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2.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271041, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993476

ABSTRACT

International news can inform people not only about what is happening in other countries, but also about how their own country could benefit from policies that have proved successful elsewhere. Specifically, international policy comparison news, or news that compares the policies of two or more countries on the same issue, is a potentially important but underutilized and understudied form of news content. We use an experiment to test effects of exposure to news comparing the COVID-19 pandemic policies of the U.S. versus South Korea, and find that this increases knowledge of policy differences between the two countries, support for adopting similar policies in the U.S., presidential blame for the severity of the pandemic in the U.S., and trust in health experts. On most outcomes, these effects did not vary across political party lines, a particularly encouraging result given the polarized nature of policy debates on this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Public Policy , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Trust
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1288, 2022 07 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974136

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination is key to reducing the spread and impacts of COVID-19 and other infectious diseases. Migrants, compared to majority populations, tend to have lower vaccination rates, as well as higher infection disease burdens. Previous studies have tried to understand these disparities based on factors such as misinformation, vaccine hesitancy or medical mistrust. However, the necessary precondition of receiving, or recognizing receipt, of an offer to get a vaccine must also be considered. METHODS: We conducted a web-based survey in six parishes in Oslo that have a high proportion of migrant residents and were hard-hit during the COVID-19 pandemic. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate differences in reporting being offered the COVID-19 vaccine based on migrant status. Different models controlling for vaccination prioritization variables (age, underlying health conditions, and health-related jobs), socioeconomic and demographic variables, and variables specific to migrant status (language spoken at home and years lived in Norway) were conducted. RESULTS: Responses from 5,442 participants (response rate of 9.1%) were included in analyses. The sample included 1,284 (23.6%) migrants. Fewer migrants than non-migrants reported receiving a vaccine offer (68.1% vs. 81.1%), and this difference was significant after controlling for prioritization variables (OR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.52-0.82). Subsequent models showed higher odds ratios for reporting having been offered the vaccine for females, and lower odds ratios for those with university education. There were few to no significant differences based on language spoken at home, or among birth countries compared to each other. Duration of residence emerged as an important explanatory variable, as migrants who had lived in Norway for fewer than 15 years were less likely to report offer of a vaccine. CONCLUSION: Results were consistent with studies that show disparities between non-migrants and migrants in actual vaccine uptake. While differences in receiving an offer cannot fully explain disparities in vaccination rates, our analyses suggest that receiving, or recognizing and understanding, an offer does play a role. Issues related to duration of residence, such as inclusion in population and health registries and health and digital literacy, should be addressed by policymakers and health services organizers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Norway/epidemiology , Pandemics , Trust , Vaccination/methods
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(32): e2116818119, 2022 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972762

ABSTRACT

How does the COVID-19 pandemic affect interpersonal trust? Most evidence shows that natural disasters reinforce trust and cooperation, but the COVID-19 virus differs from other calamities, since it spreads through contact with people, potentially increasing suspicion and distrust, as, according to contemporaneous writers' accounts, seems to have been the case with the Black Death, the London plague, and the Spanish influenza. We investigate the link between interpersonal trust and individuals exposed to COVID-19, either vicariously through their community or networks or directly by becoming infected. We rely on an original panel survey, including a survey experiment, with a representative sample of adults in Italy, one of the countries hardest struck by the pandemic. Our experimental findings reveal that priming people about the risk that the pandemic poses to their health leads to a substantial increase in their trust in strangers. Our panel data analysis of within-individual effects shows that those who become infected trust strangers more than those who are not infected. Our findings could be explained by people observing higher than expected altruistic behavior or becoming more dependent on other people's support, consistent with the "emancipation theory of trust." When people recover from COVID-19, however, they drop to trusting strangers as much as those who were not directly exposed to the virus, an indication that the positive effects on trust during the pandemic have an emotional source. Nonetheless, the evidence suggests that, in the aggregate, there has been a small but significant increase in trust among the general population relative to prepandemic levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust/psychology
6.
Vaccine ; 40(32): 4334-4338, 2022 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972348

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between double COVID-19 vaccine uptake and trust in effectiveness and safety of vaccination in general in 23 European Union (EU) countries. METHODS: Ecological study. Data was retrieved from the Flash Eurobarometer 494 and Our World in Data. We estimated Pearson's correlation coefficients and fitted multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: There is a negative linear correlation between the percentage of people doubly vaccinated and the percentage of low trust in vaccine effectiveness (r = -0.48, p-value = 0.021), and the percentage of low trust in vaccine safety (r = -0.43, p-value = 0.041). There is a negative adjusted relation between the percentage of low trust in vaccine safety and the percentage of people doubly vaccinated (aß% low trust in vaccinesafety:-0.25; 95% CI: -0.49,-0.01, p-value = 0.045). CONCLUSION: An increase in health literacy of people living in certain countries in the EU may be needed to boost COVID-19 vaccine uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , European Union , Humans , Trust , Vaccination/adverse effects
7.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271977, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968873

