Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 838
Filter
4.
BMJ ; 379: o2870, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137638
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20250, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133635

ABSTRACT

Glucocorticoids are regularly used as biomarkers of relative health for individuals and populations. Around the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), baleen whales have and continue to experience threats, including commercial harvest, prey limitations and habitat change driven by rapid warming, and increased human presence via ecotourism. Here, we measured demographic variation and differences across the foraging season in blubber cortisol levels of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) over two years around the WAP. Cortisol concentrations were determined from 305 biopsy samples of unique individuals. We found no significant difference in the cortisol concentration between male and female whales. However, we observed significant differences across demographic groups of females and a significant decrease in the population across the feeding season. We also assessed whether COVID-19-related reductions in tourism in 2021 along the WAP correlated with lower cortisol levels across the population. The decline in vessel presence in 2021 was associated with a significant decrease in humpback whale blubber cortisol concentrations at the population level. Our findings provide critical contextual data on how these hormones vary naturally in a population over time, show direct associations between cortisol levels and human presence, and will enable comparisons among species experiencing different levels of human disturbance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humpback Whale , Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Hydrocortisone , Antarctic Regions , Seasons
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2240132, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2127451

ABSTRACT

Importance: The 2020-2021 National Football League (NFL) season had some games with fans and others without. Thus, the exposed group (ie, games with fans) and the unexposed group (games without fans) could be examined to better understand the association between fan attendance and local incidence of COVID-19. Objective: To assess whether NFL football games with varying degrees of in-person attendance were associated with increased COVID-19 cases in the counties where the games were held, as well as in contiguous counties, compared with games without in-person attendance for 7-, 14-, and 21-day follow-ups. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data for all 32 NFL teams across the entirety of the 2020-2021 season. Separate daily time-series of COVID-19 total cases and case rates were generated using 7-, 14-, and 21-day simple moving averages for every team and were plotted against the actuals to detect potential spikes (outliers) in incidence levels following games for the county in which games took place, contiguous counties, and a combination. Outliers flagged in the period following games were recorded. Poisson exact tests were evaluated for differences in spike incidence as well across games with different rates of attendance. The data were analyzed between February 2021 and March 2021. Exposures: Games with fan attendance vs games with no fan attendance, as well as the number of fans in attendance for games with fans. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was estimation of COVID-19 cases and rates at the county and contiguous county level at 7-, 14-, and 21-day intervals for in-person attended games and non-fan attended games, which was further investigated by stratifying by the number of persons in fan-attended games. Results: This included a total of 269 NFL game dates. Of these games, 117 were assigned to an exposed group (fans attended), and the remaining 152 games comprised the unexposed group (unattended). Fan attendance ranged from 748 to 31 700 persons. Fan attendance was associated with episodic spikes in COVID-19 cases and rates in the 14-day window for the in-county (cases: rate ratio [RR], 1.36; 95% CI, 1.00-1.87), contiguous counties (cases: RR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.00-1.72; rates: RR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.13-1.76), and pooled counties groups (cases: RR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01-1.79; rates: RR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.29-2.28) as well as for the 21-day window in-county (cases: RR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.21-1.83; rates: RR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.26-1.78), in contiguous counties(cases: RR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.14-1.65; rates: RR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.24-1.71), and pooled counties groups (cases: RR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.11-1.79; rates: RR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.35-2.15). Games with fewer than 5000 fans were not associated with any spikes, but in counties where teams had 20 000 fans in attendance, there were 2.23 times the rate of spikes in COVID-19 (95% CI, 1.53 to ∞). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of the presence of fans at NFL home games during the 2020-2021 season, results indicated that fan attendance was associated with increased levels of COVID-19 in the counties in which the venues are nested within, as well as in surrounding counties. The spikes in COVID-19 for crowds of over 20 000 people suggest that large events should be handled with extreme caution during public health event(s) where vaccines, on-site testing, and various countermeasures are not readily available to the public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Football , Humans , Incidence , Seasons , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(21): 8172-8179, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117927

