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1.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270868, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021857

ABSTRACT

Vaccine hesitancy is a global health challenge in controlling the virulence of pandemics. The prevalence of vaccine hesitancy will put highly vulnerable groups, such as the elderly or groups with pre-existing health conditions, at a higher risk, as seen with the outbreak of the pandemic Covid-19. Based on the trends of vaccine hesitancy in the state of Sabah, located in East Malaysia, this study seeks to identify several variables that contribute to vaccine hesitancy. In addition to this, this study also determines which groups are affected by vaccine hesitancy based on their demographics. This study is based on a sampling of 1,024 Sabahan population aged 18 and above through an online and face-to-face questionnaire. The raw data was analysed using the K-Means Clustering Analysis, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal-Wallis Test, and frequency. The K-Means Clustering found that more than half of the total number of respondents (Cluster 2 = 51.9%) tend to demonstrate vaccine hesitancy. Based on the PCA analysis, six main factors were found to cause vaccine hesitancy in Sabah: confidence (var(X) = 21.6%), the influence of local authority (var(X) = 12.1%), ineffectiveness of mainstream media (var(X) = 8.4%), complacency (var(X) = 7.4%), social media (var(X) = 6.4%), and convenience issues (var(X) = 5.8%). Findings from both Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests demonstrate that several factors of group demographics, such as employment status, level of education, religion, gender, and marital status, may explain the indicator of vaccine hesitancy. In particular, specific groups tend to become vaccine hesitancy such as, unemployed, self-employed, students, male, single, level of education, and Muslim. Findings from this empirical study are crucial to inform the relevant local authorities on the level of vulnerability among certain groups in facing the hazards of COVID-19. The main contribution of this study is that it seeks to analyse the factors behind vaccine hesitancy and identifies which groups more likely hesitant toward vaccines based on their demographics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13681, 2022 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991663

ABSTRACT

The current study examined various types of misinformation related to the COVID-19 vaccines and their relationships to vaccine hesitancy and refusal. Study 1 asked a sample of full-time working professionals in the US (n = 505) about possible misinformation they were exposed to related to the COVID-19 vaccines. Study 2 utilized an online survey to examine U.S. college students' (n = 441) knowledge about COVID-19 vaccines, and its associations with vaccine hesitancy and behavioral intention to get a COVID-19 vaccine. Analysis of open-ended responses in Study 1 revealed that 57.6% reported being exposed to conspiratorial misinformation such as COVID-19 vaccines are harmful and dangerous. The results of a structural equation modeling analysis for Study 2 supported our hypotheses predicting a negative association between the knowledge level and vaccine hesitancy and between vaccine hesitancy and behavioral intention. Vaccine hesitancy mediated the relationship between the vaccine knowledge and behavioral intention. Findings across these studies suggest exposure to misinformation and believing it as true could increase vaccine hesitancy and reduce behavioral intention to get vaccinated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Communication , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
3.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272691, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978859

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hesitancy and incomplete vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains an obstacle to achieving herd immunity. Because of fear of vaccine reactions, patients with medical and allergic co-morbidities express heightened hesitancy. Limited information is available to guide these patients. We sought to identify factors associated with mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines hesitancy and reactogenicity. METHODS: We surveyed employees of a multi-site health system in central Pennsylvania who were offered the COVID-19 vaccine (N = 18,740) inquiring about their experience with the Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA-based vaccines. The survey was administered online using the REDCap platform. We used multivariable regression analysis to determine whether a particular factor(s) (e.g., demographics, selected co-morbid allergic and medical conditions, vaccine brand, and prior COVID-19) were associated with vaccine reactogenicity including the occurrence and severity of local and systemic reactions. We also explored factors and reasons associated with vaccine hesitancy. RESULTS: Of the 5709 who completed the survey (response rate, 30.4%), 369 (6.5%) did not receive the vaccine. Black race and allergy to other vaccines were associated with vaccine hesitancy. Reaction intensity following the first vaccine dose and allergic co-morbidities were associated with incomplete vaccination. Older individuals (>60 years) experienced less reactogenicity. Females had higher odds of local and systemic reactions and reported more severe reactions. Asians reported more severe reactions. As compared to Pfizer-BioNTech, the Moderna vaccine was associated with higher odds of vaccine reactions of higher severity. Prior COVID-19 resulted in more severe reactions following the first dose, but less severe reactions following the second dose. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted campaigns to enhance vaccination acceptance should focus on Black individuals, females, and those with allergic co-morbidities. Prior COVID-19 caused more severe reactions after the first but not the second vaccine dose. Moderna vaccine caused more vaccine reactions. Lessons learned from the early rollout of COVID-19 vaccine may serve to inform future novel vaccine experiences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity , Vaccination Hesitancy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccines
4.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272426, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978855