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the experiences of refugees in a developing country during its first COVID-19 lockdown by utilizing a two-stage qualitative data analysis of 39 interviews with refugees and asylum-seekers. We find that their experiences during the lockdown are shaped by identity, trauma and help from external parties-such as community leaders and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Experiences during the pandemic in turn moderate the relationship between policy changes and trust in domestic authority figures, which consequently affects attitudes towards and compliance with public health measures put in place to contain the pandemic. We then explore the role of identity in refugees' pandemic experiences by comparing the differences between two refugee groups (Syrians and Rohingyas), validating them by utilizing comparative thematic analysis. Finally, the paper presents policy implications for crisis response in developing countries by suggesting improvements that can be made on the ground regarding the delivery of aid and assistance to vulnerable groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refugees , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Trust
8.
Harv Rev Psychiatry ; 30(4): 238-247, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967916

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Despite the advancement of telemedicine and recent innovations in treatment, minoritized women continue to bear a disproportionate burden of pregnancy-related psychiatric conditions and complications, which the pandemic has further exacerbated. Research demonstrates that medical mistrust and systemic racism play central roles in the underutilization of services by racially and ethnically diverse women during pregnancy and postpartum. To effectively address these disparities, it is imperative to understand the drivers of medical mistrust in perinatal health care systems. This Perspectives article describes the historical context of medical mistrust in psychiatric and obstetric health systems and offers solutions to mitigate mistrust and the impact of systemic racism on perinatal care.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Telemedicine , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Pregnancy , Trust/psychology
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(8): 2995-3004, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963151

ABSTRACT

This study investigates whether trust in government policies has a mediation effect between the students' perception of COVID-19 health risk and their life satisfaction. In order to test the mediation effect, this study utilizes data collected from undergraduate students at Tecnológico de Monterrey in Mexico by means of online survey. The survey yielded 95 usable data out of 97. The valid results were tested via generalized linear model (GLM) Mediation approach for the mediation. Empirical findings of Delta method affirm the mediation (estimate = 0.4445, ß = 0.474, z = 3.699, p < .001) role of trust in government as a mediator between students' perception of COVID-19 health risk and their life satisfaction. In other words, Mexican undergraduate students are of the view that trusting government plays a crucial role as a mediator between their perception of coronavirus health risk and life satisfaction. These findings may guide the governments' policy making efforts and motivate them to support their initiatives with trust-building efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Government , Humans , Personal Satisfaction , Policy , Students , Trust
10.
Health Expect ; 25(4): 2015-2024, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961586

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Considering the geopolitical changes in the six Western Balkan countries-Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia-over the last three decades, particularly as it concerns the progress and changes in the healthcare systems, we argue that there is a need for a detailed analysis of people's trust in those healthcare systems and healthcare providers. METHODS: In this cross-sectional, intercountry study, we examine the trust trends of Western Balkans citizens in medical doctors and public and private healthcare institutions from 25 July 2021 to 30 October 2021, with 3789 participants using a self-reported questionnaire, and Google Forms. Snowball sampling is used to collect data from six Western Balkans countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia. FINDINGS: The primary findings of our study show that citizens in the Western Balkans have a low level of trust in their healthcare system (X̄ = 4.3/10). Medical doctors working in private healthcare institutions, on the other hand, are afforded a higher level of trust (X̄ = 6.6/10) than those working in public healthcare institutions (X̄ = 5.7/10). In the event that they or their family members need to visit a health institution, half of the study participants would choose private healthcare institutions over public ones. We found a statistically significant difference between countries on the mean points from the questions concerning one's trust in the healthcare system, private healthcare institutions and medical doctors working in public and private sectors (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Despite its limitations, this study is the first cross-sectional research on the 'trust interface' among western Balkan citizens, revealing that they have low trust in their healthcare systems. PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: The information in this manuscript was gathered on the level of 3789 citizens from six Western Balkan countries. Before we began collecting data, we conducted a piloting procedure with 40 citizens who were clients of health institutions to validate the data collection questionnaire.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Trust , Balkan Peninsula , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Serbia
11.
Lancet Digit Health ; 4(7): e480-e481, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956385

