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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(6)2021 03 13.
Article | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110015

ABSTRACT

Negative psychological effects of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have been identified in adults and children, such as anxiety and sleep disorders. However, research about the impact of this pandemic on children from ethnical minorities is scarce. We tested the effects of COVID-19 outbreak on psychological aspects and daily routines among Arab Israeli Children. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted among Arab Israeli parents, including behavioral and emotional aspects questionnaire and questions addressing using of screens, sleep, and physical activities. The results showed that, during the COVID-19 outbreak, 55.8% of the children asked to sleep in their parents' bed and 45% expressed fears they did not have before. Most of the children showed increased irritability, constant mood swings and nervousness about limits and messages, and 41.4% showed sleep difficulties. Concerning adaptive behaviors, more than 50% of the parents reported that their child became wiser, lazier, and was able to adapt the limits and restriction of the COVID-19 outbreak. Moreover, the children tended to increase their use of screens, used to sleep more time, and were less active physically. The results suggest that children are vulnerable to the COVID-19 outbreak psychological effects and highlight the need to reduce the psychological burden of this pandemic and the necessity of immediate intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Adult , Arabs , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Diabetes Care ; 44(8): 1788-1796, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109595

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether risk of severe outcomes among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) differs from that of patients without diabetes or with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release records of patients discharged after COVID-19 hospitalization from U.S. hospitals from March to November 2020 (N = 269,674 after exclusion), we estimated risk differences (RD) and risk ratios (RR) of intensive care unit admission or invasive mechanical ventilation (ICU/MV) and of death among patients with T1DM compared with patients without diabetes or with T2DM. Logistic models were adjusted for age, sex, and race or ethnicity. Models adjusted for additional demographic and clinical characteristics were used to examine whether other factors account for the associations between T1DM and severe COVID-19 outcomes. RESULTS: Compared with patients without diabetes, T1DM was associated with a 21% higher absolute risk of ICU/MV (RD 0.21, 95% CI 0.19-0.24; RR 1.49, 95% CI 1.43-1.56) and a 5% higher absolute risk of mortality (RD 0.05, 95% CI 0.03-0.07; RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.24-1.57), with adjustment for age, sex, and race or ethnicity. Compared with T2DM, T1DM was associated with a 9% higher absolute risk of ICU/MV (RD 0.09, 95% CI 0.07-0.12; RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.12-1.22), but no difference in mortality (RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.02; RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.89-1.13). After adjustment for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurring before or at COVID-19 diagnosis, patients with T1DM no longer had increased risk of ICU/MV (RD 0.01, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.03) and had lower mortality (RD -0.03, 95% CI -0.05 to -0.01) in comparisons with patients with T2DM. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with T1DM hospitalized for COVID-19 are at higher risk for severe outcomes than those without diabetes. Higher risk of ICU/MV in patients with T1DM than in patients with T2DM was largely accounted for by the presence of DKA. These findings might further guide recommendations related to diabetes management and the prevention of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , COVID-19 Testing , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(2): e1008618, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109274

ABSTRACT

For practical reasons, many forecasts of case, hospitalization, and death counts in the context of the current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are issued in the form of central predictive intervals at various levels. This is also the case for the forecasts collected in the COVID-19 Forecast Hub (https://covid19forecasthub.org/). Forecast evaluation metrics like the logarithmic score, which has been applied in several infectious disease forecasting challenges, are then not available as they require full predictive distributions. This article provides an overview of how established methods for the evaluation of quantile and interval forecasts can be applied to epidemic forecasts in this format. Specifically, we discuss the computation and interpretation of the weighted interval score, which is a proper score that approximates the continuous ranked probability score. It can be interpreted as a generalization of the absolute error to probabilistic forecasts and allows for a decomposition into a measure of sharpness and penalties for over- and underprediction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/virology , Forecasting , Humans , Probability , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
BMC Med Ethics ; 22(1): 143, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108768

