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1.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(8): 1286-1288, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324863

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been associated with gastrointestinal manifestations, its effect on the pancreas remains unclear. We aimed to assess the frequency and characteristics of hyperlipasemia in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of hospitalized patients across 6 US centers with COVID-19. RESULTS: Of 71 patients, 9 (12.1%) developed hyperlipasemia, with 2 (2.8%) greater than 3 times upper limit of normal. No patient developed acute pancreatitis. Hyperlipasemia was not associated with poor outcomes or symptoms. DISCUSSION: Although a mild elevation in serum lipase was observed in some patients with COVID-19, clinical acute pancreatitis was not seen.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Lipase/blood , Pancreatitis/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anorexia/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nausea/epidemiology , Pancreatitis/blood , Pancreatitis/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , United States/epidemiology , Vomiting/epidemiology
2.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 2914, 2023 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322120

ABSTRACT

Long COVID, or complications arising from COVID-19 weeks after infection, has become a central concern for public health experts. The United States National Institutes of Health founded the RECOVER initiative to better understand long COVID. We used electronic health records available through the National COVID Cohort Collaborative to characterize the association between SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and long COVID diagnosis. Among patients with a COVID-19 infection between August 1, 2021 and January 31, 2022, we defined two cohorts using distinct definitions of long COVID-a clinical diagnosis (n = 47,404) or a previously described computational phenotype (n = 198,514)-to compare unvaccinated individuals to those with a complete vaccine series prior to infection. Evidence of long COVID was monitored through June or July of 2022, depending on patients' data availability. We found that vaccination was consistently associated with lower odds and rates of long COVID clinical diagnosis and high-confidence computationally derived diagnosis after adjusting for sex, demographics, and medical history.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , United States/epidemiology , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
J Community Health ; 48(3): 390-397, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326732

ABSTRACT

The more than one million COVID-19 deaths in the United States include parents, grandparents, and other caregivers for children. These losses can disrupt the social, emotional, and economic well-being of children, their families, and their communities, and understanding the number and characteristics of affected children is a critical step in responding. We estimate the number of children who lost a parent or other co-residing caregiver to COVID-19 in the U.S. and identify racial, ethnic, and geographic disparities by aligning COVID-19 death counts through mid-May 2022 with household information from a representative sample of individuals. We estimate that 216,617 children lost a co-residing caregiver to COVID-19; 77,283 lost a parent and more than 17,000 children lost the only caregiver with whom they lived. Non-White children were more than twice as likely as White children to experience caregiver loss, and children under 14 years old experienced 70% of caregiver loss. These losses are a salient threat to the functioning of families and the communities in which COVID-19 deaths are concentrated, compounding additional challenges to physical and mental health and economic stability disproportionately imposed by the pandemic on historically disadvantaged populations. Policymakers and systems should take steps to ensure access to appropriate supports.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Child , United States/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/psychology , Prevalence , Parents , Family Characteristics
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(5): e2313919, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325045

