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1.
Sci Immunol ; 7(73): eabq3511, 2022 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038228

ABSTRACT

Understanding immune responses after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) breakthrough infection will facilitate the development of next-generation vaccines. Here, we profiled spike (S)-specific B cell responses after Omicron/BA.1 infection in messenger RNA-vaccinated donors. The acute antibody response was characterized by high levels of somatic hypermutation and a bias toward recognition of ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strains, suggesting the early activation of vaccine-induced memory B cells. BA.1 breakthrough infection induced a shift in B cell immunodominance hierarchy from the S2 subunit, which is highly conserved across SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs), and toward the antigenically variable receptor binding domain (RBD). A large proportion of RBD-directed neutralizing antibodies isolated from BA.1 breakthrough infection donors displayed convergent sequence features and broadly recognized SARS-CoV-2 VOCs. Together, these findings provide insights into the role of preexisting immunity in shaping the B cell response to heterologous SARS-CoV-2 variant exposure.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Immunologic Memory , Antibodies, Viral , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cross Reactions , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins
2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 967493, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029957

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has posed a constant threat to human beings and the world economy for more than two years. Vaccination is the first choice to control and prevent the pandemic. However, an effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccine against the virus infection is still needed. This study designed and prepared four kinds of virus-like particles (VLPs) using an insect expression system. Two constructs encoded wild-type SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) fused with or without H5N1 matrix 1 (M1) (S and SM). The other two constructs contained a codon-optimized spike gene and/or M1 gene (mS and mSM) based on protein expression, stability, and ADE avoidance. The results showed that the VLP-based vaccine could induce high SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies in mice, including specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a. Moreover, the mSM group has the most robust ability to stimulate humoral immunity and cellular immunity than the other VLPs, suggesting the mSM is the best immunogen. Further studies showed that the mSM combined with Al/CpG adjuvant could stimulate animals to produce sustained high-level antibodies and establish an effective protective barrier to protect mice from challenges with mouse-adapted strain. The vaccine based on mSM and Al/CpG adjuvant is a promising candidate vaccine to prevent the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Viral Vaccines , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
4.
Curr Opin Pharmacol ; 62: 64-73, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000361

ABSTRACT

Several clinical trials started during the COVID-19 pandemic to discover effective therapeutics led to identify a few candidates from the major clinical trials. However, in the past several months, quite a few SARS-CoV-2 variants have emerged with significant mutations. Major mutations in the S-glycoprotein and other parts of the genome have led to the antibody's escape to small molecule-based therapeutic resistance. The mutations in S-glycoprotein trigger the antibody escape/resistance, and mutations in RdRp might cause remdesivir resistance. The article illustrates emerging mutations that have resulted in antibody escape to therapeutics resistance. In this direction, the article illustrates presently developed neutralizing antibodies (with their preclinical, clinical stages) and antibody escapes and associated mutations. Finally, owing to the RdRp mutations, the antiviral small molecules resistance is illustrated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Humans , Mutation , Pandemics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
5.
J Infect Dis ; 226(1): 23-31, 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992205

ABSTRACT

The durability of protective humoral immunity after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination and infection is largely dependent on the generation and persistence of antigen-specific isotype-switched memory B cells (MBCs) and long-lived plasma cells that reside in the bone marrow and secrete high-affinity neutralizing antibodies. The reactivity of vaccine-induced MBCs to emerging clinically significant SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoCs) is largely unknown. In a longitudinal cohort study (up to 6 months following coronavirus disease 2019 messenger RNA vaccination), we measured MBCs in concert with other functional antibody measures. We found statistically significant differences between the frequencies of MBCs responding to homologous and VoC (Beta, Gamma, and Delta) receptor-binding domains after vaccination that persisted over time. In concert with a waning antibody response, the reduced MBC response to VoCs could translate to a weaker subsequent recall immune response and increased susceptibility to the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variant strains after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(34): e2204256119, 2022 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991767

ABSTRACT

Antibody therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19 have been highly successful. However, the recent emergence of the Omicron variant has posed a challenge, as it evades detection by most existing SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). Here, we successfully generated a panel of SARS-CoV-2/SARS-CoV cross-neutralizing antibodies by sequential immunization of the two pseudoviruses. Of the potential candidates, we found that nAbs X01, X10, and X17 offer broad neutralizing potential against most variants of concern, with X17 further identified as a Class 5 nAb with undiminished neutralization against the Omicron variant. Cryo-electron microscopy structures of the three antibodies together in complex with each of the spike proteins of the prototypical SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and Delta and Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 defined three nonoverlapping conserved epitopes on the receptor-binding domain. The triple-antibody mixture exhibited enhanced resistance to viral evasion and effective protection against infection of the Beta variant in hamsters. Our findings will aid the development of antibody therapeutics and broad vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and its emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS Virus , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitopes , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 834098, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987489

