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1.
Am J Surg ; 222(4): 832-841, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A community lockdown has a profound impact on its citizens. Our objective was to identify changes in trauma patient demographics, volume, and pattern of injury following the COVID-19 lockdown. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted at a Level-1 Trauma Center from 2017 to 2020. RESULTS: A downward trend in volume is seen December-April in 2020 (R2 = 0.9907). February through April showed an upward trend in 2018 and 2019 (R2= 0.80 and R2 = 0.90 respectively), but a downward trend in 2020 (R2 = 0.97). In April 2020, there was 41.6% decrease in total volume, a 47.4% decrease in blunt injury and no decrease in penetrating injury. In contrast to previous months, in April the majority of injuries occurred in home zip codes. CONCLUSIONS: A community lockdown decreased the number of blunt trauma, however despite social distancing, did not decrease penetrating injury. Injuries were more likely to occur in home zip codes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitals, Urban/trends , Physical Distancing , Trauma Centers/trends , Violence/trends , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals, Urban/standards , Hospitals, Urban/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Trauma Centers/standards , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/epidemiology , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/therapy , Wounds, Penetrating/epidemiology , Wounds, Penetrating/therapy , Young Adult
2.
World Neurosurg ; 151: e178-e184, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297236

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The 2020 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in state-specific quarantine protocols and introduced the concept of social distancing into modern parlance. We assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on neurotrauma presentations in the first 3 months after shutdown throughout Pennsylvania. METHODS: The Pennsylvania Trauma Systems Foundation was queried for registry data from the Pennsylvania Trauma Outcomes Study between March 12 and June 5 in each year from 2017 to 2020. RESULTS: After the COVID-19 shutdown, there was a 27% reduction in neurotrauma volume, from 2680 cases in 2017 to 2018 cases in 2020, and a 28.8% reduction in traumatic brain injury volume. There was no significant difference in neurotrauma phenotype incurred relative to total cases. Injury mechanism was less likely to be motor vehicle collision and more likely caused by falls, gunshot wound, and recreational vehicle accidents (P < 0.05). Location of injury was less likely on roads and public locations and more likely at indoor private locations (P < 0.05). The proportion of patients with neurotrauma with blood alcohol concentration >0.08 g/dL was reduced in 2020 (11.4% vs. 9.0%; P < 0.05). Mortality was higher during 2020 compared with pre-COVID years (7.7% vs. 6.4%; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: During statewide shutdown, neurotrauma volume and alcohol-related trauma decreased and low-impact traumas and gunshot wounds increased, with a shift toward injuries occurring in private, indoor locations. These changes increased mortality. However, there was not a change in the types of injuries sustained.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Quarantine/trends , Trauma Centers/trends , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Accidental Falls , Accidents, Traffic/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/epidemiology , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , Registries , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology , Wounds, Gunshot/therapy , Young Adult
3.
J Clin Neurosci ; 88: 128-134, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1176834

ABSTRACT

Early COVID-19-targeted legislations reduced public activity and elective surgery such that local neurosurgical care greatly focused on emergent needs. This study examines neurosurgical trauma patients' dispositions through two neighboring trauma centers to inform resource allocation. We conducted a retrospective review of the trauma registries for two Level 1 Trauma Centers in Santa Clara County, one academic and one community center, between February 1st and April 15th, 2018-2020. Events before a quarantine, implemented on March 16th, 2020, and events from 2018 to 19 were used for reference. Encounters were characterized by injuries, services, procedures, and disposition. Categorical variables were analyzed by the χ2 test, proportions of variables by z-score test, and non-parametric variables by Fisher's exact test. A total of 1,336 traumas were identified, with 31% from the academic center and 69% from the community center. During the post-policy period, relative to matching periods in years prior, there was a decrease in number of TBI and spinal fractures (24% versus 41%, p < 0.001) and neurosurgical consults (27% versus 39%, p < 0.003), but not in number of neurosurgical admissions or procedures. There were no changes in frequency of neurosurgery consults among total traumas, patients triaged to critical care services, or patients discharged to temporary rehabilitation services. Neurosurgical services were similarly rendered between the academic and community hospitals. This study describes neurosurgical trauma management in a suburban healthcare network immediately following restrictive quarantine during a moderate COVID-19 outbreak. Our data shows that neurosurgery remains a resource-intensive subspeciality, even during restrictive periods when overall trauma volume is decreased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurosurgery/trends , Pandemics , Quarantine , Trauma Centers/trends , Academic Medical Centers , Adult , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/epidemiology , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/surgery , California/epidemiology , Child , Community Health Centers , Female , Humans , Male , Neurosurgery/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Cord Injuries/epidemiology , Spinal Cord Injuries/surgery , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
5.
Am Surg ; 87(5): 686-689, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966318