ABSTRACT

Importance: During the first 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic, inpatient and ambulatory care declined dramatically. Little is known about prescription drug receipt during this period, particularly for populations with chronic illness and with high risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes and decreased access to care. Objective: To investigate whether receipt of medications was maintained during the first 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic among older people with chronic diseases, particularly Asian, Black, and Hispanic populations and people with dementia, who faced pandemic-related care disruptions. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used a 100% sample of US Medicare fee-for-service administrative data from 2019 to 2021 for community-dwelling beneficiaries aged 65 years or older. Population-based prescription fill rates were compared for 2020 and 2021 vs 2019. Data were analyzed from July 2022 to March 2023. Exposure: The COVID-19 pandemic. Main Outcomes and Measures: Age- and sex-adjusted monthly prescription fill rates were calculated for 5 groups of medications commonly prescribed for chronic disease : angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins), oral diabetes medications, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease medications, and antidepressants. Measurements were stratified by race and ethnicity group and dementia diagnosis. Secondary analyses measured changes in the proportion of prescriptions dispensed as a 90-day or greater supply. Results: Overall, the mean monthly cohort included 18 113 000 beneficiaries (mean [SD] age, 74.5 [7.4] years; 10 520 000 females [58.1%]; 587 000 Asian [3.2%], 1 069 000 Black [5.9%], 905 000 Hispanic [5.0%], and 14 929 000 White [82.4%]); 1 970 000 individuals (10.9%) were diagnosed with dementia. Across 5 drug classifications, mean fill rates increased by 2.07% (95% CI, 2.01% to 2.12%) in 2020 and decreased by 2.61% (95% CI, -2.67% to -2.56%) in 2021 compared with 2019. Fill rates decreased by less than the mean overall decrease for Black enrollees (-1.42%; 95% CI, -1.64% to -1.20%) and Asian enrollees (-1.05%; 95% CI, -1.36% to -0.77%) and people diagnosed with dementia (-0.38%; 95% CI, -0.54% to -0.23%). The proportion of fills dispensed as 90-day or greater supplies increased during the pandemic for all groups, with an increase per 100 fills of 3.98 fills (95% CI, 3.94 to 4.03 fills) overall. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that, in contrast to in-person health services, receipt of medications for chronic conditions was relatively stable in the first 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic overall, across racial and ethnic groups, and for community-dwelling patients with dementia. This finding of stability may hold lessons for other outpatient services during the next pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Female , Aged , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Medicare , Cohort Studies , Pandemics , Dementia/drug therapy , Dementia/epidemiology , Chronic Disease
5.
MMWR Surveill Summ ; 72(5): 1-38, 2023 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324513