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the characteristics and outcomes of critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) due to COVID-19 or influenza- associated pneumonia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a two-center retrospective study on patients admitted to the ICU due to either COVID-19 associated pneumonia (CAP) or influenza-associated pneumonia (IAP). Baseline characteristics, therapy during hospitalization and clinical outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: Our study included 86 patients admitted to the ICU. Twenty-four patients (28%) had IAP and 62 patients (72%) had CAP. Those with IAP had more comorbidities of cardiac disease (p=0.005) and chronic obstructive lung disease (p=0.03) compared to those with CAP. Non-invasive ventilation was used significantly more in patients with IAP (p=0.001). The use of neuromuscular blockade was significantly higher in CAP patients (p=0.001). CAP patients had less favourable ventilation parameters. PEEP was significantly higher in those with CAP on the first day of admission (p=0.002). There was no difference in mortality (p=0.61) between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Patients admission to the ICU with CAP had less comorbidity than those with IAP. Patients with CAP had poorer ventilatory parameters patterns, requiring more aggressive ventilation and ECMO support. The overall mortality did not differ significantly between the groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Influenza, Human , Pneumonia , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Seasons , Intensive Care Units
8.
Cells ; 11(22)2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116255

ABSTRACT

The scope of immune monitoring is to define the existence, magnitude, and quality of immune mechanisms operational in a host. In clinical trials and praxis, the assessment of humoral immunity is commonly confined to measurements of serum antibody reactivity without accounting for the memory B cell potential. Relying on fundamentally different mechanisms, however, passive immunity conveyed by pre-existing antibodies needs to be distinguished from active B cell memory. Here, we tested whether, in healthy human individuals, the antibody titers to SARS-CoV-2, seasonal influenza, or Epstein-Barr virus antigens correlated with the frequency of recirculating memory B cells reactive with the respective antigens. Weak correlations were found. The data suggest that the assessment of humoral immunity by measurement of antibody levels does not reflect on memory B cell frequencies and thus an individual's potential to engage in an anamnestic antibody response against the same or an antigenically related virus. Direct monitoring of the antigen-reactive memory B cell compartment is both required and feasible towards that goal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Influenza, Human , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Antibodies, Viral , Memory B Cells , Seasons
9.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(11): e1543-e1544, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114588
10.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113143

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the genetic and evolutionary characteristics of the influenza A/H3N2 viruses circulating in Myanmar from 2015 to 2019. Whole genomes from 79 virus isolates were amplified using real-time polymerase chain reaction and successfully sequenced using the Illumina iSeq100 platforms. Eight individual phylogenetic trees were retrieved for each segment along with those of the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended Southern Hemisphere vaccine strains for the respective years. Based on the WHO clades classification, the A/H3N2 strains in Myanmar from 2015 to 2019 collectively belonged to clade 3c.2. These strains were further defined based on hemagglutinin substitutions as follows: clade 3C.2a (n = 39), 3C.2a1 (n = 2), and 3C.2a1b (n = 38). Genetic analysis revealed that the Myanmar strains differed from the Southern Hemisphere vaccine strains each year, indicating that the vaccine strains did not match the circulating strains. The highest rates of nucleotide substitution were estimated for hemagglutinin (3.37 × 10-3 substitutions/site/year) and neuraminidase (2.89 × 10-3 substitutions/site/year). The lowest rate was for non-structural protein segments (4.19 × 10-5 substitutions/site/year). The substantial genetic diversity that was revealed improved phylogenetic classification. This information will be particularly relevant for improving vaccine strain selection.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A virus/genetics , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/genetics , Hemagglutinins , Phylogeny , Myanmar/epidemiology , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Seasons
11.
East Mediterr Health J ; 28(10): 776-780, 2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2111423

ABSTRACT

Background: Since winter 2020, excess deaths due to COVID-19 have been higher in Eastern Europe than most of Western Europe, partly because regulatory enforcement was poor. Methods: This paper analysed data from 50 countries in the WHO European Region, in addition to data from USA and Canada. Excess mMortality and vaccination data were retrieved from "Our World In Data" and regulation implementation was assessed using standard methods. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the association between mortality and each covariate. Results: Excess mortality increased by 4.1 per 100 000 (P = 0.038) for every percentage decrease in vaccination rate and with 6/100 000 (p=0.011) for every decreased unit in the regulatory implementation score a country achieved in the Rule of Law Index. Conclusion: Degree of regulation enforcement, likely including public health measure enforcement, may be an important factor in controlling COVID-19's deleterious health impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccination Coverage , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Europe/epidemiology , Seasons
12.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e937953, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110986