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over 28 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 have been reported to date, resulting in over 900 000 deaths. With an increase in awareness regarding the virus, the behavior of general population has changed dramatically. As activities such as driving and hospital presentation patterns have changed, our study aimed to assess the differences in trauma case variables before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Trauma data for the period of March 1st-June 15th were compared for the years 2015-2019 (pre-COVID) and 2020 (COVID). The data were analyzed across the following categories: injury severity score, injury mechanism, motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) vs. other blunt injuries, alcohol involvement, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: The median injury severity score pre-COVID and during COVID was 9, representing no change. There was no difference in overall distribution of mechanism of injury; however, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of MVCs pre-COVID (36.39%) vs. COVID (29.6%, P < .05). Alcohol was significantly more likely to be involved in trauma during COVID-19 (P < .05). The mean hospital stay increased from 3.87-5.4 days during COVID-19 (P < .05). DISCUSSION: We saw similar results to prior studies in terms of there being no change in trauma severity. Our observation that motor vehicle collisions have decreased is consistent with current data showing decreased use of motor vehicles during the pandemic. We also observed an increase in alcohol-related cases which are consistent with the reported changes in alcohol consumption since the pandemic began.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Trauma Centers/trends , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
7.
World Neurosurg ; 146: e1-e5, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The response to the global severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic culminated in mandatory isolation throughout the world, with nationwide confinement orders issued to decrease viral spread. These drastic measures were successful in "flattening the curve" and maintaining the previous rate of coronavirus disease 2019 infections and deaths. To date, the effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on neurotrauma has not been reported. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed hospital admissions from Ryder Trauma Center at Jackson Memorial Hospital, during the months of March and April from 2016 to 2020. Specifically, we identified all patients who had cranial neurotrauma consisting of traumatic brain injury and/or skull fractures, as well as spinal neurotrauma consisting of vertebral fractures and/or spinal cord injury. We then performed chart review to determine mechanism of injury and if emergent surgical intervention was required. RESULTS: Compared with previous years, we saw a significant decline in the number of neurotraumas during the pandemic, with a 62% decline after the lockdown began. The number of emergent neurotrauma surgical cases also significantly decreased by 84% in the month of April. Interestingly, although the number of vehicular traumas decreased by 77%, there was a significant 100% increase in the number of gunshot wounds. CONCLUSIONS: Population seclusion had a direct effect on the frequency of neurotrauma, whereas the change in relative proportion of certain mechanisms may be associated with the psychosocial effects of social distancing and quarantine.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries, Traumatic/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Patient Admission/trends , Quarantine/trends , Spinal Cord Injuries/epidemiology , Trauma Centers/trends , Accidental Falls , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Cord Injuries/diagnosis
9.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 479(2): 266-275, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-793467