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Beliefs that the risks from a COVID-19 vaccine outweigh the risks from getting COVID-19 and concerns that the vaccine development process was rushed and lacking rigor have been identified as important drivers of hesitancy and refusal to get a COVID-19 vaccine. We tested whether messages designed to address these beliefs and concerns might promote intentions to get a COVID-19 vaccine. METHOD: We conducted an online survey fielded between March 8-23, 2021 with US Veteran (n = 688) and non-Veteran (n = 387) respondents. In a between-subjects experiment, respondents were randomly assigned to a control group (with no message) or to read one of two intervention messages: 1. a fact-box styled message comparing the risks of getting COVID-19 compared to the vaccine, and 2. a timeline styled message describing the development process of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. RESULTS: Most respondents (60%) wanted a COVID-19 vaccine. However, 17% expressed hesitancy and 23% did not want to get a COVID-19 vaccine. The fact-box styled message and the timeline message did not significantly improve vaccination intentions, F(2,358) = 0.86, p = .425, [Formula: see text] = .005, or reduce the time respondents wanted to wait before getting vaccinated, F(2,306) = 0.79, p = .453, [Formula: see text] = .005, compared to no messages. DISCUSSION: In this experimental study, we did not find that providing messages about vaccine risks and the development process had an impact on respondents' vaccine intentions. Further research is needed to identify how to effectively address concerns about the risks associated with COVID-19 vaccines and the development process and to understand additional factors that influence vaccine intentions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Health Communication , Vaccine Development , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Intention , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination Hesitancy , Vaccines
5.
Rural Remote Health ; 22(3): 7140, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975623

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Vaccine hesitancy has been a major barrier to mitigating the effects of COVID-19, especially in rural Oregon, USA. This study assessed the influence of political affiliation, religious identity, and rurality on vaccine hesitancy in counties across Oregon. METHODS: Cross-sectional association analysis was performed using public data on US President Trump votership in the 2020 election, White Christian identity, population density, and COVID-19 vaccination data for adults as of 29 August 2021. RESULTS: By 29 August 2021, 68.0% of adults had been fully vaccinated in Oregon. Trump votership was the strongest independent association with vaccination status in Oregon (r=0.90, p<0.01), followed by White Christian identity (r= -0.69, p<0.01), and population density (r=0.55, p<0.01). In multivariate analysis, White Christian identity and political affiliation with Trump in the 2020 election explained 84.1% of the variability in COVID-19 vaccination status in Oregon counties. CONCLUSION: White Christian identity, Trump affiliation, and rurality were identified as factors in vaccine hesitancy among counties in Oregon. Without addressing these factors in public health outreach, vaccine hesitancy is likely to continue unabated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Oregon , Parents , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Politics , Religion , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
6.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1296, 2022 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974133