ABSTRACT

Problem/Condition: In 2020, approximately 71,000 persons died of violence-related injuries in the United States. This report summarizes data from CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) on violent deaths that occurred in 48 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico in 2020. Results are reported by sex, age group, race and ethnicity, method of injury, type of location where the injury occurred, circumstances of injury, and other selected characteristics. Period Covered: 2020. Description of System: NVDRS collects data regarding violent deaths obtained from death certificates, coroner and medical examiner records, and law enforcement reports. This report includes data collected for violent deaths that occurred in 2020. Data were collected from 48 states (all states with exception of Florida and Hawaii), the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Forty-six states had statewide data, two additional states had data from counties representing a subset of their population (35 California counties, representing 71% of its population, and four Texas counties, representing 39% of its population), and the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico had jurisdiction-wide data. NVDRS collates information for each violent death and links deaths that are related (e.g., multiple homicides, homicide followed by suicide, or multiple suicides) into a single incident. Results: For 2020, NVDRS collected information on 64,388 fatal incidents involving 66,017 deaths that occurred in 48 states (46 states collecting statewide data, 35 California counties, and four Texas counties), and the District of Columbia. In addition, information was collected for 729 fatal incidents involving 790 deaths in Puerto Rico. Data for Puerto Rico were analyzed separately. Of the 66,017 deaths, the majority (58.4%) were suicides, followed by homicides (31.3%), deaths of undetermined intent (8.2%), legal intervention deaths (1.3%) (i.e., deaths caused by law enforcement and other persons with legal authority to use deadly force acting in the line of duty, excluding legal executions), and unintentional firearm deaths (<1.0%). The term "legal intervention" is a classification incorporated into the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, and does not denote the lawfulness or legality of the circumstances surrounding a death caused by law enforcement.Demographic patterns and circumstances varied by manner of death. The suicide rate was higher for males than for females. Across all age groups, the suicide rate was highest among adults aged ≥85 years. In addition, non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons had the highest suicide rates among all racial and ethnic groups. Among both males and females, the most common method of injury for suicide was a firearm. Among all suicide victims, when circumstances were known, suicide was most often preceded by a mental health, intimate partner, or physical health problem or by a recent or impending crisis during the previous or upcoming 2 weeks. The homicide rate was higher for males than for females. Among all homicide victims, the homicide rate was highest among persons aged 20-24 years compared with other age groups. Non-Hispanic Black (Black) males experienced the highest homicide rate of any racial or ethnic group. Among all homicide victims, the most common method of injury was a firearm. When the relationship between a homicide victim and a suspect was known, the suspect was most frequently an acquaintance or friend for male victims and a current or former intimate partner for female victims. Homicide most often was precipitated by an argument or conflict, occurred in conjunction with another crime, or, for female victims, was related to intimate partner violence. Nearly all victims of legal intervention deaths were male, and the legal intervention death rate was highest among men aged 35-44 years. The legal intervention death rate was highest among AI/AN males, followed by Black males. A firearm was used in the majority of legal intervention deaths. When a specific type of crime was known to have precipitated a legal intervention death, the type of crime was most frequently assault or homicide. When circumstances were known, the three most frequent circumstances reported for legal intervention deaths were as follows: the victim's death was precipitated by another crime, the victim used a weapon in the incident, and the victim had a substance use problem (other than alcohol use).Other causes of death included unintentional firearm deaths and deaths of undetermined intent. Unintentional firearm deaths were most frequently experienced by males, non-Hispanic White (White) persons, and persons aged 15-24 years. These deaths most frequently occurred while the shooter was playing with a firearm and were precipitated by a person unintentionally pulling the trigger. The rate of deaths of undetermined intent was highest among males, particularly among AI/AN and Black males, and among adults aged 30-54 years. Poisoning was the most common method of injury in deaths of undetermined intent, and opioids were detected in nearly 80% of decedents tested for those substances. Interpretation: This report provides a detailed summary of data from NVDRS on violent deaths that occurred in 2020. The suicide rate was highest among AI/AN and White males, whereas the homicide rate was highest among Black male victims. Intimate partner violence precipitated a large proportion of homicides for females. Mental health problems, intimate partner problems, interpersonal conflicts, and acute life stressors were primary circumstances for multiple types of violent death. Public Health Action: Violence is preventable, and states and communities can use data to guide public health action. NVDRS data are used to monitor the occurrence of violence-related fatal injuries and assist public health authorities in developing, implementing, and evaluating programs, policies, and practices to reduce and prevent violent deaths. For example, the Colorado Violent Death Reporting System (VDRS), Kentucky VDRS, and Oregon VDRS have used their VDRS data to guide suicide prevention efforts and generate reports highlighting where additional focus is needed. In Colorado, VDRS data were used to examine the increased risk for suicide among first and last responders in the state. Kentucky VDRS used local data to highlight how psychological and social effects of the COVID-19 pandemic might increase risk for suicide, particularly among vulnerable populations. Oregon VDRS used their data to develop a publicly available data dashboard displaying firearm mortality trends and rates in support of the state's firearm safety campaign. Similarly, states participating in NVDRS have used their VDRS data to examine homicide in their state. Illinois VDRS, for example, found that state budget cuts were associated with notable increases in homicides among youths in Chicago. With an increase of participating states and jurisdictions, this report marks progress toward providing nationally representative data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , United States/epidemiology , Adult , Adolescent , Humans , Female , Male , Puerto Rico , District of Columbia , Pandemics
6.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 29(4): E137-E146, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2014 Medicaid expansion improved racial and ethnic equity in insurance coverage and access to maternal care among women of reproductive age. This study examines differential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on prenatal care utilization by Medicaid expansion and by race and ethnicity. METHODS: Using the pooled 2019-2020 National Natality file (N = 7 361 190), logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of COVID-19 on prenatal care utilization among US women aged 10 to 54 years after controlling for maternal age, race, ethnicity, marital status, parity, nativity/immigrant status, education, payment type, and smoking during pregnancy. Outcome measures were having no care and delayed prenatal care (third trimester or no care). Stratified models by race/ethnicity and Medicaid expansion status yielded the differential effects of COVID-19 on prenatal care utilization. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the adjusted odds of having no prenatal care decreased by 4% (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-0.97) in expansion states but increased by 13% (AOR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.11-1.15) in nonexpansion states. While most racial and ethnic groups in expansion states experienced a decrease in having no prenatal care, the adjusted odds of having no prenatal care increased by 15% for non-Hispanic Whites, 9% for non-Hispanic Blacks, 33% for American Indians/Alaska Natives, 25% for Asian/Pacific Islanders, and 13% for Hispanics in nonexpansion states. Women in expansion states experienced no change in delayed prenatal care during the pandemic, but women in nonexpansion states experienced an increase in delayed care. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal care utilization decreased during the pandemic among women in nonexpansion states, particularly for American Indians/Alaska Natives and Asian/Pacific Islanders, compared with expansion states.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Pregnancy , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Female , Medicaid , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prenatal Care
7.
Am J Public Health ; 113(6): 689-699, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324048