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Influenza can be the most dangerous for people in risk groups, for example for seniors, in whom it can lead to serious and life-threatening complications. The aim of this research was to analyze the activity of influenza viruses and influenza-like viruses in patients over 65 years of age in the 2019-2020 epidemic season in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 1269 samples collected from patients over 65 years of age with suspected influenza or other respiratory viruses in the 2019-2020 epidemic season (from October 1, 2019, to September 30, 2020) were analyzed. The test material was nose and throat swabs collected during the 2019-2020 epidemic season. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the influenza virus type and subtype for positive samples. RESULTS Among the confirmed infections with influenza viruses, cases due to influenza A were dominant, and the dominant subtype was influenza A subtype A/H1N1/pdm09. Infections with influenza-like viruses were also confirmed in the patients participating in the study, with the presence of genetic material of respiratory syncytial viruses confirmed most often. CONCLUSIONS Seasonal vaccinations can significantly reduce the number of cases and thus the risk of post-influenza complications and deaths among seniors. This is very important, especially now, due to the current epidemiological situation related to the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 respiratory virus pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Viruses , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Seasons , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110280

ABSTRACT

Viral respiratory infections contribute to significant morbidity and mortality in children. Currently, there are limited reports on the composition and abundance of the normal commensal respiratory virome in comparison to those in severe acute respiratory infections (SARIs) state. This study characterised the respiratory RNA virome in children ≤ 5 years with (n = 149) and without (n = 139) SARI during the summer and winter of 2020/2021 seasons in South Africa. Nasopharyngeal swabs were, collected, pooled, enriched for viral RNA detection, sequenced using Illumina MiSeq, and analysed using the Genome Detective bioinformatic tool. Overall, Picornaviridae, Paramoxyviridae, Pneumoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Totiviridae, and Retroviridae families were the most abundant viral population in both groups across both seasons. Human rhinovirus and endogenous retrovirus K113 were detected in most pools, with exclusive detection of Pneumoviridae in SARI pools. Generally, higher viral diversity/abundance was seen in children with SARI and in the summer pools. Several plant/animal viruses, eukaryotic viruses with unclear pathogenicity including a distinct rhinovirus A type, were detected. This study provides remarkable data on the respiratory RNA virome in children with and without SARI with a degree of heterogeneity of known viruses colonizing their respiratory tract. The implication of the detected viruses in the dynamics/progression of SARI requires further investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Child , Animals , Humans , Virome , South Africa/epidemiology , Seasons , RNA , Pandemics , Viruses/genetics , Respiratory System
14.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(11)2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110177

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of morbidity and hospital admission due to respiratory tract infection among infants and young children. The current study aims to describe the prevalence and the seasonal pattern of RSV during the previous seven years. Materials and Methods: Clinical data and RSV antigen and PCR test results were collected from patients' medical records at King Fahd Hospital of the University in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia between January 2015 and February 2022. Results: The overall percentage of RSV detection was 26.3% (336/1279) among the tested individuals. RSV infection was more common among children below five years and elderly above 60 years of age. Two-thirds of the cases required hospitalization. The average hospital stay due to RSV infection was 6.5 days (range 0-56 days). The rate of hospitalization was higher among infants and younger children and decreased with age (p-value < 0.001). RSV infection was more prevalent between August and February and decreased appreciably between March and July. The peak level of infection was during December and January. No RSV infections were reported during the COVID-19 pandemic and the following winter. The cases increased again in August 2021, with an unusual out-of-season peak. Conclusions: RSV infection is one of the important causes of morbidity and hospitalization among infants and young children in Saudi Arabia. The seasonal pattern of infection has changed after the COVID-19 pandemic, and the physicians should be aware that infection may happen currently at different times throughout the year.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Infant , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Aged , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Seasons , COVID-19/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Hospitalization
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110108