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, the urgent need to discover effective therapies for COVID-19 prompted questions about the ethical problem of randomization along with its widely accepted solution: equipoise. In this scoping review, uses of equipoise in discussions of randomized controlled trials (RCT) of COVID-19 therapies are evaluated to answer three questions. First, how has equipoise been applied to COVID-19 research? Second, has equipoise been employed accurately? And third, do concerns about equipoise pose a barrier to the ethical conduct of COVID-19 RCTs? METHODS: Google Scholar and Pubmed were searched for articles containing substantial discussion about equipoise and COVID-19 RCTs. 347 article titles were screened, 91 full text articles were assessed, and 48 articles were included. Uses of equipoise were analyzed and abstracted into seven categories. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Approximately two-thirds of articles (33/48 articles) used equipoise in a way that is consistent with the concept. They invoked equipoise to support (1) RCTs of specific therapies, (2) RCTs in general, and (3) the early termination of RCTs after achieving the primary outcome. Approximately one-third of articles (15/48 articles) used equipoise in a manner that is inconsistent with the concept. These articles argued that physician preference, widespread use of unproven therapies, patient preference, or expectation of therapeutic benefit may undermine equipoise and render RCTs unethical. In each case, the purported ethical problem can be resolved by correcting the use of equipoise. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the continued relevance of equipoise as it supports the conduct of well-conceived RCTs and provides moral guidance to physicians and researchers as they search for effective therapies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Therapeutic Equipoise
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several reports from around the world have reported that some patients who have recovered from COVID-19 have experienced a range of persistent or new clinical symptoms after a SARS-CoV-2 infection. These symptoms can last from weeks to months, impacting everyday functioning to a significant number of patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis based on an online, self-reporting questionnaire was conducted in Ecuador from April to July 2022. Participants were invited by social media, radio, and TV to voluntarily participate in our study. A total of 2103 surveys were included in this study. We compared socio-demographic variables and long-term persisting symptoms at low (<2500 m) and high altitude (>2500 m). RESULTS: Overall, 1100 (52.3%) responders claimed to have Long-COVID symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Most of these were reported by women (64.0%); the most affected group was young adults between 21 to 40 years (68.5%), and most long-haulers were mestizos (91.6%). We found that high altitude residents were more likely to report persisting symptoms (71.7%) versus those living at lower altitudes (29.3%). The most common symptoms were fatigue or tiredness (8.4%), hair loss (5.1%) and difficulty concentrating (5.0%). The highest proportion of symptoms was observed in the group that received less than 2 doses. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study describing post-COVID symptoms' persistence in low and high-altitude residents. Our findings demonstrate that women, especially those aging between 21-40, are more likely to describe Long-COVID. We also found that living at a high altitude was associated with higher reports of mood changes, tachycardia, decreased libido, insomnia, and palpitations compared to lowlanders. Finally, we found a greater risk to report Long-COVID symptoms among women, those with previous comorbidities and those who had a severer acute SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Altitude , COVID-19 , Young Adult , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110054

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The current study will evaluate the association that the COVID-19 pandemic has had with health-care workers and identify the factors that influenced the female gender being more affected. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in two hospitals in Arequipa (a Peruvian city). The participants were health-care workers. We applied a questionnaire with sociodemographic information and three scales: the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Primary Care Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screen for DSM-5. The main outcomes were anxiety, depression, and PTSD scores. The exposure of interest was gender. The scores of the scales were estimated by medians and percentiles 25-75 (p25-p75), and we used linear regression to estimate the crude and adjusted coefficients and their respective confidence intervals at 95% (CI 95%). RESULTS: There were 109 participants, and 43.1% were women. The anxiety, depression, and PTSD median (p25-p75) scores in the study population were 6 (2-11), 6 (2-10), and 1 (0-3), respectively. The adjusted analysis showed that the female sex had 4.48 (CI 95% 2.95-6.00), 4.50 (CI 95% 2.39-6.62), and 1.13 (CI 95% 0.50-1.76) higher points on average for the scales of anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms in comparison to males, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Female health-care workers showed increased scores of mental health issues in comparison to male health-care workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
9.
Cells ; 11(19)2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109954