Subject(s)
Telemedicine , Trust
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953342

ABSTRACT

We analyze the relationship between different dimensions of the quality of the political system and the outcome of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data are retrieved from open-access databases for 98 countries. We apply a multivariable regression model to identify the relationship between various factors likely to affect the number of COVID-19 deaths, in addition to different dimensions of the quality of the political system. We find that the high quality of the electoral process in a country is associated with more COVID-19 deaths, while good political culture is associated with fewer deaths. As expected, we also find that trust in government and experiences with pandemics in the past is negatively related to COVID-19 deaths. Finally, a high GDP per capita is significantly associated with more COVID-19 deaths. Our findings illustrate that rapid, effective, and comprehensive government measures can protect society from the spread of a virus, but citizen compliance is also essential to policy success.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Government , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust
13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 876625, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952820

ABSTRACT

The aging of the population, the burden of chronic diseases, possible new pandemics are among the challenges for healthcare in the XXI century. To face them, technological innovations and the national recovery and resilience plan within the European Union can represent opportunities to implement changes and renovate the current healthcare system in Italy, in an effort to guarantee equal access to health services. Considering such scenario, a panel of Italian experts gathered in a multidisciplinary Think Tank to discuss possible design of concepts at the basis of a new healthcare system. These ideas were summarized in a manifesto with six drivers for change: vision, governance, competence, intelligence, humanity and relationship. Each driver was linked to an action to actively move toward a new healthcare system based on trust between science, citizens and institutions.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Pandemics , European Union , Health Services , Trust
14.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 903, 2022 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Educational disparities in health and health behaviours have always been relevant in public health research and are particularly challenging in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. First studies suggest that factors important for the containment of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as prevention behaviour, risk perception, perceived effectiveness of containment measures, and trust in authorities handling the pandemic, vary by educational status. This study builds on recent debate by examining trends in absolute and relative educational disparities in these factors in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. METHODS: Data stem from four waves of the GESIS Panel surveyed between March and October 2020 in Germany (15,902 observations from 4,690 individuals). Trends in absolute and relative disparities were examined for preventive behaviour, risk perception, perceived effectiveness of COVID-19 containment measures, and trust in individuals and institutions handling the COVID-19 pandemic by educational status using sex, age, residence, nationality, children under 16 living in household, family status, household size, the Big Five Inventory, and income class as control factors. Descriptive statistics as well as unadjusted and adjusted linear regression models and random effects models were performed. RESULTS: We observed an initially rising and then falling trend in preventive behaviour with consistent and significant absolute and relative disparities with a lower preventive behaviour among low educated individuals. Indication of a U-shaped trend with consistent significantly lower values among lower educated individuals was found for risk perception, whereas perceived effectiveness and trust decreased significantly over time but did not significantly vary by educational status. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate persistent educational disparities in preventive behaviour and risk perception and a general decline in perceived effectiveness and trust in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. To address this overall downward trend and existing disparities, comprehensive and strategic management is needed to communicate the risks of the pandemic and the benefits of COVID-19 containment measures. Both must be adapted to the different needs of educational groups in particular in order to overcome gaps in preventive behaviour and risk perception by educational status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perception , Risk-Taking , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust
15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 79(9): 947-949, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936601
16.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 930, 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935513

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the barriers to mental health and substance use services for trans women living with HIV. We conducted a qualitative study with trans women living with HIV and providers to explore barriers to mental health and substance use services in San Francisco. METHODS: We conducted focus group discussions and key informant interviews with a total of 15 medical, mental health, substance use, and social service providers and trans women living with HIV. We identified, analyzed, and reported themes using thematic analysis and derived themes directly from the data. RESULTS: Our study participants identified two main themes and three subthemes. One main theme is that trans women and providers have lost trust in the system due to (a) lack of a linkage system between referrals and services, (b) structural barriers such as service location, language capacity, clinic hours, and (c) constant changes in services available. Another main theme is anti-trans and mental health stigma. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to coordinate linkage from medical to mental health and substance use (MHSU) services are urgently needed to facilitate the utilization of MHSU services. Other interventions to improve quality monitoring and system improvement, and to address multiple stigmas broadly in society are needed to improve unmet MHSU service needs among trans women living with HIV in San Francisco.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Substance-Related Disorders , Transgender Persons , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , HIV Infections/therapy , Humans , Mental Health , Qualitative Research , San Francisco/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Trust
17.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262823, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938410