ABSTRACT

In Korea, wearing masks in public places has become the norm during the prolonged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This cross-sectional study investigated the mask-wearing behavior of Koreans (n = 433) via online mode living in Seoul and Gwangju after wearing a mask in public spaces for two years due to COVID-19. The respondents selected their face masks based on season, gender, age, occupation, mask-wearing hours, mask filter performance, mask shape, and mask color. The general discomfort caused by wearing a mask was divided into physical and speech discomfort, and it was not correlated with anxiety when not wearing a face mask. Speech discomfort caused by wearing a mask was correlated with general discomfort, clear speech, vocal pain, anxiety, and only-indoor mask-off plans. Anxiety when not wearing a mask appeared to affect both indoor and outdoor mask-off plans. The more uncomfortable and less anxious respondents were when not wearing a mask, the sooner they wanted to discontinue wearing masks indoors and outdoors. It is expected that the use of masks will continue in the future and that there may be differences in the place and time of use of masks in Korea and around the world due to new infectious diseases and fine dust. Facial masks can be worn more comfortably and conveniently if the discomfort and anxiety of wearing a mask are improved by considering various behaviors when wearing a mask in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Pandemics , Seasons
16.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(2): 167-179, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The safety and immunogenicity profile of COVID-19 vaccines when administered concomitantly with seasonal influenza vaccines have not yet been reported. We therefore aimed to report the results of a substudy within a phase 3 UK trial, by evaluating the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of NVX-CoV2373 when co-administered with licensed seasonal influenza vaccines. METHODS: We did a planned exploratory substudy as part of the randomised, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial of the safety and efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine (NVX-CoV2373) by co-administrating the influenza vaccine at four study hospitals in the UK. Approximately, the first 400 participants meeting the main study entry criteria-with no contraindications to influenza vaccination-were invited to join the substudy. Participants of the main study were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive two intramuscular injections of either NVX-CoV2373 (5 µg) or placebo (normal saline) 21 days apart; participants enrolled into the substudy were co-vaccinated with a single (0·5 mL) intramuscular, age-appropriate (quadrivalent influenza cell-based vaccine [Flucelvax Quadrivalent; Seqirus UK, Maidenhead] for those aged 18-64 years and adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine [Fluad; Seqirus UK, Maidenhead] for those ≥65 years), licensed, influenza vaccine on the opposite deltoid to that of the first study vaccine dose or placebo. The influenza vaccine was administered in an open-label manner and at the same time as the first study injection. Reactogenicity was evaluated via an electronic diary for 7 days after vaccination in addition to monitoring for unsolicited adverse events, medically attended adverse events, and serious adverse events. Immunogenicity was assessed with influenza haemagglutination inhibition and SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike protein IgG assays. Vaccine efficacy against PCR-confirmed, symptomatic COVID-19 was assessed in participants who were seronegative at baseline, received both doses of study vaccine or placebo, had no major protocol deviations affecting the primary endpoint, and had no confirmed cases of symptomatic COVID-19 from the first dose until 6 days after the second dose (per-protocol efficacy population). Immunogenicity was assessed in participants who received scheduled two doses of study vaccine, had a baseline sample and at least one post-vaccination sample, and had no major protocol violations before unmasking (per-protocol immunogenicity population). Reactogenicity was analysed in all participants who received at least one dose of NVX-CoV2373 or placebo and had data collected for reactogenicity events. Safety was analysed in all participants who received at least one dose of NVX-CoV2373 or placebo. Comparisons were made between participants of the substudy and the main study (who were not co-vaccinated for influenza). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04583995. FINDINGS: Between Sept 28, 2020, and Nov 28, 2020, a total of 15 187 participants were randomised into the main phase 3 trial, of whom 15 139 received treatment (7569 received dose one of NVX-CoV2373 and 7570 received dose one of placebo). 431 participants were co-vaccinated with a seasonal influenza vaccine in the substudy (217 received NVX-CoV2373 plus the influenza vaccine and 214 received placebo plus the influenza vaccine). In general, the substudy participants were younger, more racially diverse, and had fewer comorbid conditions than those in the main study. Reactogenicity events were more common in the co-administration group than in the NVX-CoV2373 alone group: tenderness (113 [64·9%] of 174 vs 592 [53·3%] of 1111) or pain (69 [39·7%] vs 325 [29·3%]) at injection site, fatigue (48 [27·7%] vs 215 [19·4%]), and muscle pain (49 [28·3%] vs 237 [21·4%]). Incidences of unsolicited adverse events, treatment-related medically attended adverse events, and serious adverse events were low and balanced between the co-administration group and the NVX-CoV2373 alone group. No episodes of anaphylaxis or deaths were reported within the substudy. Co-administration resulted in no change to influenza vaccine immune response although a reduction in antibody responses to the NVX-CoV2373 vaccine was noted. NVX-CoV2373 vaccine efficacy in the substudy (ie, participants aged 18 to <65 years) was 87·5% (95% CI -0·2 to 98·4) and in the main study was 89·8% (95% CI 79·7-95·5). INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this substudy is the first to show the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy profile of a COVID-19 vaccine when co-administered with seasonal influenza vaccines. Our results suggest concomitant vaccination might be a viable immunisation strategy. FUNDING: Novavax.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Young Adult
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 111: 68-75, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The cross-reactive antibody response against seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) was evaluated according to disease severity in patients with COVID-19 in Japan. METHODS: In total, 194 paired serum samples collected from 97 patients with COVID-19 (mild, 35; severe, 62) were analyzed on admission and during convalescence. IgG antibodies against the nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S) proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and four seasonal HCoVs (HCoV-NL63, -229E, -OC43, and -HKU1) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: There was no difference in optical density (OD) values for seasonal HCoVs on admission between the severe and mild cases. In addition, a specific pattern of disease severity-associated OD values for HCoVs was not identified. Significant increases in OD values from admission to convalescence for HCoV-HKU1and -OC43 IgG-S, and for HCoV-NL63 and -229E IgG-N were observed in the severe cases. Significant differences were observed between the mild and severe cases for HCoV-HKU1 and -OC43 IgG-S OD values during convalescence. Correlations were found between the fold changes for HCoV-OC43 IgG-S OD values, and for SARS-CoV-2 IgG-S OD values, and C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and lymphocyte levels. CONCLUSION: There was no association between the antibody titer for seasonal HCoVs in the early phase of COVID-19 and disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
18.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 475, 2022 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108765