ABSTRACT

Although dementia is a heterogenous group of diseases, inflammation has been shown to play a central role in all of them and provides a common link in their pathology. This review aims to highlight the importance of immune response in the most common types of dementia. We describe molecular aspects of pro-inflammatory signaling and sources of inflammatory activation in the human organism, including a novel infectious agent, SARS-CoV-2. The role of glial cells in neuroinflammation, as well as potential therapeutic approaches, are then discussed. Peripheral immune response and increased cytokine production, including an early surge in TNF and IL-1ß concentrations activate glia, leading to aggravation of neuroinflammation and dysfunction of neurons during COVID-19. Lifestyle factors, such as diet, have a large impact on future cognitive outcomes and should be included as a crucial intervention in dementia prevention. While the use of NSAIDs is not recommended due to inconclusive results on their efficacy and risk of side effects, the studies focused on the use of TNF antagonists as the more specific target in neuroinflammation are still very limited. It is still unknown, to what degree neuroinflammation resulting from COVID-19 may affect neurodegenerative process and cognitive functioning in the long term with ongoing reports of chronic post-COVID complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Cytokines , Humans , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors
10.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109937

ABSTRACT

The spread of SARS-CoV-2, which causes the disease COVID-19, is difficult to control as some positive individuals, capable of transmitting the disease, can be asymptomatic. Thus, it remains critical to generate noninvasive, inexpensive COVID-19 screening systems. Two such methods include detection canines and analytical instrumentation, both of which detect volatile organic compounds associated with SARS-CoV-2. In this study, the performance of trained detection dogs is compared to a noninvasive headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) approach to identifying COVID-19 positive individuals. Five dogs were trained to detect the odor signature associated with COVID-19. They varied in performance, with the two highest-performing dogs averaging 88% sensitivity and 95% specificity over five double-blind tests. The three lowest-performing dogs averaged 46% sensitivity and 87% specificity. The optimized linear discriminant analysis (LDA) model, developed using HS-SPME-GC-MS, displayed a 100% true positive rate and a 100% true negative rate using leave-one-out cross-validation. However, the non-optimized LDA model displayed difficulty in categorizing animal hair-contaminated samples, while animal hair did not impact the dogs' performance. In conclusion, the HS-SPME-GC-MS approach for noninvasive COVID-19 detection more accurately discriminated between COVID-19 positive and COVID-19 negative samples; however, dogs performed better than the computational model when non-ideal samples were presented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Odorants , Dogs , Animals , Odorants/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Solid Phase Microextraction/methods , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
11.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109936

ABSTRACT

Quick label-free virus screening and highly sensitive analytical tools/techniques are becoming extremely important in a pandemic. In this study, we developed a biosensing device based on the silicon nanoribbon multichannel and dielectrophoretic controlled sensors functionalized with SARS-CoV-2 spike antibodies for the use as a platform for the detection and studding of properties of viruses and their protein components. Replicatively defective viral particles based on vesicular stomatitis viruses and HIV-1 were used as carrier molecules to deliver the target SARS-CoV-2 spike S-proteins to sensory elements. It was shown that fully CMOS-compatible nanoribbon sensors have the subattomolar sensitivity and dynamic range of 4 orders. Specific interaction between S-proteins and antibodies leads to the accumulation of the negative charge on the sensor surface. Nonspecific interactions of the viral particles lead to the positive charge accumulation. It was shown that dielectrophoretic controlled sensors allow to estimate the effective charge of the single virus at the sensor surface and separate it from the charge associated with the binding of target proteins with the sensor surface.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Nanotubes, Carbon , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Pandemics , Antibodies, Viral
12.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109935