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study applies the Patient Self-Advocacy scale to investigate vaccine hesitancy in New Zealand. Due to New Zealand's very limited tertiary hospital system and vulnerable populations, the Government's strategy to address COVID-19 has been to prevent the virus from entering the nation and to eliminate it when it does cross the border. Therefore, there is no opportunity for the nation to generate any acquired immunity through exposure. To transition from closed borders, New Zealand will need to run a highly successful national vaccination programme and this needs to have the ability to drive influential public health messaging to the targeted places within the communities where vaccine hesitancy most exists. METHODS: This study employed statistical methods. A nationally representative survey of adults in New Zealand (n = 1852) was collected via Qualtrics. Independent samples t-tests, and multiple regression were used to explore the research questions. RESULTS: Those who identify as medically able to be vaccinated expressed significantly higher confidence in the COVID-19 vaccine than those who identified as unable to be vaccinated. Patient-self advocacy had a positive effect on vaccine confidence. Individuals who identify as able to be vaccinated have less hesitancy. Demographics had various effects on vaccine hesitancy. CONCLUSION: The research highlights particularly important insights into vaccine hesitancy related to patient self-advocacy behaviours, and various demographic variables such as political affiliation. In addition, the research adds further clarity on how and why New Zealanders have responded to the COVID-vaccine. Finally, the importance of vaccine literacy is discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Parents , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
7.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3801, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972597

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to impact daily life, including health system operations, despite the availability of vaccines that are effective in greatly reducing the risks of death and severe disease. Misperceptions of COVID-19 vaccine safety, efficacy, risks, and mistrust in institutions responsible for vaccination campaigns have been reported as factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy. This study investigated COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy globally in June 2021. Nationally representative samples of 1,000 individuals from 23 countries were surveyed. Data were analyzed descriptively, and weighted multivariable logistic regressions were used to explore associations with vaccine hesitancy. Here, we show that more than three-fourths (75.2%) of the 23,000 respondents report vaccine acceptance, up from 71.5% one year earlier. Across all countries, vaccine hesitancy is associated with a lack of trust in COVID-19 vaccine safety and science, and skepticism about its efficacy. Vaccine hesitant respondents are also highly resistant to required proof of vaccination; 31.7%, 20%, 15%, and 14.8% approve requiring it for access to international travel, indoor activities, employment, and public schools, respectively. For ongoing COVID-19 vaccination campaigns to succeed in improving coverage going forward, substantial challenges remain to be overcome. These include increasing vaccination among those reporting lower vaccine confidence in addition to expanding vaccine access in low- and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Vaccination Hesitancy
8.
Ind Health ; 60(4): 387-394, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968964

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to compare the longitudinal change in depressive symptoms among healthcare professionals in Japan who are willing to receive novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccination and those who are unwilling to receive COVID-19 vaccination. The baseline survey was conducted in October 2020 (Survey time 1: T1); respondents in T1 were invited to participate in May 2021 (Survey time 2: T2). Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Group comparisons of the estimated mean of PHQ-9 score at T1 and T2 were estimated by the analysis of covariance. In T1, 597 participants (response rate: 4.4%) completed all questions. In T2, 211 participants (follow up rate: 35.3%) completed all questions. The group and time interaction effect was significant (F(1, 207)=3.9, p=0.049); depressive symptoms were worse among healthcare professionals who were unwilling to receive vaccination than among those who were willing to receive vaccination. This study showed that depressive symptoms were worse among healthcare professionals who were unwilling to receive COVID-19 vaccination than those who are willing to receive COVID-19 vaccination. This suggests that it is important to take care of healthcare professionals who are unwilling to receive vaccination to prevent mental health deterioration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(30): e29786, 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individuals on immunosuppressive therapies experience greater morbidity and mortality due to vaccine-preventable illnesses, but there are low rates of adherence to immunization guidelines within this population. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of clinician-led education, patient-centered dialogue, and immediately available immunization on influenza vaccination uptake in patients taking immunosuppressive therapies. METHOD: We used a controlled before-and-after quasi-experimental design to evaluate our quality improvement intervention occurring from September 2019 to March 2020, with follow-up through July 2020. The study included 2 dermatology practices wherein nursing staff offered influenza vaccination during patient rooming (standard care). Within each practice, clinicians either implemented the intervention or provided only standard care. Patients received the intervention or standard care depending on the clinician they visited. Patients seen at the 2 clinics during the intervention period were included in analyses if they were taking or newly prescribed immunosuppressant medication at the time of their visit. We examined influenza immunization status for 3 flu seasons: 2017-2018 (preintervention), 2018-2019 (preintervention), and 2019-2020 (intervention). INTERVENTION: Immunosuppressed patients initially declining an influenza vaccine were provided dermatologist-led education on the benefits of immunization. Dermatologists explored and addressed individual patients' immunization concerns. Influenza vaccination was then offered immediately postdialogue. RESULTS: Analyses included 201 dermatology patients who were prescribed or currently taking immunosuppressive medication (intervention group [72.6%], comparison group [27.4%]). During the intervention period, 91.1% of the intervention group received influenza vaccination compared to 56.4% of the comparison group. Vaccination trends from 2018-2019 (preintervention) to 2019-2020 (intervention) differed significantly between groups (χ2 = 22.92, P < .001), with greater improvement in the intervention group. In 2019-2020, influenza vaccination was more likely in the intervention group relative to the comparison group (odds ratio: 16.22, 95% confidence interval: 5.55-47.38). In the subset of patients that had never received an influenza vaccine, influenza immunization in 2019-2020 was more common in the intervention group (75.8%, 25/33) relative to the comparison group (13.3%, 2/15, P < .001). CONCLUSION: The intervention successfully addressed vaccine hesitancy and improved influenza immunization rates in an immunosuppressed population receiving care from a specialty clinic. Implementing a similar model across specialty clinics may improve vaccination rates for influenza, coronavirus disease 2019, and other vaccine-preventable illnesses in other populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
10.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270349, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968863