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the relationship between pandemic events and dental emergency service frequentation. Utilization patterns in the scope of the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed and considered in regard of seasonal parameters. METHODS: All outpatients seeking treatment in a university hospital's dental emergency service were analyzed in the years 2019, 2019 and 2020 according to demographic data and emergencies were subdivided into "absolute" and "relative". The years 2018 and 2019 were used to compare COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 phases. Defined waves of the pandemic were compared with equivalent prior-year periods. RESULTS: Our study includes 11,219 dental emergency patients over a period of three years with a slight surplus of male patients. Comparing the pre-COVID-19 years and 2020 as a year of pandemic, the total count of cases decreased by more than 25%. The share of absolute emergencies in 2020 was higher than in the years before (p < 0.0001). The under-utilization during the waves was more pronounced during the first wave compared to the second waves. CONCLUSIONS: Additionally to the clear decrease by more than 25% in 2020, we found an inverse dependency of 7-day-incidence of COVID-19 and number of visits. This effect was more distinct for relative emergencies, while the number of patients with absolute emergencies remains rather constant. Probably, there is an acclimatization effect regarding the waves. Patients older than 60 years who suffered from relative emergencies showed an under-utilzation during 2020. During a pandemic such as COVID-19, the effect of under-utilization is more pronounced among elderly patients. However, a pandemic acclimatization effect seems to occur. This can be taken into account in the administration of this kind of circumstances in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Male , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Emergency Service, Hospital , Retrospective Studies
20.
Obstet Gynecol ; 140(5): 874-877, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107619

ABSTRACT

Influenza testing and case-confirmation rates in pregnant populations have not been reported during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Using electronic medical record data from a cohort of nearly 20,000 pregnancies in the United States, this retrospective cohort study examines the frequency of acute respiratory or febrile illness encounters, influenza testing, and influenza positivity during the 2020-2021 influenza season, which occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, compared with the 2019-2020 influenza season, which largely did not. The ratios of influenza tests to acute respiratory or febrile illness visits were similar in the 2019-2020 and 2020-2021 influenza seasons (approximately 1:8 and 1:9, respectively) but were low and varied by study site. Although influenza testing in pregnant patients continued in the 2020-2021 season, when severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) circulation was widespread in the United States, no cases of influenza were identified in our study cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Pregnancy , Female , United States/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Seasons , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL