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1.
Nat Biotechnol ; 40(8): 1174-1175, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031828

Subject(s)
Vaccination , Phenotype
2.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(8): 1106-1107, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028674
3.
Rev Saude Publica ; 56: 50, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025533

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiological profile of cases and the pattern of spatial diffusion of the largest measles epidemic in Brazil that occurred in the post-elimination period in the state of São Paulo. METHOD: A cross-sectional study based on confirmed measles cases in 2019. Bivariate analysis was performed for socioeconomic, clinical, and epidemiological variables, according to prior vaccination and hospitalization, combined with an analysis of spatial diffusion of cases using the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method. RESULTS: Of the 15,598 confirmed cases, 2,039 were hospitalized and 17 progressed to death. The epidemic peak occurred in epidemiological week 33, after confirmation of the first case, in the epidemiological week 6. Most cases were male (52.1%), aged between 18 and 29 years (38.7%), identified as whites (70%). Young adults (39.7%) and children under five years (32.8%) were the most affected age groups. A higher proportion of previous vaccination was observed in whites as compared to Blacks, browns, yellows and indigenous people (p < 0.001), as well as in the most educated group compared to the other categories (p < 0.001). The risk of hospitalization was higher in children than in the older age group (RI = 2.19; 95%CI: 1.66-2.88), as well as in the unvaccinated than in the vaccinated (RI = 1.59; 95%CI: 1.45-1.75). The pattern of diffusion by contiguity combined with diffusion by relocation followed the urban hierarchy of the main cities' regions of influence. CONCLUSION: In addition to routine vaccination in children, the findings indicate the need for immunization campaigns for young adults. In addition, studies that seek to investigate the occurrence of clusters of vulnerable populations, prone to lower vaccination coverage, are essential to broaden the understanding of the dynamics of transmission and, thus, reorienting control strategies that ensure disease elimination.


Subject(s)
Measles , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization , Infant , Male , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Vaccination , Young Adult
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 54, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025477

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the response to COVID-19 pandemic has posed new obstacles to the fragile health system, most especially in the area of vaccination across much of Africa. As the response to the pandemic intensifies through the application of non-pharmacologic interventions as well as enforcement of the lockdowns across African cities, there is a significant risk that more children will miss out on life-saving vaccines that can prevent childhood killer diseases. This study was therefore conducted to look at the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on routine immunization in Oyo State, Nigeria. Methods: we conducted a descriptive secondary analysis of immunization data between July 2019 and August 2020. These data were retrieved from the monitoring and evaluation unit of Oyo State Primary Health Care Board. The data were extracted from the original paper format and entered into Excel sheets. Line graphs were plotted to compare the trends of the coverage rates before and after the index case of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: the average coverage rates for Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) before and after index case were 85.8% and 82.1% respectively, while it was 63.5% and 60.0% for HBV0. For the co-administered vaccines at 14 weeks, Penta 3, OPV 3, PCV 3 and IPV coverage rates dropped from 76.1%, 75.4%, 75.1% and 73.5% to 72.0%, 71.4%, 72.0% and 71.9% respectively. The average coverage rates for yellow fever and measles dropped sharply from 77.0% and 74.5% and 64.6% and 58.6% respectively. The average drop-out rates for the pre-and post-index case periods were 5.0% and 4.7% respectively. For the planned fixed and outreach sessions, none of the monthly sessions met the target of 100.0% in the post-index case period. Conclusion: decreased vaccination coverage for vaccine-preventable diseases could cause parallel outbreaks with COVID-19 and further exacerbate the strain on health systems attempting to end the acute phase of this pandemic. Therefore, as the dramatic second wave unfolds, the Government of Nigeria must take deliberate steps to strike a balance between a fresh lockdown and the imperative of uninterrupted social service. In this wise, it must remain committed to a timely vaccination program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , Vaccination
5.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604226, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023032

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study examined factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention at the very beginning of the vaccination campaign in a representative sample of the population in southern Switzerland. Methods: In March 2021, we measured vaccination intention, beliefs, attitudes, and trust in a sample of the Corona Immunitas Ticino study. Results: Of the 2681 participants, 1933 completed the questionnaire (response rate = 72%; 55% female; meanage = 41, SD = 24, rangeage = 5-91). Overall, 68% reported an intention to get vaccinated. Vaccination intention was higher in social/healthcare workers, and increased with age, trust in public health institutions, and confidence in the vaccine efficacy. Prior infection of a family member, predilection for waiting for more evidence on the safety and efficacy of the vaccine, and for alternative protective means were negatively associated with intention. Conclusion: In view of needs of COVID-19 vaccine boosters and of suboptimal vaccination coverage, our results have relevant public health implications and suggest that communication about vaccine safety and efficacy, and aims of vaccination programs, should be bi-directional, proportionate, and tailored to the concerns, expectations, and beliefs of different population subgroups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Intention , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland , Vaccination , Young Adult
6.
Am J Public Health ; 112(9): 1253-1256, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022191