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disclose the variants of concern (VOC) including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529). Its spike protein (S) present on the surface of the virus is recognized by the host cell receptor, the angiotensin-2 converting enzyme (ACE2) which promotes their entry into the cell. The mutations presented by VOCs are found in RBD and the N-terminal region of S protein. Therefore, mutations occurring in RBD can modify the biological and immunogenic characteristics of the virus, such as modifying the spike affinity for ACE2, increasing the virus transmissibility, or conferring the ability to escape the immune responses. The raise of a potential new SARS-CoV-2 variant capable of evading the host defenses at the same time maintaining its fitness justifies the importance of continued genetic monitoring of the pandemic coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(35): e2206610119, 2022 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984600

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a coronavirus that spilled over from the bat reservoir. Despite numerous clinical trials and vaccines, the burden remains immense, and the host determinants of SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and COVID-19 severity remain largely unknown. Signatures of positive selection detected by comparative functional genetic analyses in primate and bat genomes can uncover important and specific adaptations that occurred at virus-host interfaces. We performed high-throughput evolutionary analyses of 334 SARS-CoV-2-interacting proteins to identify SARS-CoV adaptive loci and uncover functional differences between modern humans, primates, and bats. Using DGINN (Detection of Genetic INNovation), we identified 38 bat and 81 primate proteins with marks of positive selection. Seventeen genes, including the ACE2 receptor, present adaptive marks in both mammalian orders, suggesting common virus-host interfaces and past epidemics of coronaviruses shaping their genomes. Yet, 84 genes presented distinct adaptations in bats and primates. Notably, residues involved in ubiquitination and phosphorylation of the inflammatory RIPK1 have rapidly evolved in bats but not primates, suggesting different inflammation regulation versus humans. Furthermore, we discovered residues with typical virus-host arms race marks in primates, such as in the entry factor TMPRSS2 or the autophagy adaptor FYCO1, pointing to host-specific in vivo interfaces that may be drug targets. Finally, we found that FYCO1 sites under adaptation in primates are those associated with severe COVID-19, supporting their importance in pathogenesis and replication. Overall, we identified adaptations involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection in bats and primates, enlightening modern genetic determinants of virus susceptibility and severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Primates/genetics , Primates/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4686, 2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984389

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) BA.4 and BA.5 sub-lineages, first detected in South Africa, have changes relative to Omicron BA.1 including substitutions in the spike receptor binding domain. Here we isolated live BA.4 and BA.5 viruses and measured BA.4/BA.5 neutralization elicited by BA.1 infection either in the absence or presence of previous vaccination as well as from vaccination without BA.1 infection. In BA.1-infected unvaccinated individuals, neutralization relative to BA.1 declines 7.6-fold for BA.4 and 7.5-fold for BA.5. In vaccinated individuals with subsequent BA.1 infection, neutralization relative to BA.1 decreases 3.2-fold for BA.4 and 2.6-fold for BA.5. The fold-drop versus ancestral virus neutralization in this group is 4.0-fold for BA.1, 12.9-fold for BA.4, and 10.3-fold for BA.5. In contrast, BA.4/BA.5 escape is similar to BA.1 in the absence of BA.1 elicited immunity: fold-drop relative to ancestral virus neutralization is 19.8-fold for BA.1, 19.6-fold for BA.4, and 20.9-fold for BA.5. These results show considerable escape of BA.4/BA.5 from BA.1 elicited immunity which is moderated with vaccination and may indicate that BA.4/BA.5 may have the strongest selective advantage in evading neutralization relative to BA.1 in unvaccinated, BA.1 infected individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
12.
J Immunol Res ; 2022: 8287087, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973961

ABSTRACT

Immune imprinting or original antigenic sin (OAS) is the process by which the humoral memory response to an antigen can inhibit the response to new epitopes of that antigen originating from a second encounter with the pathogen. Given the situation of the COVID-19 pandemic, multiple vaccines have been developed against SARS-CoV-2 infection. These vaccines are directed to the spike protein (S protein) of the original variant of Wuhan D614G. Vaccine memory immune response against S protein in noninfected subjects could inhibit, through the OAS mechanism, the response to new epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 after infection. The present study analyzes whether the memory antibody B cell response generated by mRNA vaccines against S protein can inhibit the primary antibody immune response to other SARS-CoV-2 antigens, such as nucleocapsid protein (N protein). SARS-CoV-2 primary infection in vaccinated healthcare workers (HCWs) produced significantly lower titers of anti-N antibodies than that in nonvaccinated HCWs: 5.7 (IQR 2.3-15.2) versus 12.2 (IQR 4.2-32.0), respectively (p = 0.005). Therefore, spike protein vaccine-induced immune imprinting (original antigenic sin) reduces N protein antibody response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epitopes , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
13.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271074, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968865