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Using a 10 week nationwide online survey performed during a time period containing the time ahead, the start, and the peak of a COVID-19 outbreak in Taiwan, we investigated aspects that could affect participants' vaccination intentions. METHODS: From March to May 2021, we surveyed 1,773 people in Taiwan, aged from 20 to 75 years, to determine potential acceptance rates and factors influencing the acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine. We used an ordinal logistic regression with a backward selection method to identify factors that affected vaccination intention. RESULTS: Several factors could increase individuals' vaccination intentions including: being male, older, with an openness personality, having a better quality of life in the physical health domain, having better knowledge and personal health behavior, having more trust in the government, and being worried about misinformation. Perceived risks played a crucial role in the vaccine decision-making process. When the pandemic intensified, people's vaccination intentions increased significantly. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study could highlight individuals' vaccination attitudes and provide governments with an empirical and dynamic base to design tailored strategies to increase vaccination rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Quality of Life , Taiwan/epidemiology , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
11.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 30(2): 99-106, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964909

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Vaccine hesitancy presents one of the critical constraints in combating COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an instrument for measuring factors that contribute to COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. METHODS: The key constructs in the study instrument were factors that constitute the "3C" model of vaccine hesitancy: Confidence, Complacency and Convenience. Using a cross-sectional, online survey design, the 8-item COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy Questionnaire was administered to a sample of 667 adult citizens of Serbia in December 2020. We used confirmatory factor analysis to investigate the model that assumes three latent variables. To ensure that the instrument measures the same constructs in different groups, the measurement invariance examination was conducted. To examine criterion validity, Spearman's correlation was applied to determine the association between the instrument total score and the single-item measuring the likelihood of getting vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis established the three-factor structure, with subscales fitting within the "3C" model of vaccine hesitancy comprising confidence, convenience and complacency. The full scalar invariance was found across gender, and the partial scalar invariance was achieved for the age, region and education level. A higher level of the COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was associated with the lower likelihood to get vaccinated against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. CONCLUSION: Our scale is brief and consistent, maintaining a good fit across key socio-demographic subgroups. This result implies that the scale could be useful for quick assessment of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in various target populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 914943, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963642