ABSTRACT

Researchers, policy makers and science communicators have become increasingly been interested in factors that affect public's trust in science. Recently, one such potentially important driving factor has emerged, the COVID-19 pandemic. Have trust in science and other science-related beliefs changed in Germany from before to during the pandemic? To investigate this, we re-analyzed data from a set of representative surveys conducted in April, May, and November 2020, which were obtained as part of the German survey Science Barometer, and compared it to data from the last annual Science Barometer survey that took place before the pandemic, (in September 2019). Results indicate that German's trust in science increased substantially after the pandemic began and slightly declined in the months thereafter, still being higher in November 2020 than in September 2019. Moreover, trust was closely related to expectations about how politics should handle the pandemic. We also find that increases of trust were most pronounced among the higher-educated. But as the pandemic unfolded, decreases of trust were more likely among supporters of the populist right-wing party AfD. We discuss the sustainability of these dynamics as well as implications for science communication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Trust , Biomedical Research , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communication , Germany , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Science , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1348, 2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933135

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between public attitudes, beliefs, and information seeking about the COVID-19 pandemic and willingness to participate in contact tracing in Michigan. METHODS: Using data from the quarterly Michigan State of the State survey conducted in May 2020 (n = 1000), we conducted multiple regression analyses to identify factors associated with willingness to participate in COVID-19 contact tracing efforts. RESULTS: Perceived threat of the pandemic to personal health (B = 0.59, p = <.00, Ref = No threat) and general trust in the health system (B = 0.17, p < 0.001), were the strongest positive predictors of willingness to participate in contact tracing. Concern about misinformation was also positively associated with willingness to participate in contact tracing (B = 0.30, p < 0.001; Ref = No concern). Trust in information from public health institutions was positively associated with willingness to participate in contact tracing, although these institutions were not necessarily the main sources of information about COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Policy makers can enhance willingness to participate in public health efforts such as contact tracing during infectious disease outbreaks by helping the public appreciate the seriousness of the public health threat and communicating trustworthy information through accessible channels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Contact Tracing , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Trust
19.
Nature ; 606(7914): 542-549, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921631

ABSTRACT

The reluctance of people to get vaccinated represents a fundamental challenge to containing the spread of deadly infectious diseases1,2, including COVID-19. Identifying misperceptions that can fuel vaccine hesitancy and creating effective communication strategies to overcome them are a global public health priority3-5. Medical doctors are a trusted source of advice about vaccinations6, but media reports may create an inaccurate impression that vaccine controversy is prevalent among doctors, even when a broad consensus exists7,8. Here we show that public misperceptions about the views of doctors on the COVID-19 vaccines are widespread, and correcting them increases vaccine uptake. We implement a survey among 9,650 doctors in the Czech Republic and find that 90% of doctors trust the vaccines. Next, we show that 90% of respondents in a nationally representative sample (n = 2,101) underestimate doctors' trust; the most common belief is that only 50% of doctors trust the vaccines. Finally, we integrate randomized provision of information about the true views held by doctors into a longitudinal data collection that regularly monitors vaccination status over 9 months. The treatment recalibrates beliefs and leads to a persistent increase in vaccine uptake. The approach demonstrated in this paper shows how the engagement of professional medical associations, with their unparalleled capacity to elicit individual views of doctors on a large scale, can help to create a cheap, scalable intervention that has lasting positive impacts on health behaviour.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Consensus , Health Education , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Physicians , Vaccination , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Czech Republic , Health Behavior , Humans , Public Health , Public Opinion , Societies, Medical , Surveys and Questionnaires , Trust , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Hesitancy/psychology , Vaccination Hesitancy/statistics & numerical data
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(14)2022 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917497

ABSTRACT

Using mobile applications in e-government for the purpose of health protection is a new idea during COVID-19 epidemic. Hence, the goal of this study is to examine the various factors that influence the use of SANAD App As a health protection tool. The factors were adopted from well-established models like UTAUT, TAM, and extended PBT. Using survey data from 442 SANAD App from Jordan, the model was empirically validated using AMOS 20 confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling (SEM) and machine learning (ML) methods were performed to assess the study hypotheses. The ML methods used are ANN, SMO, the bagging reduced error pruning tree (RepTree), and random forest. The results suggested several key findings: the respondents' performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, perceived risk, trust, and perceived service quality of this digital technology were significant antecedents for their attitude to using it. The strength of these relationships is affected by the moderating variables, including age, gender, educational level, and internet experience on behavioral intention. Yet, perceived risk did not have a significant effect on attitude towards SANAD App The study adds to literature by empirically testing and theorizing the effects of SANAD App on public health protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Government , Humans , Intention , Surveys and Questionnaires , Trust
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