ABSTRACT

In spite of the availability of vaccine, the health burden associated with the COVID-19 pandemic continues to increase. An estimated 5 million people have died with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Analysis of evolution and genomic diversity can provide sufficient information to reduce the health burden of the pandemic. This study focused to conduct worldwide genomic surveillance. About 7.6 million genomic data were analyzed during 2019 to 2022. Multiple sequence alignment was conducted by using maximum likelihood method. Clade GK (52%) was the most predominant followed by GRY (12%), GRA (11%), GR (8%), GH (7%), G (6%), GV (3%), and O (1%), respectively. VOC Delta (66%) was the most prevalent variant followed by VOC Alpha (18%), VOC Omicron (13%), VOC Gamma (2%) and VOC Beta (1%), respectively. The frequency of point mutations including E484K, N501Y, N439K, and L452R at spike protein has increased 10%-92%. Evolutionary rate of the variants was 23.7 substitution per site per year. Substitution mutations E484K and N501Y had significant correlation with cases (r = .45, r = .23), fatalities (r = .15, r = .44) and growth rate R0 (r = .28, r = .54). This study will help to understand the genomic diversity, evolution and the impact of the variants on the outcome of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genomics , Humans , Mutation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
14.
Viruses ; 12(1)2020 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969491

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is an acute, high-mortality-rate, severe infectious disease caused by an emerging MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) that causes severe respiratory diseases. The continuous spread and great pandemic potential of MERS-CoV make it necessarily important to develop effective vaccines. We previously demonstrated that the application of Gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM) particles as a bacterial vector displaying the MERS-CoV receptor-binding domain (RBD) is a very promising MERS vaccine candidate that is capable of producing potential neutralization antibodies. We have also used the rabies virus (RV) as a viral vector to design a recombinant vaccine by expressing the MERS-CoV S1 (spike) protein on the surface of the RV. In this study, we compared the immunological efficacy of the vaccine candidates in BALB/c mice in terms of the levels of humoral and cellular immune responses. The results show that the rabies virus vector-based vaccine can induce remarkably earlier antibody response and higher levels of cellular immunity than the GEM particles vector. However, the GEM particles vector-based vaccine candidate can induce remarkably higher antibody response, even at a very low dose of 1 µg. These results indicate that vaccines constructed using different vaccine vector platforms for the same pathogen have different rates and trends in humoral and cellular immune responses in the same animal model. This discovery not only provides more alternative vaccine development platforms for MERS-CoV vaccine development, but also provides a theoretical basis for our future selection of vaccine vector platforms for other specific pathogens.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Immunization , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lactococcus lactis/genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Rabies virus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage
15.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 766, 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967631

ABSTRACT

Studying the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 informs on how the human immune system can respond to antigenic variants as well as other SARS-related viruses. Here, we structurally identified a YYDRxG motif encoded by IGHD3-22 in CDR H3 that facilitates antibody targeting to a functionally conserved epitope on the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain. A computational search for a YYDRxG pattern in publicly available sequences uncovered 100 such antibodies, many of which can neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants and SARS-CoV. Thus, the YYDRxG motif represents a common convergent solution for the human humoral immune system to target sarbecoviruses including the Omicron variant. These findings suggest an epitope-targeting strategy to identify potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies for design of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines and antibody therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes/genetics , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
16.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 257, 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967591

ABSTRACT

Highly divergent SARS-CoV-2 variants have continuously emerged and spread around the world, and updated vaccines and innovative vaccination strategies are urgently needed to address the global SARS-COV2 pandemic. Here, we established a series of Ad5-vectored SARS-CoV-2 variant vaccines encoding multiple spike proteins derived from the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Epsilon, Kappa, Delta and Omicron lineages and analyzed the antibody immune responses induced by single-dose and prime-boost vaccination strategies against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). Single-dose vaccination with SARS-CoV-2 variant vaccines tended to elicit the optimal self-matched neutralizing effects, and Ad5-B.1.351 produced more broad-spectrum cross-neutralizing antibodies against diverse variants. In contrast, prime-boost vaccination further strengthened and broadened the neutralizing antibody responses against highly divergent SARS-CoV-2 variants. The heterologous administration of Ad5-B.1.617.2 and Ad5-B.1.429 to Ad5-WT-primed mice resulted in superior antibody responses against most VOCs. In particular, the Omicron spike could only stimulate self-matched neutralizing antibodies with infrequent cross-reactivities to other variants used in single-dose vaccination strategies; moreover, with prime-boost regimens, this vaccine elicited an optimal specific neutralizing antibody response to Omicron, and prompted cross-antibody responses against other VOCs that were very similar to those obtained with Ad5-WT booster. Overall, this study delineated the unique characteristics of antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 VOC spikes with the single-dose or prime-boost vaccination strategies and provided insight into the vaccine development of next SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
17.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964109