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During a pandemic, it is paramount to understand volume changes in Level I trauma so that with appropriate planning and reallocation of resources, these facilities can maintain and even improve life-saving capabilities. Evaluating nonaccidental and accidental trauma can highlight potential areas of improvement in societal behavior and hospital preparedness. These critical questions were proposed to better understand how healthcare leaders might adjust surgeon and team coverage of trauma services as well as prepare from a system standpoint what resources will be needed during a pandemic or similar crisis to maintain services. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) How did the total observed number of trauma activations, defined as patients who meet mechanism of injury requirements which trigger the notification and aggregation of the trauma team upon entering the emergency department, change during a pandemic and stay-at-home order? (2) How did the proportion of major mechanisms of traumatic injury change during this time period? (3) How did the proportion and absolute numbers of accidental versus nonaccidental traumatic injury in children and adults change during this time period? METHODS: This was a retrospective study of trauma activations at a Level I trauma center in New Orleans, LA, USA, using trauma registry data of all patients presenting to the trauma center from 2017 to 2020. The number of trauma activations during a government mandated coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) stay-at-home order (from March 20, 2020 to May 14, 2020) was compared with the expected number of activations for the same time period from 2017 to 2019, called "predicted period". The expected number (predicted period) was assumed based on the linear trend of trauma activations seen in the prior 3 years (2017 to 2019) for the same date range (March 20, 2020 to May 14, 2020). To define the total number of traumatic injuries, account for proportion changes, and evaluate fluctuation in accidental verses nonaccidental trauma, variables including type of traumatic injury (blunt, penetrating, and thermal), and mechanism of injury (gunshot wound, fall, knife wound, motor vehicle collision, assault, burns) were collected for each patient. RESULTS: There were fewer total trauma activations during the stay-at-home period than during the predicted period (372 versus 532 [95% CI 77 to 122]; p = 0.016). The proportion of penetrating trauma among total activations was greater during the stay-at-home period than during the predicted period (35% [129 of 372] versus 26% [141 of 532]; p = 0.01), while the proportion of blunt trauma was lower during the stay-at-home period than during the predicted period (63 % [236 of 372] versus 71% [376 of 532]; p = 0.02). The proportion of gunshot wounds in relation to total activations was greater during the stay-at-home period than expected (26% [97 of 372] versus 18% [96 of 532]; p = 0.004). There were fewer motor vehicle collisions in relation to total activations during the stay-at-home period than expected (42% [156 of 372] versus 49% [263 of 532]; p = 0.03). Among total trauma activations, the stay-at-home period had a lower proportion of accidental injuries than the predicted period (55% [203 of 372] versus 61% [326 of 532]; p = 0.05), and there was a greater proportion of nonaccidental injuries than the predicted period (37% [137 of 372] versus 27% [143 of 532]; p < 0.001). In adults, the stay-at-home period had a greater proportion of nonaccidental injuries than the predicted period (38% [123 of 328] versus 26% [123 of 466]; p < 0.001). There was no difference between the stay-at-home period and predicted period in nonaccidental and accidental injuries among children. CONCLUSION: Data from the trauma registry at our region's only Level I trauma center indicate that a stay-at-home order during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a 70% reduction in the number of traumatic injuries, and the types of injuries shifted from more accidental blunt trauma to more nonaccidental penetrating trauma. Non-accidental trauma, including gunshot wounds, increased during this period, which suggest community awareness, crisis de-escalation strategies, and programs need to be created to address violence in the community. Understanding these changes allows for adjustments in staffing schedules. Surgeons and trauma teams could allow for longer shifts between changeover, decreasing viral exposure because the volume of work would be lower. Understanding the shift in injury could also lead to a change in specialists covering call. With the often limited availability of orthopaedic trauma-trained surgeons who can perform life-saving pelvis and acetabular surgery, this data may be used to mitigate exposure of these surgeons during pandemic situations. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Health Services Needs and Demand/trends , Infection Control/trends , Needs Assessment/trends , Trauma Centers/trends , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , New Orleans/epidemiology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Young Adult
10.
Injury ; 51(12): 2811-2815, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-764865

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In Iran, like most other countries, COVID-19 has had a deep impact on children's lives. Our hypothesis was that, a significant change in the number of pediatric injuries has happened in trauma centers. In the current study, we intend to identify the possible epidemiological shift in pediatric fracture patterns, by comparing the data from 'COVID-19 era' and the mean data from the past 2 years. To the best of our knowledge there are only few reports on epidemiology of pediatric fractures during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: Data are reported in two sections. In the descriptive section, epidemiological data regarding pediatric fractures referred to Taleghani tertiary trauma center, including demographics, distribution curves, etiologies and fracture types are presented during the 'COVID era', from 1 March 2020 to 15 April 2020. In the comparative section, the aforementioned data are compared with mean data from the past 2 years, the 'non-COVID era'. RESULTS: Altogether 117 of the 288 trauma children (40.62%) had a fractured bone (145 fractures). Patients were mostly boys, with a mean age of 9.87 years (SD=5.27). The three most common fracture types in children included distal radius, mid-forearm and humeral supracondylar fractures. Compared to non-COVID era, the number of pediatric trauma admissions dropped from 589 to 288. No significant change happened in the mean age, male/female ratio and percentage of motor vehicle accidents. Proportion of proximal humeral, proximal forearm, carpal, and hand fractures declined. The number of open fractures significantly dropped (from 12 to 2). CONCLUSIONS: In Iran, overall trend of pediatric trauma has been decreasing during the outbreak; but the lack of reduction in proportion of accidents may pose an alarm that an effective lock-down has not been imposed. This study has implications as to preparing appropriate resources particular to common "COVID era fractures".