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Preventing severe disease and acquiring population immunity to COVID-19 requires global immunization coverage through mass vaccination. While high-income countries are battling vaccine hesitancy, low-income and fragile nations are facing the double dilemma of vaccine hesitancy and lack of access to vaccines. There is inadequate information on any correlation between vaccine hesitancy and access to vaccines. Our study in a low-income nation aimed to fill this gap. Methods: In the backdrop of a severe shortage of COVID-19 vaccines in Yemen, a low-income fragile nation, we conducted a nation-wide cross-sectional survey among its healthcare workers (HCWs), between 6 July and 10 August 2021. We evaluated factors influencing agreement to accept a COVID-19 vaccine and any potential correlation between vaccine acceptance and lack of access to vaccines. Results: Overall, 61.7% (n = 975) of the 1,581 HCWs agreed to accept a COVID-19 vaccine. Only 45.4% of the participants agreed to have access to a COVID-19 vaccine, with no sex dependent variations. Although several determinants of vaccine acceptance were identified, including, having a systemic disease, following the updates about COVID-19 vaccines, complying with preventive guidelines, having greater anxiety about contracting COVID-19, previous infection with COVID-19, believing COVID-19 to be a severe disease, and lower concern about the side effects of COVID-19, the strongest was access to vaccines (OR: 3.18; 95% CI: 2.5-4.03; p-value: 0.001). Conclusion: The immediate and more dangerous threat in Yemen toward achieving population immunity is the severe shortage and lack of access to vaccines, rather than vaccine hesitancy, meaning, improving access to vaccines could lead to greater acceptance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
13.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271394, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding public discourse about a COVID-19 vaccine in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic may provide key insights concerning vaccine hesitancy. However, few studies have investigated the communicative patterns in which Twitter users participate discursively in vaccine discussions. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate 1) the major topics that emerged from public conversation on Twitter concerning vaccines for COVID-19, 2) the topics that were emphasized in tweets with either positive or negative sentiment toward a COVID-19 vaccine, and 3) the type of online accounts in which tweets with either positive or negative sentiment were more likely to circulate. METHODS: We randomly extracted a total of 349,979 COVID-19 vaccine-related tweets from the initial period of the pandemic. Out of 64,216 unique tweets, a total of 23,133 (36.03%) tweets were classified as positive and 14,051 (21.88%) as negative toward a COVID-19 vaccine. We conducted Structural Topic Modeling and Network Analysis to reveal the distinct topical structure and connection patterns that characterize positive and negative discourse toward a COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: Our STM analysis revealed the most prominent topic emerged on Twitter of a COVID-19 vaccine was "other infectious diseases", followed by "vaccine safety concerns", and "conspiracy theory." While the positive discourse demonstrated a broad range of topics such as "vaccine development", "vaccine effectiveness", and "safety test", negative discourse was more narrowly focused on topics such as "conspiracy theory" and "safety concerns." Beyond topical differences, positive discourse was more likely to interact with verified sources such as scientists/medical sources and the media/journalists, whereas negative discourse tended to interact with politicians and online influencers. CONCLUSIONS: Positive and negative discourse was not only structured around distinct topics but also circulated within different networks. Public health communicators need to address specific topics of public concern in varying information hubs based on audience segmentation, potentially increasing COVID-19 vaccine uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination Hesitancy
14.
Indian J Public Health ; 66(2): 98-103, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954319

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccine hesitancy has been recognized as a public health issue which needs to be addressed urgently. Pregnant women with COVID-19 are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. An assessment of the determinants of vaccine hesitancy will aid in the acceleration of vaccine administration among pregnant women. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among pregnant women in Imphal, Manipur and assess associated factors. Methods: Across-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women attending Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of a Tertiary Care Institute in Imphal, Manipur during August 2021. One hundred and sixty-three pregnant women were interviewed using a structured questionnaire over phone calls. Univariate analysis was carried out using the Chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine the factors significantly associated with vaccine acceptance. Results: The mean age of the participants was 28.3 ± 5.5 years and majority, 102 (62.6%) were multigravida and 27 (16.6%) had comorbidities. Vaccine hesitancy was found in 127 (77.9%) participants. Logistic regression analysis indicated that awareness on COVID-19 vaccine eligibility (P = 0.002), disagreement of vaccine being unsafe during pregnancy (P = 0.005), and agreement on vaccine benefiting the baby (P = 0.003) were the significant predictors of vaccine acceptance. Conclusion: Nearly four out of every five pregnant women had COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Pregnant women should be informed about the benefits and encouraged to take COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infant , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy , Young Adult
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 877668, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952824