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To compare rural versus urban local public health workforce competencies and training needs, COVID-19 impact, and turnover risk. Methods. Using the 2021 Public Health Workforce Interest and Needs Survey, we examined the association between local public health agency rural versus urban location in the United States (n = 29 751) and individual local public health staff reports of skill proficiencies, training needs, turnover risk, experiences of bullying due to work as a public health professional, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms attributable to COVID-19. Results. Rural staff had higher odds than urban staff of reporting proficiencies in community engagement, cross-sectoral partnerships, and systems and strategic thinking as well as training needs in data-based decision-making and in diversity, equity, and inclusion. Rural staff were also more likely than urban staff to report leaving because of stress, experiences of bullying, and avoiding situations that made them think about COVID-19. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that rural staff have unique competencies and training needs but also experience significant stress. Public Health Implications. Our findings provide the opportunity to accurately target rural workforce development trainings and illustrate the need to address reported stress and experiences of bullying. (Am J Public Health. 2023;113(6):689-699. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2023.307273).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Public Health/education , Health Workforce , COVID-19/epidemiology , Workforce , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens ; 31(2): 185-190, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320393

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has upended maintenance dialysis in the United States. I review changes in prevalence, incidence, mortality, and other clinical outcomes among patients undergoing dialysis since March 2020, highlighting vulnerabilities in the current system and opportunities for improved care in the future. RECENT FINDINGS: The number of dialysis patients in the United States declined between March 2020 and March 2021, an unprecedented year-over-year drop in the census. Some of the decline can be attributed to an early drop in patients initiating dialysis but most of the decline can be attributed to excess mortality. Kidney transplants also declined during the early part of the pandemic. Home dialysis utilization increased during 2020 but that increase was largely in line with secular trends. The rate of hospitalization for causes other than COVID-19 fell significantly during 2020. SUMMARY: The epidemiology of dialysis in the United States is clearly modifiable, as it reflects decisions to initiate treatment, prescribe home therapies, and hospitalize patients with acute medical needs. On the other hand, some outcomes are powerfully guided by health outcomes in the general population, thus limiting the ability of dialysis providers and nephrologists to influence outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemodialysis, Home , Humans , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
10.
Am J Transplant ; 23(2 Suppl 1): S21-S120, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316471

