS-CoV to SARS-CoV-2, including Alpha variant (lineage B.1.1.7) and Delta variant (lineage B.1.617.2). The results showed that the virus evolution with change in mutational positions and physicochemical properties increased the affinity between spike protein and ACE2, which plays a critical role in coronavirus entry into human cells. Additionally, these structural variations impact vaccine effectiveness and drug function over the course of SARS-CoV-2 evolution. The analysis of structural variations revealed how the coronavirus has gradually evolved in both structure and function and how the SARS-CoV-2 variants have contributed to more severe acute disease worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Models, Molecular , Protein Conformation , Protein Folding , Protein Interaction Maps , Protein Multimerization , SARS Virus/chemistry , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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