ABSTRACT

Background: With promotion of COVID-19 vaccinations, there has been a corresponding vaccine hesitancy, of which older adolescents and young adults represent groups of particular concern. In this report, we investigated the prevalence and reasons for vaccine hesitancy, as well as potential risk factors, within older adolescents and young adults in China. Methods: To assess these issues, an online survey was administered over the period from March 14 to April 15, 2021. Older adolescents (16-17 years old) and young adults (18-21 years old) were recruited nationwide from Wechat groups and results from a total of 2,414 respondents were analyzed. Socio-demographic variables, vaccine hesitancy, psychological distress, abnormal illness behavior, global well-being and social support were analyzed in this report. Results: Compared to young adults (n = 1,405), older adolescents (n = 1,009) showed higher prevalence rates of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy (16.5 vs. 7.9%, p < 0.001). History of physical diseases (p = 0.007) and abnormal illness behavior (p = 0.001) were risk factors for vaccine hesitancy among older adolescents, while only a good self-reported health status (p = 0.048) was a risk factor for young adults. Concerns over COVID-19 vaccine side effects (67.1%) and beliefs of invulnerability regarding infection risk (41.9%) were the most prevalent reasons for vaccine hesitancy. Providing evidence on the vaccine reduction of COVID-19 infection risk (67.5%), ensuring vaccine safety (56.7%) and the low risk of side effects (52.7%) were the most effective persuasions for promoting vaccinations. Conclusion: In China, older adolescents showed a higher prevalence for vaccine hesitancy than that of young adults. Abnormal illness behavior and history of physical diseases were risk factors for vaccine hesitancy among these older adolescents, while social support represents an important factor which could help to alleviate this hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Parents/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Vaccination Hesitancy , Young Adult
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12435, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947499

ABSTRACT

Understanding what lies behind actual COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is fundamental to help policy makers increase vaccination rates and reach herd immunity. We use June 2021 data from the COME-HERE survey to explore the predictors of actual vaccine hesitancy in France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain and Sweden. We estimate a linear-probability model with a rich set of covariates and address issues of common-method variance. 13% of our sample say they do not plan to be vaccinated. Post-Secondary education, home-ownership, having an underlying health condition, and one standard-deviation higher age or income are all associated with lower vaccine hesitancy of 2-4.5% points. Conservative-leaning political attitudes and a one standard-deviation lower degree of confidence in the government increase this probability by 3 and 6% points respectively. Vaccine hesitancy in Spain and Sweden is significantly lower than in the other countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination Hesitancy
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9344, 2022 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947438

ABSTRACT

The officials realized that the vaccination drive alone would not be  sufficient, but the individual's response towards getting vaccinated needs to be assessed and addressed, especially in India, where the diverse culture could widely affect the population's vaccination behaviour. The study aimed to identify the predictors of vaccine hesitancy behaviour using the health belief model and theory of planned behaviour and understand mediating and moderating influence of knowledge and social support on the relationship between the predictors and vaccine hesitancy behaviours among the Indian population. Data was collected from 1006 samples. Regression analysis was performed to assess the variances exerted on vaccine hesitancy behaviours. Also, SEM AMOS was employed to examine the mediation and moderation effects of knowledge about vaccines and social support. The findings indicated that around 11% of the respondents were hesitant to get vaccinated. The combined models of HBM and TPB provide high predictive power. The analysis also revealed that knowledge about vaccine significantly mediates partially between a few constructs of HBM and TPB concerning hesitancy. This study provides the theoretical framework and suggests that the health belief model and the theory of planned behaviour model could explain the psychological influences of vaccine hesitancy in India.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urinary Bladder Diseases , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
18.
J Community Health ; 47(4): 666-673, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1942346