ABSTRACT

The year 2021 marked both successes and challenges for the field of kidney transplantation, in the context of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and broader geographic organ distribution. The total number of kidney transplants in the United States reached a record count of 25,487, driven by growth in deceased donor kidney transplants. The total number of candidates listed for deceased donor kidney transplant rose slightly in 2021 but remained below 2019 listing levels, with nearly 10% of candidates having been waiting 5 years or longer. Pretransplant mortality declined slightly among candidates of Black, Hispanic, and other races, in parallel with increasing numbers of Black and Hispanic transplant recipients. In the context of broader organ sharing, there is growing disparity in pretransplant mortality among non-metropolitan compared with metropolitan residents. The proportion of deceased donor kidneys recovered but not used for transplant (nonuse rate) rose to a high of 24.6% overall, with greater nonuse among biopsied kidneys (35.9%), kidneys from donors aged 55 years or older (51.1%), and kidneys with kidney donor profile index (KDPI) of 85% or greater (66.6%). Nonuse of kidneys from donors who are hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody positive only slightly exceeded that of HCV antibody-negative donors. Disparities in access to living donor kidney transplant persists, especially for non-White and publicly insured patients. Delayed graft function continues an upward trend and occurred in 24% of adult kidney transplants in 2021. Five-year graft survival after living compared with deceased donor transplant was 88.6% versus 80.7% for recipients aged 18-34 years, and 82.1% versus 68.0% for recipients aged 65 years or older. The total number of pediatric kidney transplants performed increased to 820 in 2021, the highest number since 2010. Despite numerous efforts, living donor kidney transplant remains low among pediatric recipients, with continued racial disparities. The rate of deceased donor transplants among pediatric candidates recovered in 2021 from a low in 2020. Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract remain the leading primary kidney disease diagnosis among pediatric candidates. Most pediatric deceased donor recipients receive a kidney from a donor with KDPI less than 35%. Graft survival continues to improve, with superior outcomes for living donor transplant recipients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C , Tissue and Organ Procurement , Adult , Humans , Child , United States/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Tissue Donors , Living Donors , Graft Survival , Kidney
11.
Am J Transplant ; 23(2 Suppl 1): S178-S263, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316326

ABSTRACT

In 2021, liver transplant volume continued to grow, with a record 9,234 transplants performed in the United States, 8,665 (93.8%) from deceased donors and 569 (6.2%) from living donors. There were 8,733 (94.6%) adult and 501 (5.4%) pediatric liver transplant recipients. An increase in the number of deceased donor livers corresponded to an increase in the overall transplant rate and shorter waiting times, although still 10.0% of livers that were recovered were not transplanted. Alcohol-associated liver disease was the leading indication for both waitlist registration and liver transplant in adults, outpacing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, while biliary atresia remained the leading indication for children. Related to allocation policy changes implemented in 2019, the proportion of liver transplants performed for hepatocellular carcinoma has decreased. Among adult candidates listed for liver transplant in 2020, 37.7% received a deceased donor liver transplant within 3 months, 43.8% within 6 months, and 53.3% within 1 year. Pretransplant mortality improved for children following implementation of acuity circle-based distribution. Short-term graft and patient survival outcomes up to 1 year worsened for adult deceased and living donor liver transplant recipients, which is a reversal of previous trends and coincided with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020. Longer-term outcomes among adult deceased donor liver transplant recipients were unaffected, with overall posttransplant mortality rates of 13.3% at 3 years, 18.6% at 5 years, and 35.9% at 10 years. Pretransplant mortality improved for children following implementation of acuity circle-based distribution and prioritization of pediatric donors to pediatric recipients in 2020. Pediatric living donor recipients had superior graft and patient survival outcomes compared with deceased donor recipients at all time points.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Liver Neoplasms , Liver Transplantation , Tissue and Organ Procurement , Adult , Child , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Living Donors , Pandemics , Graft Survival , COVID-19/epidemiology , Tissue Donors , Waiting Lists
12.
Am J Transplant ; 23(2 Suppl 1): S121-S177, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315891

ABSTRACT

The number of pancreas transplants in the United States was largely unchanged in 2021 at 963 transplants compared with 962 in 2020, showing that recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic was not as pronounced in pancreas transplantation as in other organs. The number of simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplants (SPKs) decreased from 827 to 820, whereas the number of pancreas-after-kidney transplants and pancreas transplants alone increased marginally to compensate. The proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes on the waiting list increased to 22.9% in 2021, compared with 20.1% in 2020. Consequently, the proportion of transplants in patients with type 2 diabetes increased from 21.3% in 2020 to 25.9% in 2021. The proportion of transplants in older recipients (aged 55 years or older) also increased to 13.5% in 2021 from 11.7% in 2020. Outcomes after SPK continue to be the best of the three categories of pancreas transplants: 1-year graft failure for kidney at 5.7% and pancreas at 10.5% for transplants performed in 2020. The proportion of pancreas transplants performed by medium-volume centers (11-24 transplants per year) increased sharply to 48.3% in 2021 from 35.1% in 2020, with a corresponding decrease in transplants in large-volume centers (25 or more transplants per year) to 15.9% in 2021 from 25.7% in 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Pancreas Transplantation , Tissue and Organ Procurement , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Aged , Graft Survival , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pancreas
13.
Acad Med ; 98(5): 555-562, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315225

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, medical students across the United States were pulled from their in-person responsibilities and learning in response to COVID-19. Leaders in the U.S. medical education system then began the arduous task of determining when, and how, to restore their full scope of training. This challenge was complicated by a paucity of readily available historical information about U.S. medical students in pandemics. To fill this knowledge gap, the authors collaborated with a medical history archivist to describe the experience of U.S. medical students during the 1918 influenza pandemic and compare it with the modern day. The experiences and responsibilities of medical students differed tremendously between the 2 pandemics. In 1918, U.S. medical students typically were conscripted into clinical service if they did not volunteer, assuming the roles of physicians, physician assistants, and nurses, often with atypically high levels of autonomy. Medical students were at great risk during the 1918 pandemic; multiple medical schools recorded students dying from influenza. In contrast, during the early COVID-19 pandemic, U.S. medical students were removed from the clinical environment, even if they wanted to volunteer, assuming ancillary roles instead. Upon returning to the clinical environment, most were not permitted to care for COVID-19 patients. The few medical students who recorded personal narratives about 1918 felt that caring for patients with influenza significantly influenced their growth and development as future physicians. One of the few things U.S. medical education had in common between the 1918 and COVID-19 pandemics was a lack of preparedness that impaired readiness and increased confusion among medical students. As U.S. medical education reflects on its response to COVID-19, the authors hope that their findings will provide context for future discussions and decisions about the role of medical students in pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Students, Medical , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Influenza, Human/epidemiology
14.
JAMA ; 329(15): 1248, 2023 04 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315216
15.
J Surg Orthop Adv ; 32(1): 14-16, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314863

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has strained many healthcare systems. Google Trends is a tool that provides information on online interest in selected keywords and topics over time. The purpose of this study is to describe the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on online interest in elective shoulder pathology. Online search pattern data were obtained via Google Trends from November 2019 to November 2020 using the search terms 'orthopedic surgery' and 'shoulder pathology' search terms. Relative search volume index (SVI) graphs were generated from this data and the 7-day average of new COVID-19 cases in the United States. Orthopaedic surgery and shoulder pathology search trends decreased during March 2020 with a sudden rise in the 7-day average of new COVID-19 cases. After March 2020, orthopaedic surgery and shoulder pathology search terms approached pre-COVID-19 pandemic values despite continued increases in the 7-day average of new COVID-19 cases. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 32(1):014-016, 2023).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Orthopedics , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Search Engine , Shoulder
16.
Health Serv Res ; 58(3): 642-653, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314515