ABSTRACT

Tailored public health messaging encouraging COVID-19 vaccination may help increase vaccination rates and decrease the burden of COVID-19. We conducted a three-part COVID-19 vaccine uptake public health campaign disseminated on Facebook between April and June 2021. Our first campaign focused on reaching Black and Latinx communities; our second campaign focused on addressing vaccine access and scheduling in Latinx communities; and our third campaign focused on religious communities. Overall, we reached 25 million individuals with 171 million views across the United States. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(9):1253-1256. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306934).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Promotion , Humans , Public Health , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
7.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270868, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021857

ABSTRACT

Vaccine hesitancy is a global health challenge in controlling the virulence of pandemics. The prevalence of vaccine hesitancy will put highly vulnerable groups, such as the elderly or groups with pre-existing health conditions, at a higher risk, as seen with the outbreak of the pandemic Covid-19. Based on the trends of vaccine hesitancy in the state of Sabah, located in East Malaysia, this study seeks to identify several variables that contribute to vaccine hesitancy. In addition to this, this study also determines which groups are affected by vaccine hesitancy based on their demographics. This study is based on a sampling of 1,024 Sabahan population aged 18 and above through an online and face-to-face questionnaire. The raw data was analysed using the K-Means Clustering Analysis, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal-Wallis Test, and frequency. The K-Means Clustering found that more than half of the total number of respondents (Cluster 2 = 51.9%) tend to demonstrate vaccine hesitancy. Based on the PCA analysis, six main factors were found to cause vaccine hesitancy in Sabah: confidence (var(X) = 21.6%), the influence of local authority (var(X) = 12.1%), ineffectiveness of mainstream media (var(X) = 8.4%), complacency (var(X) = 7.4%), social media (var(X) = 6.4%), and convenience issues (var(X) = 5.8%). Findings from both Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests demonstrate that several factors of group demographics, such as employment status, level of education, religion, gender, and marital status, may explain the indicator of vaccine hesitancy. In particular, specific groups tend to become vaccine hesitancy such as, unemployed, self-employed, students, male, single, level of education, and Muslim. Findings from this empirical study are crucial to inform the relevant local authorities on the level of vulnerability among certain groups in facing the hazards of COVID-19. The main contribution of this study is that it seeks to analyse the factors behind vaccine hesitancy and identifies which groups more likely hesitant toward vaccines based on their demographics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
8.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270801, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021854

ABSTRACT

Studies demonstrating the waning of post-vaccination and post-infection immunity against covid-19 generally analyzed a limited range of vaccines or subsets of populations. Using Czech national health data from the beginning of the covid-19 pandemic till November 20, 2021 we estimated the risks of reinfection, breakthrough infection, hospitalization and death by a Cox regression adjusted for sex, age, vaccine type and vaccination status. Vaccine effectiveness against infection declined from 87% at 0-2 months after the second dose to 53% at 7-8 months for BNT162b2 vaccine, from 90% at 0-2 months to 65% at 7-8 months for mRNA-1273, and from 83% at 0-2 months to 55% at 5-6 months for the ChAdOx1-S. Effectiveness against hospitalization and deaths declined by about 15% and 10%, respectively, during the first 6-8 months. Boosters (third dose) returned the protection to the levels observed shortly after dose 2. In unvaccinated, previously infected individuals the protection against infection declined from 97% after 2 months to 72% at 18 months. Our results confirm the waning of vaccination-induced immunity against infection and a smaller decline in the protection against hospitalization and death. Boosting restores the original vaccine effectiveness. Post-infection immunity also decreases over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Czech Republic/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Vaccination
9.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270504, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021838

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 vaccination effectively reduces severe disease and death from COVID-19. However, both vaccine uptake and intention to vaccinate differ amongst population groups. Vaccine hesitancy is highest amongst specific ethnic minority groups. There is very limited understanding of the barriers and facilitators to COVID-19 vaccine uptake in Black and South Asian ethnicities. Therefore, we aimed to explore COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy in primary care patients from South Asian (Bangladeshi/Pakistani) and Black or Black British/African/Caribbean/Mixed ethnicities. METHODS: Patients from the above ethnicities were recruited using convenience sampling in four London general practices. Telephone interviews were conducted, using an interpreter if necessary, covering questions on the degree of vaccine hesitancy, barriers and potential facilitators, and decision-making. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Data collection and analysis occurred concurrently with the iterative development of the topic guide and coding framework. Key themes were conceptualised through discussion with the wider team. RESULTS: Of thirty-eight interviews, 55% (21) of these were in Black or Black British/African/Caribbean/Mixed ethnicities, 32% (12) in Asian / British Asian and 13% (5) in mixed Black and White ethnicities. Key themes included concerns about the speed of vaccine roll-out and potential impacts on health, mistrust of official information, and exposure to misinformation. In addition, exposure to negative messages linked to vaccination appears to outweigh positive messages received. Facilitators included the opportunity to discuss concerns with a healthcare professional, utilising social influences via communities and highlighting incentives. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 has disproportionately impacted ethnic minority groups. Vaccination is an effective strategy for mitigating risk. We have demonstrated factors contributing to vaccine reluctance, hesitancy and refusal and highlighted levers for change.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Ethnicity , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Minority Groups , Primary Health Care , Vaccination
10.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269917, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021809