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 vaccine hesitancy among young adults is a current public health issue that needs to be addressed considering the seasonally driven waves of disease and the administration of vaccine boosters. As a prevention measure, the EU Covid certificate had been implemented to increase vaccine uptake, but its application was controversial. Our study investigated students' opinions and attitudes towards Covid-19 vaccination and the EU Covid certificate through a mixed-methods design. An 18-item questionnaire was administered to 200 students during a vaccination campaign in September 2021 at the University of Bordeaux, France. Simultaneously, 30 students attended a semi-structured interview. Collected data were analyzed separately then discussed together through a parallel and convergent approach. Results showed that vaccine hesitancy was high among students, mostly from fear of short-term side effects. However, respondents decided to get vaccinated to obtain the EU Covid certificate, even if they considered it as a violation of their freedom. Straightforward communication about Covid-19 vaccination did not reach students, although this was a strong expectation from governmental and health institutions. Findings suggest that key health personnel should provide evidence-based information about vaccines in efforts of building trust with young people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Students , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy , Young Adult
19.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 7(1): 21, 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938366

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination against the novel coronavirus is one of the most effective strategies for combating the global Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. However, vaccine hesitancy has emerged as a major obstacle in several regions of the world, including Africa. The objective of this rapid review was to summarize the literature on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Africa. METHODS: We searched Scopus, Web of Science, African Index Medicus, and OVID Medline for studies published from January 1, 2020, to March 8, 2022, examining acceptance or hesitancy towards the COVID-19 vaccine in Africa. Study characteristics and reasons for COVID-19 vaccine acceptance were extracted from the included articles. RESULTS: A total of 71 articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. Majority (n = 25, 35%) of the studies were conducted in Ethiopia. Studies conducted in Botswana, Cameroun, Cote D'Ivoire, DR Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe were also included in the review. The vaccine acceptance rate ranged from 6.9 to 97.9%. The major reasons for vaccine hesitancy were concerns with vaccine safety and side effects, lack of trust for pharmaceutical industries and misinformation or conflicting information from the media. Factors associated with positive attitudes towards the vaccine included being male, having a higher level of education, and fear of contracting the virus. CONCLUSIONS: Our review demonstrated the contextualized and multifaceted reasons inhibiting or encouraging vaccine uptake in African countries. This evidence is key to operationalizing interventions based on facts as opposed to assumptions. Our paper provided important considerations for addressing the challenge of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and blunting the impact of the pandemic in Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urination Disorders , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Nigeria , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
20.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1375, 2022 07 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Huge efforts are being made to control the spread and impacts of the coronavirus pandemic using vaccines. However, willingness to be vaccinated depends on factors beyond the availability of vaccines. The aim of this study was three-folded: to assess children's rates of COVID-19 Vaccination as reported by parents, to explore parents' attitudes towards children's COVID-19 vaccination, and to examine the factors associated with parents' hesitancy towards children's vaccination in several countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). METHODS: This study utilized a cross-sectional descriptive design. A sample of 3744 parents from eight countries, namely, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia (KSA), and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), was conveniently approached and surveyed using Google forms from November to December 2021. The participants have responded to a 42-item questionnaire pertaining to socio-demographics, children vaccination status, knowledge about COVID-19 vaccines, and attitudes towards vaccinating children and the vaccine itself. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS- IBM, Chicago, IL, USA) was used to analyze the data. A cross-tabulation analysis using the chi-square test was employed to assess significant differences between categorical variables and a backward Wald stepwise binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the independent effect of each factor after controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: The prevalence of vaccinated children against COVID-19 was 32% as reported by the parents. Concerning parents' attitudes towards vaccines safety, about one third of participants (32.5%) believe that all vaccines are not safe. In the regression analysis, children's vaccination was significantly correlated with parents' age, education, occupation, parents' previous COVID-19 infection, and their vaccination status. Participants aged ≥50 years and those aged 40-50 years had an odds ratio of 17.9 (OR = 17.9, CI: 11.16-28.97) and 13.2 (OR = 13.2, CI: 8.42-20.88); respectively, for vaccinating their children compared to those aged 18-29 years. Parents who had COVID-19 vaccine were about five folds more likely to vaccinate their children compared with parents who did not receive the vaccine (OR = 4.9, CI: 3.12-7.70). The prevalence of children's vaccination in the participating Arab countries is still not promising. CONCLUSION: To encourage parents, vaccinate their children against COVID-19, Arab governments should strategize accordingly. Reassurance of the efficacy and effectiveness of the vaccine should target the general population using educational campaigns, social media, and official TV and radio channels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Parents , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
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