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of the Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 variants with heavily mutated spike proteins has posed a challenge to the effectiveness of current vaccines and to monoclonal antibody therapy for severe COVID-19. After two immunizations of individuals with no history of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection with BNT162b2 vaccine, neutralizing titer against BA.1 and BA.2 were 20-fold decreased compared to titers against the parental D614G virus. A third immunization boosted overall neutralizing titers by about 5-fold but titers against BA.1 and BA.2 remained about 10-fold below that of D614G. Both Omicron variants were highly resistant to several of the emergency use authorized therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. The variants were highly resistant to Regeneron REGN10933 and REGN10987 and Lilly LY-CoV555 and LY-CoV016 while Vir-7831 and the mixture of AstraZeneca monoclonal antibodies AZD8895 and AZD1061 were significantly decreased in neutralizing titer. Strikingly, a single monoclonal antibody LY-CoV1404 potently neutralized both Omicron variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
18.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0272377, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963051

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus -19 (COVID-19) pandemic due to the SARS-CoV-2 virus has now exceeded two years in duration. The pandemic has been characterized by the development of a succession of variants containing mutations in the spike protein affecting infectiousness, virulence and efficacy of vaccines and monoclonal antibodies. Resistance to vaccination and limitations in the current treatments available require the ongoing development of therapies especially for those with severe disease. The plant lectin Galanthus nivalis binds to mannose structures in the viral envelope. We hypothesized that viral binding should be unaffected by spike protein mutations. Known concentrations of seven clinically relevant SARS-CoV-2 variants were spiked in medium and passed three times over columns containing 1 gm of GNA affinity resin. Percent decrease in viral titer was compared with a control sample. Viral capture efficiency was found to range from 53 to 89% for all variants. Extrapolation indicated that an adult Aethlon Hemopurifier® would have more than sufficient binding capacity for viral loads observed in adult patients with severe COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Mannose-Binding Lectins , Plant Lectins/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
19.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0268156, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962996

ABSTRACT

Despite using effective drugs and vaccines for Covid 19, due to some limitations of current strategies and the high rate of coronavirus mutation, the development of medicines with effective inhibitory activity against this infection is essential. The SARS-CoV-2 enters the cell by attaching its receptor-binding domain (RBD) of Spike to angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). According to previous studies, the natural peptide Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) exhibited an antiviral effect on SARS-CoV, but its mechanism has not precisely been elucidated. Here, we studied the interaction between UDA and RBD of Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. So, protein-protein docking of RBD-UDA was performed using Cluspro 2.0. To further confirm the stability of the complex, the RBD-UDA docked complex with higher binding affinity was studied using Molecular Dynamic simulation (via Gromacs 2020.2), and MM-PBSA calculated the binding free energy of the system. In addition, ELISA assay was used to examine the binding of UDA with RBD protein. Results were compared to ELISA of RBD-bound samples of convalescent serum IgG (from donors who recovered from Covid 19). Finally, the toxicity of UDA is assessed by using MTT assay. The docking results show UDA binds to the RBD binding site. MD simulation illustrates the UDA-RBD complex is stable during 100 ns of simulation, and the average binding energy was calculated to be -47.505 kJ/mol. ELISA and, MTT results show that UDA binds to RBD like IgG-RBD binding and may be safe in human cells. Data presented here indicate UDA interaction with S-protein inhibits the binding sites of RBD, it can prevent the virus from attaching to ACE2 and entering the host cell.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Binding Sites , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Plant Lectins , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
20.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 27(1): 50, 2022 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962733

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a major international public health concern. Because of very similar amino acid sequences of the seven domain names, SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the Coronavirinae subfamily of the family Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales, and realm Riboviria, placed in exceptional clusters, but categorized as a SARS-like species. As the RNA virus family with the longest genome, the Coronaviridae genome consists of a single strand of positive RNA (25-32 kb in length). Four major structural proteins of this genome include the spike (S), membrane (M), envelope (E), and the nucleocapsid (N) protein, all of which are encoded within the 3' end of the genome. By engaging with its receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), SARS-CoV-2 infects host cells. According to the most recent epidemiological data, as the illness spread globally, several genetic variations of SARS-CoV-2 appeared quickly, with the World Health Organization (WHO) naming 11 of them. Among these, seven SARS-CoV-2 subtypes have received the most attention. Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.617.2) are now designated as variations of concern (VOC) (B.1.1.529). Lambda (C.37) and Mu are variations of interest (VOI) (B.1.621). The remaining six are either being monitored or are no longer considered a threat. On the basis of studies done so far, antiviral drugs, antibiotics, glucocorticoids, recombinant intravenous immunoglobulin, plasma therapy, and IFN-α2b have been used to treat patients. Moreover, full vaccination is associated with lower infection and helps prevent transmission, but the risk of infection cannot be eliminated completely in vaccinated people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Genotype , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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