ABSTRACT

Worldwide infection due to SARS-CoV-2 revealed that short-time and extremely high-sensitivity detection of nucleic acids is a crucial technique for human beings. Polymerase chain reactions have been mainly used for the SARS-CoV-2 detection over the years. However, an advancement in quantification of the detection and shortening runtime is important for present and future use. Here, we report a rapid detection scheme that is a combination of nucleic acid amplification and a highly efficient fluorescence biosensor, that is, a metasurface biosensor composed of a pair of an all-dielectric metasurface and a microfluidic transparent chip. In the present scheme, we show a series of proof-of-concept experimental results that the metasurface biosensors detected amplicons originating from attomolar SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids and that the amplification was implemented within 1 h. Furthermore, this detection capability substantially satisfies an official requirement of 100 RNA copies/140 µL, which is a criterion for the reliable infection tests.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods
13.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109934

ABSTRACT

Rapid and cost-effective diagnostic tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are a critical and valuable weapon for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic response. SARS-CoV-2 invasion is primarily mediated by human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2). Recent developments in ACE2-based SARS-CoV-2 detection modalities accentuate the potential of this natural host-virus interaction for developing point-of-care (POC) COVID-19 diagnostic systems. Although research on harnessing ACE2 for SARS-CoV-2 detection is in its infancy, some interesting biosensing devices have been developed, showing the commercial viability of this intriguing new approach. The exquisite performance of the reported ACE2-based COVID-19 biosensors provides opportunities for researchers to develop rapid detection tools suitable for virus detection at points of entry, workplaces, or congregate scenarios in order to effectively implement pandemic control and management plans. However, to be considered as an emerging approach, the rationale for ACE2-based biosensing needs to be critically and comprehensively surveyed and discussed. Herein, we review the recent status of ACE2-based detection methods, the signal transduction principles in ACE2 biosensors and the development trend in the future. We discuss the challenges to development of ACE2-biosensors and delineate prospects for their use, along with recommended solutions and suggestions.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pandemics
14.
Biomolecules ; 12(11)2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109925

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is currently widespread throughout the world, accompanied by a rising number of people infected and breakthrough infection of variants, which make the virus highly transmissible and replicable. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular virological events and induced immunological features during SARS-CoV-2 replication can provide reliable targets for vaccine and drug development. Among the potential targets, subgenomic RNAs and their encoded proteins involved in the life cycle of SARS-CoV-2 are extremely important in viral duplication and pathogenesis. Subgenomic RNAs employ a range of coping strategies to evade immune surveillance from replication to translation, which allows RNAs to synthesize quickly, encode structural proteins efficiently and complete the entire process of virus replication and assembly successfully. This review focuses on the characteristics and functions of SARS-CoV-2 subgenomic RNAs and their encoded proteins and explores in depth the role of subgenomic RNAs in the replication and infection of host cells to provide important clues to the mechanism of COVID-19 pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , RNA , Virus Replication/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism
15.
Biomolecules ; 12(11)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109924

ABSTRACT

Gold compounds have a long tradition in medicine and offer many opportunities for new therapeutic applications. Herein, we evaluated the lead compound Auranofin and five related gold(I) complexes as possible inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease (SARS-CoV-2 Mpro), a validated drug target for the COVID-19 disease. The investigational panel of gold compounds included Auranofin; three halido analogues, i.e., Au(PEt3)Cl, Au(PEt3)Br, and Au(PEt3)I; and two gold carbene complexes, i.e., Au(NHC)Cl and [Au(NHC)2]PF6. Notably, all these gold compounds, with the only exception of [Au(NHC)2]PF6, turned out to be potent inhibitors of the catalytic activity of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro: the measured Ki values were in the range 2.1-0.4 µM. The reactions of the various gold compounds with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro were subsequently investigated through electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) upon a careful optimization of the experimental conditions; the ESI MS spectra provided clear evidence for the formation of tight metallodrug-protein adducts and for the coordination of well defined gold-containing fragments to the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, again with the only exception of [Au(NHC)2]PF6, The metal-protein stoichiometry was unambiguously determined for the resulting species. The crystal structures of the metallodrug- Mpro adducts were solved in the case of Au(PEt3)Br and Au(NHC)Cl. These crystal structures show that gold coordination occurs at the level of catalytic Cys 145 in the case of Au(NHC)Cl and at the level of both Cys 145 and Cys 156 for Au(PEt3)Br. Tight coordination of gold atoms to functionally relevant cysteine residues is believed to represent the true molecular basis of strong enzyme inhibition.


Subject(s)
Auranofin , COVID-19 , Humans , Auranofin/pharmacology , Viral Proteins/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Gold Compounds/pharmacology , Cysteine , Gold/pharmacology
16.
Biomolecules ; 12(11)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 has undergone mutations, yielding clinically relevant variants. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that in SARS-CoV-2, two highly conserved Orf3a and E channels directly related to the virus replication were a target for the detection and inhibition of the viral replication, independent of the variant, using FDA-approved ion channel modulators. METHODS: A combination of a fluorescence potassium ion assay with channel modulators was developed to detect SARS-CoV-2 Orf3a/E channel activity. Two FDA-approved drugs, amantadine (an antiviral) and amitriptyline (an antidepressant), which are ion channel blockers, were tested as to whether they inhibited Orf3a/E channel activity in isolated virus variants and in nasal swab samples from COVID-19 patients. The variants were confirmed by PCR sequencing. RESULTS: In isolated SARS-CoV-2 Alpha, Beta, and Delta variants, the channel activity of Orf3a/E was detected and inhibited by emodin and gliclazide (IC50 = 0.42 mM). In the Delta swab samples, amitriptyline and amantadine inhibited the channel activity of viral proteins, with IC50 values of 0.73 mM and 1.11 mM, respectively. In the Omicron swab samples, amitriptyline inhibited the channel activity, with an IC50 of 0.76 mM. CONCLUSIONS: We developed an efficient method to screen FDA-approved ion channel modulators that could be repurposed to detect and inhibit SARS-CoV-2 viral replication, independent of variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ion Channels , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Amantadine/pharmacology , Amitriptyline/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ion Channels/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Repositioning
17.
Biomolecules ; 12(11)2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109922

ABSTRACT

With its fast-paced mutagenesis, the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has threatened many societies worldwide. Strategies for predicting mutagenesis such as the computational prediction of SARS-CoV-2 structural diversity and its interaction with the human receptor will greatly benefit our understanding of the virus and help develop therapeutics against it. We aim to use protein structure prediction algorithms along with molecular docking to study the effects of various mutations in the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 and its key interactions with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) receptor. The RBD structures of the naturally occurring variants of SARS-CoV-2 were generated from the WUHAN-Hu-1 using the trRosetta algorithm. Docking (HADDOCK) and binding analysis (PRODIGY) between the predicted RBD sequences and ACE-2 highlighted key interactions at the Receptor-Binding Motif (RBM). Further mutagenesis at conserved residues in the Original, Delta, and Omicron variants (P499S and T500R) demonstrated stronger binding and interactions with the ACE-2 receptor. The predicted T500R mutation underwent some preliminary tests in vitro for its binding and transmissibility in cells; the results correlate with the in-silico analysis. In summary, we suggest conserved residues P499 and T500 as potential mutation sites that could increase the binding affinity and yet do not exist in nature. This work demonstrates the use of the trRosetta algorithm to predict protein structure and future mutations at the RBM of SARS-CoV-2, followed by experimental testing for further efficacy verification. It is important to understand the protein structure and folding to help develop potential therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Receptors, Virus , Protein Binding , Mutation , Protein Folding
18.
Biomolecules ; 12(11)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109921