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic disproportionately affected racial and ethnic minorities among the general population in the United States; however, little is known regarding its impact on U.S. military Veterans. In this study, our objectives were to identify the extent to which Veterans experienced increased all-cause mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic, stratified by race and ethnicity. DATA SOURCES: Administrative data from the Veterans Health Administration's Corporate Data Warehouse. STUDY DESIGN: We use pre-pandemic data to estimate mortality risk models using five-fold cross-validation and quasi-Poisson regression. Models were stratified by a combined race-ethnicity variable and included controls for major comorbidities, demographic characteristics, and county fixed effects. DATA COLLECTION: We queried data for all Veterans residing in the 50 states plus Washington D.C. during 2016-2020. Veterans were excluded from analyses if they were missing county of residence or race-ethnicity data. Data were then aggregated to the county-year level and stratified by race-ethnicity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overall, Veterans' mortality rates were 16% above normal during March-December 2020 which equates to 42,348 excess deaths. However, there was substantial variation by racial and ethnic group. Non-Hispanic White Veterans experienced the smallest relative increase in mortality (17%, 95% CI 11%-24%), while Native American Veterans had the highest increase (40%, 95% CI 17%-73%). Black Veterans (32%, 95% CI 27%-39%) and Hispanic Veterans (26%, 95% CI 17%-36%) had somewhat lower excess mortality, although these changes were significantly higher compared to White Veterans. Disparities were smaller than in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Minoritized Veterans experienced higher rates excess of mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to White Veterans, though with smaller differences than the general population. This is likely due in part to the long-standing history of structural racism in the United States that has negatively affected the health of minoritized communities via several pathways including health care access, economic, and occupational inequities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Veterans , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Hispanic or Latino/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology , Veterans/statistics & numerical data , White/statistics & numerical data , Black or African American/statistics & numerical data , American Indian or Alaska Native/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities/economics , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Racism/ethnology , Systemic Racism/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility , Employment/economics , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Occupations/economics , Occupations/statistics & numerical data
17.
Transl Psychiatry ; 13(1): 168, 2023 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314379

ABSTRACT

While the association between assets and depression has been established, less is known about the link between financial strain and depression. Given rising financial strain and economic inequity due to the COVID-19 pandemic, understanding the role that financial strain plays in shaping population depression in the United States is particularly salient. We conducted a scoping review of the peer-reviewed literature on financial strain and depression published from inception through January 19, 2023, in Embase, Medline via PubMed, and PsycINFO, PsycArticles, SocINDEX, and EconLit via Ebsco. We searched, reviewed, and synthesized the literature on longitudinal studies on financial strain and depression conducted in the United States. Four thousand and four unique citations were screened for eligibility. Fifty-eight longitudinal, quantitative articles on adults in the United States were included in the review. Eighty-three percent of articles (n = 48) reported a significant, positive association between financial strain and depression. Eight articles reported mixed results, featuring non-significant associations for some sub-groups and significant associations for others, one article was unclear, and one article reported no significant association between financial strain and depression. Five articles featured interventions to reduce depressive symptoms. Effective interventions included coping mechanisms to improve one's financial situation (e.g., mechanisms to assist in finding employment), to modify cognitive behavior (e.g., reframing mindset), and to engage support (e.g., engaging social and community support). Successful interventions were tailored to participants, were group-based (e.g., they included family members or other job seekers), and occurred over multiple sessions. While depression was defined consistently, financial strain was defined variably. Gaps in the literature included studies featuring Asian populations in the United States and interventions to reduce financial strain. There is a consistent, positive association between financial strain and depression in the United States. More research is needed to identify and test interventions that mitigate the ill effects of financial strain on population's mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Adult , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , Mental Health , Adaptation, Psychological
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 25: e43965, 2023 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313888