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with the increase in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S1) protein and neutralizing antibody titer following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. This observational study was conducted among healthcare workers working for a private hospital group in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Two blood samples were obtained from each participant. The first sample was obtained before the first dose of BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine, and a second sample was obtained approximately 6 weeks later. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody against the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S1) protein, immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody against SARS-CoV-2 N-protein, and neutralizing activity were measured using the chemiluminescent immunoassay with iFlash 3000. A total of 231 healthcare workers who agreed to participate, and were negative for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM antibodies at enrollment, were included in the analysis. All participants had elevated IgG antibodies and neutralizing activity above the cutoff values. A total of 174 (75.3%) and 208 (90.0%) participants experienced adverse reactions after the first and second vaccine doses, respectively. Younger age, female sex, not taking immunosuppressive or antipyretic analgesic medication regularly, a lack of local adverse reactions after the first dose, and the presence of adverse reactions (fever, muscle, and joint pain) after the second dose were associated with higher IgG antibody titers and neutralizing activity. Intake of analgesic antipyretic for adverse reactions to vaccines was not significantly associated with antibody and neutralizing activity titer production. Immune responses after vaccination may differ among individuals, and continued countermeasures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection are vital.


Subject(s)
Antipyretics , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
11.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269727, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021799

ABSTRACT

As a member state of the European Union, where vaccines against COVID-19 are available and affordable, Bulgaria reports the lowest immunization coverage and the most pronounced vaccine distrust. The present study aimed to assess the self-reported adverse reactions following COVID-19 vaccination as a possible tool to increase the trust in vaccines. A cross-sectional survey-based study, covering 761 vaccinated respondents, was conducted in Plovdiv (469 with an mRNA vaccine and 292 with an adenoviral vector vaccine). Descriptive statistics parametric and non-parametric methods were applied. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. The median age of the respondents was 42 years, females (72.5%). At least one adverse reaction was reported in 89.9% of those immunized with mRNA vaccine and 93.8% in the adenoviral vector vaccine group (p>0.05). They were mild to moderate and resolved within several days. The levels of local reactions were comparable: 91.7% in those who received mRNA and 89.7% in those who received an adenoviral vector vaccine (p = 0.366). The most common types of systemic reactions were fatigue, headache, and muscle pains. An association was found between the systemic reactions and the type of vaccine administered: 59.7% in mRNA recipients and 89.4% in adenoviral vector vaccinees (p<0.001). None of the registered systemic reactions required medical attention. There were 3 reports of generalized urticaria after an mRNA and 2 after an adenoviral vector vaccine. The reported reactions are relatively high but expected and no adverse events have been reported that are not listed in the official Summary of Product Characteristics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adult , Bulgaria , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , RNA, Messenger , Self Report , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines
12.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269299, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021778

ABSTRACT

The second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic left the Indian healthcare system overwhelmed. The severity of a third wave will depend on the success of the vaccination drive; however, even with a safe and effective COVID-19 vaccine, hesitancy can be an obstacle to achieving high levels of coverage. Our study aims to estimate the population's acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine in an Indian district. A pilot community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March-May 2021. The data was collected from eight primary health centres in Tamil Nadu. The eligible study participants were interviewed using a self-constructed questionnaire. A total of 3,130 individuals responded to the survey. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to assess the factors influencing COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and refusal. Results of our study showed that 46% percent (n = 1432) of the respondents would accept the COVID-19 vaccine if available. Acceptance for the COVID-19 vaccine was higher among males (54%), individuals aged 18-24years (62%), those with higher education (77%), having the higher income (73%), and employed (51%). Individuals with no education (OR: 2.799, 95% CI = 1.103-7.108), and low income (OR: OR: 10.299, 95% CI: 4.879-21.741), were significant predictors of vaccine hesitancy (p < 0.05). Living in urban residence (OR: 0.699, 95% CI = 0.55-0.888) and age between 18 to 25 years (OR: 0.549, 95% CI = 0.309-0.977) were protective factor of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. While individuals in the age group 25-54years (OR = 1.601, 95%CI = 1.086-2.359), fewer education (OR = 4.8, 95% CI = 2.448-9.412,), low income (OR = 2.628, 95% CI = 1.777-3.887) and unemployment (OR = 1.351, 95% CI = 1.06-1.722) had high odds of refusing the COVID-19 vaccine. Concerns and suspicions about the safety of the COVID-19 vaccine (63%) was the major reasons causing hesitancy towards the COVID-19 vaccine The public health authorities and government need to design, develop and implement targeted interventions to enhance awareness about COVID-19 vaccines, and barriers and enablers to vaccine acceptance among individuals across diverse settings. Emphasis on involving local and religious leaders, ASHA workers, community healthcare workers, Anganwadi workers, and auxiliary nurse midwives can help to overcome context-specific barriers in areas of low COVID-19 vaccine acceptance, especially in rural settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urination Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Vaccination , Young Adult
13.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266511, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021658