ABSTRACT

Adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) molecules on negatively charged polystyrene microparticles was studied using the dynamic light scattering, the electrophoretic and the solution depletion methods involving atomic force microscopy. Initially, the physicochemical characteristics of the albumin comprising the hydrodynamic diameter, the zeta potential and the isoelectric point were determined as a function of pH. Analogous characteristics of the polymer particles were acquired, including their size and zeta potential. The formation of albumin corona on the particles was investigated in situ by electrophoretic mobility measurements. The size, stability and electrokinetic properties of the particles with the corona were also determined. The particle diameter was equal to 125 nm, which coincides with the size of the SARS-CoV-2 virion. The isoelectric point of the particles appeared at a pH of 5. The deposition kinetics of the particles was determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) under diffusion and by quartz microbalance (QCM) under flow conditions. It was shown that the deposition rate at a gold sensor abruptly vanished with pH following the decrease in the zeta potential of the particles. It is postulated that the acquired results can be used as useful reference systems mimicking virus adsorption on abiotic surfaces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Humans , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Adsorption , Serum Albumin, Human/chemistry , Virion , Surface Properties
19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1038017, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109888

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, referred to as new coronary pneumonia, is an acute infectious disease caused by a new type of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. To evaluate the effect of integrated Chinese medicine and Western medicine in patients with COVID-19 from overseas. Data were collected from 178 COVID-19 patients overseas at First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University from April 1, 2021 to July 31, 2021. These patients received therapy of integrated Chinese medicine and western medicine. Demographic data and clinical characteristics were extracted and analyzed. In addition, the prescription which induced less length of PCR positive days and hospitalization days than the median value was obtained. The top 4 frequently used Chinese medicine and virus-related genes were analyzed by network pharmacology and bioinformatics analysis. According to the chest computed tomography (CT) measurement, abnormal lung findings were observed in 145 subjects. The median length of positive PCR/hospitalization days was 7/7 days for asymptomatic subjects, 14/24 days for mild subjects, 10/15 days for moderate subjects, and 14/20 days for severe subjects. The most frequently used Chinese medicine were Scutellaria baicalensis (Huangqin), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Gancao), Bupleurum chinense (Chaihu), and Pinellia ternata (Banxia). The putative active ingredients were baicalin, stigmasterol, sigmoidin-B, cubebin, and troxerutin. ACE, SARS-CoV-2 3CL, SARS-CoV-2 Spike, SARS-CoV-2 ORF7a, and caspase-6 showed good binding properties to active ingredients. In conclusion, the clinical results showed that integrated Chinese medicine and Western medicine are effective in treating COVID-19 patients from overseas. Based on the clinical outcomes, the putative ingredients from Chinese medicine and the potential targets of SARS-CoV-2 were provided, which could provide a reference for the clinical application of Chinese medicine in treating COVID-19 worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Hospitalization
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1015955, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109886

ABSTRACT

It is everyone's desire to seek the sound growth of children through food education and there is a critical need for fostering an environment for this purpose. Health policies are important for this support. To the present, the Japanese society has been greatly disrupted by COVID-19 pandemic. "Stay at home", "mokusyoku (silent eating)", and mask wearing were encouraged in nationwide campaigns as public health measures to combat COVID-19. There are some papers reporting negative effects of "stay at home" and lockdowns such as weight gain, decrease in physical activities and change in eating habits. In Japan, while benefits and advantages of food education during mealtime were previously well studied, the "mokusyoku" rule may directly run counter to this food education. Moreover, there are several reports showing that nutrients might contribute to prevention of infectious diseases. Japanese children were also encouraged to wear masks all day long. The results of the clinical research, especially randomized control trials, show limited protective effect of masks. On the other hand, negative outcomes of the masks were reported in various scenes. This review focuses on these topics and arousing reconsideration for a better environment for children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Japan , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Communicable Disease Control , Health Policy
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