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Telehealth has become widely used as a novel way to provide outpatient care during the COVID-19 pandemic, but data about telehealth use in primary care remain limited. Studies in other specialties raise concerns that telehealth may be widening existing health care disparities, requiring further scrutiny of trends in telehealth use. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to further characterize sociodemographic differences in primary care via telehealth compared to in-person office visits before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and determine if these disparities changed throughout 2020. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a large US academic center with 46 primary care practices from April-December 2019 to April-December 2020. Data were subdivided into calendar quarters and compared to determine evolving disparities throughout the year. We queried and compared billed outpatient encounters in General Internal Medicine and Family Medicine via binary logic mixed effects regression model and estimated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs. We used sex, race, and ethnicity of the patient attending each encounter as fixed effects. We analyzed socioeconomic status of patients in the institution's primary county based on the patient's residence zip code. RESULTS: A total of 81,822 encounters in the pre-COVID-19 time frame and 47,994 encounters in the intra-COVID-19 time frame were analyzed; in the intra-COVID-19 time frame, a total of 5322 (11.1%) of encounters were telehealth encounters. Patients living in zip code areas with high utilization rate of supplemental nutrition assistance were less likely to use primary care in the intra-COVID-19 time frame (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.98; P=.006). Encounters with the following patients were less likely to be via telehealth compared to in-person office visits: patients who self-identified as Asian (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.63-0.86) and Nepali (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.72), patients insured by Medicare (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.68-0.88), and patients living in zip code areas with high utilization rate of supplemental nutrition assistance (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.71-0.99). Many of these disparities persisted throughout the year. Although there was no statistically significant difference in telehealth use for patients insured by Medicaid throughout the whole year, subanalysis of quarter 4 found encounters with patients insured by Medicaid were less likely to be via telehealth (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.55-0.97; P=.03). CONCLUSIONS: Telehealth was not used equally by all patients within primary care throughout the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, specifically by patients who self-identified as Asian and Nepali, insured by Medicare, and living in zip code areas with low socioeconomic status. As the COVID-19 pandemic and telehealth infrastructure change, it is critical we continue to reassess the use of telehealth. Institutions should continue to monitor disparities in telehealth access and advocate for policy changes that may improve equity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Aged , United States/epidemiology , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Medicare , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Primary Health Care
19.
Am J Transplant ; 23(2 Suppl 1): S300-S378, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313790

ABSTRACT

The past 5 years have posed challenges to the field of heart transplantation. The 2018 heart allocation policy revision was accompanied by anticipated practice adjustments and increased use of short-term circulatory support, changes that may ultimately serve to advance the field. The COVID-19 pandemic also had an impact on heart transplantation. While the number of heart transplants in the United States continued to increase, the number of new candidates decreased slightly during the pandemic. There were slightly more deaths following removal from the waiting list for reasons other than transplant during 2020, and a decline in transplants among candidates listed as status 1, 2, or 3 compared with the other statuses. Heart transplant rates decreased among pediatric candidates, most notably among those younger than 1 year. Despite this, pretransplant mortality has declined for both pediatric and adult candidates, particularly candidates younger than 1 year. Transplant rates have increased in adults. The prevalence of ventricular assist device use has increased among pediatric heart transplant recipients, while the prevalence of short-term mechanical circulatory support, particularly intra-aortic balloon pump and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, has increased among adult recipients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Transplantation , Heart-Assist Devices , Tissue and Organ Procurement , Adult , Humans , Child , United States/epidemiology , Tissue Donors , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Waiting Lists
20.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 17: e314, 2022 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313688

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Vaccine hesitancy impacts the ability to cope with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) effectively in the United States. It is important for health organizations to increase vaccine acceptance. Addressing this issue, this study aimed to predict citizens' acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine through a synthetic approach of public segmentation including cross-situational and situational variables. Controlling for demographics, we examined institutional trust, negative attitudes toward, and low levels of knowledge about vaccines (ie, lacuna public characteristics), and fear of COVID-19 during the pandemic. Our study provides a useful framework for public segmentation and contributes to risk and health campaigns by identifying significant predictors of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. METHOD: We conducted an online survey on October 10, 2020 (N = 499), and performed hierarchical regression analyses to predict citizens' COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. RESULTS: This study demonstrated that trust in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and federal government, vaccine attitude, problem recognition, constraint recognition, involvement recognition, and fear positively predicted COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. CONCLUSIONS: This study outlines a useful synthetic public segmentation framework and extends the concept of lacuna public to the pandemic context, helping to predict vaccine acceptance. Importantly, the findings could be useful in designing health campaign messages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , United States/epidemiology , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Fear , Vaccination
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