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the effect of pandemic vaccination on asset prices in a simple asset pricing model à la Lucas 1978. In this model, asset prices depend on susceptible individuals' saving motives to insure against a reduction in labour income due to getting they get the virus. Hence distributing vaccine reduces precautionary saving motives and asset prices. This implies that reducing the income gap between susceptible and infected individuals, such as by cash handouts, eases the negative effect of vaccine supply on asset prices.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , Vaccination , Costs and Cost Analysis , Humans , Income , Pandemics/prevention & control
14.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0265159, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021626

ABSTRACT

The last year of Covid-19 pandemic has been characterized by the continuous chase between the vaccination campaign and the appearance of new variants that puts further obstacles to the possibility of eradicating the virus and returning to normality in a short period. In the present paper we develop a deterministic compartmental model to describe the evolution of the Covid-19 in Italy as a combined effect of vaccination campaign, new variant spreading and mobility restrictions. Particular attention is given to the mechanism of waning immunity, appropriately timed with respect to the effective progress of the vaccination campaign in Italy. We perform a retrospective analysis in order to explore the role that different mechanisms, such as behavioral changes, variation of the population mobility, seasonal variability of the virus infectivity, and spreading of new variants have had in shaping the epidemiological curve. We find that, in the large time window considered, the most relevant mechanism is the seasonal variation in the stability of the virus, followed by the awareness mechanism, that induces individuals to increase/relax self-protective measures when the number of active cases increases/decreases. The appearance of the Delta variant and the mobility variations have had instead only marginal effects. In absence of vaccines the emerging scenario would have been dramatic with a percentage difference in the number of total infections and total deaths, in both cases, larger than fifty per cent. The model also predicts the appearance of a more contagious variant (the Omicron variant) and its becoming dominant in January 2022.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
17.
Nat Immunol ; 23(8): 1135-1137, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016767
19.
J Autoimmun ; 131: 102866, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015569

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune systemic diseases (ASD) show impaired immunogenicity to COVID-19 vaccines. Our prospective observational multicenter study aimed at evaluating the seroconversion elicited by COVID-19 vaccine over the entire vaccination cycle including the booster dose. Among 478 unselected ASD patients originally evaluated at the end of the first vaccination cycle (time 1), 344 individuals were re-evaluated after a 6-month period (time 2), and 244 after the booster vaccine dose (time 3). The immunogenicity of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines (BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273) was assessed by measuring serum IgG-neutralizing antibody (NAb) on samples obtained at the three time points in both patients and 502 age-matched controls. In the 244 ASD group that received booster vaccine and monitored over the entire follow-up, the mean serum NAb levels (time 1, 2, and 3: 696.8 ± 52.68, 370.8 ± 41.92, and 1527 ± 74.16SD BAU/mL, respectively; p < 0.0001) were constantly lower compared to controls (p < 0.0001), but they significantly increased after the booster dose compared to the first two measurements (p < 0.0001). The percentage of patients with absent/suboptimal response to vaccine significantly decreased after the booster dose compared to the first and second evaluations (time 1, 2, and 3: from 28.2% to 46.3%, and to 7.8%, respectively; p < 0.0001). Of note, the percentage of patients with absent/suboptimal response after the booster dose was significantly higher compared to controls (19/244, 7.8% vs 1/502, 0.2%; p < 0.0001). Similarly, treatment with immune-modifiers increased the percentage of patients exhibiting absent/suboptimal response (16/122, 13.1% vs 3/122, 2.46%; p = 0.0031). Overall, the above findings indicate the usefulness of booster vaccine administration in ASD patients. Moreover, the persistence of a significantly higher percentage of individuals without effective seroconversion (7.8%), even after the booster dose, warrants for careful monitoring of NAb levels in all ASD patients to identify those with increased risk of infection. In this particularly frail patients' setting, tailored vaccination and/or therapeutic strategy are highly advisable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Vaccination
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