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Accidents, Traffic/trends , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors , Trauma Centers/standards , Trauma Centers/trends , Wounds and Injuries/etiology
11.
Acta Orthop ; 91(6): 644-649, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752301

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose - The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted healthcare services around the world. We (1) describe the organizational changes at a level 1 trauma center, (2) investigate how orthopedic healthcare professionals perceived the immense amount of information and educational activities, and (3) make recommendations on how an organization can prepare for disruptive situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic in the future. Methods - We conducted a retrospective survey on the organizational restructuring of the orthopedic department and the learning outcomes of a needs-driven educational program. The educational activities were evaluated by a non-validated, 7-item questionnaire. Results - The hospital established 5 COVID-19 clusters, which were planned to be activated in sequential order. The orthopedic ward comprised cluster 4, where orthopedic nursing staff were teamed up with internal medicine physicians, while the orthopedic team were redistributed to manage minor and major injuries in the emergency department (ED). The mean learning outcome of the educational activities was high-very high, i.e., 5.4 (SD 0.7; 7-point Likert scale). Consequently, the staff felt more confident to protect themselves and to treat COVID-19 patients. Interpretation - Using core clinical competencies of the staff, i.e., redistribution of the orthopedic team to the ED, while ED physicians could use their competencies treating COVID-19 patients, may be applicable in other centers. In-situ simulation is an efficient tool to enhance non-technical and technical skills and to facilitate organizational learning in regard to complying with unforeseen changes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Infection Control/organization & administration , Organizational Innovation , Orthopedics/trends , Trauma Centers , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Denmark/epidemiology , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Medical Staff, Hospital/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Staff Development/methods , Staff Development/trends , Trauma Centers/organization & administration , Trauma Centers/trends
13.
Surgeon ; 19(2): e49-e52, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712098

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current pandemic has impacted heavily on health systems, making unprecedented demands on resources, and forcing reconfiguration of services. Trauma and orthopaedic units have cancelled elective surgery, moved to virtual based clinics and have been forced to reconsider the provision of trauma. Our national elective orthopaedic centre has been re-designated as a trauma centre to allow tertiary centres re-direct triaged trauma. Many governments, as part of their COVID-19 management, have significantly restricted activity of the general population. We proposed that trauma patterns would change alongside these changes and maintaining existing standards of treatment would require dedicated planning and structures. METHODS: Referrals over a six-week period (March 15th to April 30th) were retrospectively reviewed. Data was collected directly from our referral database and a database populated. Analysis was performed to assess trauma volume, aetiology, and changes in trends. RESULTS: There were one hundred and fifty-nine referrals from three individual hospitals within the timeframe. Mean age of patient's referred was 55 (range17-92). Males accounted for 45% of cases. F&A injuries were the most common (32%), followed by H&W (28%), UL (17%), H&F (16%) and K&T (7%). In comparison to the corresponding time-period in 2019, trauma theatre activity reduced by almost one half (45.3%) CONCLUSION: The majority of trauma referred to our Dublin based centre during COVID-19 related population restrictions appears to be home based and trauma volumes have decreased. Significant reductions are apparent in work and sport related injuries suggestive of compliance with COVID-19 activity guidelines. Maintaining existing standards of treatment requires dedicated planning.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Home/trends , COVID-19 , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Ireland/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Trauma Centers/trends , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/etiology , Young Adult
14.
Ann Plast Surg ; 85(2S Suppl 2): S161-S165, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-537113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 crisis has brought many unique challenges to the health care system. Across the United States, social distancing measures have been put in place, including stay-at-home (SAH) orders, to combat the spread of this infection. This has impacted the type and volume of traumatic injuries sustained during this time. Meanwhile, steps have been taken in our health care system to assure that adequate resources are available to maintain a high standard of patient care while recognizing the importance of protecting health care providers. Using comparative data, we aim to describe the trends in traumatic injuries managed by our plastic surgery service and detail the changes in consultation policies made to minimize provider exposure. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of all plastic surgery emergencies at our institution during the 3 weeks preceding the issuance of SAH orders in Chicago and the 3 weeks after. The electronic medical record was queried for patient age, type and mechanism of injury, location where injury was sustained, presence of domestic violence, length of inpatient hospital stays, and treatment rendered. The two 3-week periods were then comparatively analyzed to determine differences and trends in these variables and treatment rendered. The 2 periods were then comparatively analyzed to determine differences and trends in these variables. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in trauma consults since the issuance of SAH (88 pre-SAH vs 62 post-SAH) with a marked decrease in trauma-related hand injuries. There was an increase in the percentage of assault-related injuries including those associated with domestic violence, whereas there was an overall decrease in motor vehicle collisions. There was no notable change in the location where injuries were sustained. Significantly fewer patients were seen by house staff in the emergency room, whereas those requiring surgical intervention were able to receive care without delay. CONCLUSIONS: Stay-at-home orders in Chicago have impacted traumatic injury patterns seen by the Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at a level I Trauma Center. Safe and timely care can continue to be provided with thorough communication, vigilance, and guidance from our colleagues.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Trauma Centers/trends , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Chicago/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Protocols , Emergencies , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgery Department, Hospital , United States , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/etiology , Young Adult
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