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3.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(12): 2565-2566, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245600

ABSTRACT

Adult vaccination is an accepted part of health care and diabetes care. In spite of evidence regarding the efficacy and utility of vaccination in preventing disease, we continue to encounter vaccine hesitancy and vaccine skepticism. As physicians, it is our duty to encourage the public to get vaccinated. In this article, we create a simple framework which helps assess the barriers to vaccine acceptance, and create bridges to overcome vaccine hesitancy and skepticism. We use an interesting mnemonic, NARCO, to remind ourselves, and our readers, of the appropriate hierarchy of interviewing related to vaccine acceptance.


Subject(s)
Physicians , Vaccination Hesitancy , Adult , Humans , Health Facilities , Memory , Vaccination , Primary Health Care
4.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 61(10): 3912-3918, 2022 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242590

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRDs) treated with the anti-CD20 mAb rituximab (RTX) have been identified as high-risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes. Additionally, there is increased risk due to reduced humoral immune response, induced by therapeutic B cell depletion. This study sought to quantify humoral response after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with IRD treated with RTX. It also sought to elucidate the influence of the time frame between the last RTX dose and the first vaccination, or the status of B cell depletion on antibody titre. METHODS: In this case-control study, patients with IRDs previously treated with RTX were examined for humoral immune response after completing the first series of vaccinations with approved vaccines [BNT162b2 (Biontech/Pfizer), RNA-1273 (Moderna), AZD1222 (AstraZeneca/Oxford), Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson)]. Antibody levels were quantified using the Euroimmun Anti-SARS-CoV-2 QuantiVac ELISA (EI-S1-IgG-quant). Blood samples were taken just before the next infusion with RTX after the vaccination. The interval between the last RTX infusion and the first vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 and other possible factors influencing the antibody levels were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 102 patients were included. Of these, 65 (64%) showed a negative antibody level (<24 IU (international unit)/ml) after the vaccination. The comparative univariate analysis of the antibody levels achieved a significant result (P = 0.0008) for the time between the last RTX infusion and first vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. No CD19+ peripheral B-cells could be detected in 73 of the patients (72%). CONCLUSION: The study confirms the negative impact of RTX on antibody level after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. A clear relationship exists between the antibody titre and the interval between the last RTX infusion and the first vaccination, the number of peripheral B-cells, and immunoglobulin quantity. Improved understanding of the effect of these parameters can help guide synchronization of vaccination in relation to the RTX therapy regimen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Ad26COVS1 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Case-Control Studies , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , RNA , Rheumatic Diseases/chemically induced , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(5): 1885-1898, 2021 May.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243734

ABSTRACT

This article explores the use of spatial artificial intelligence to estimate the resources needed to implement Brazil's COVID-19 immu nization campaign. Using secondary data, we conducted a cross-sectional ecological study adop ting a time-series design. The unit of analysis was Brazil's primary care centers (PCCs). A four-step analysis was performed to estimate the popula tion in PCC catchment areas using artificial in telligence algorithms and satellite imagery. We also assessed internet access in each PCC and con ducted a space-time cluster analysis of trends in cases of SARS linked to COVID-19 at municipal level. Around 18% of Brazil's elderly population live more than 4 kilometer from a vaccination point. A total of 4,790 municipalities showed an upward trend in SARS cases. The number of PCCs located more than 5 kilometer from cell towers was largest in the North and Northeast regions. Innovative stra tegies are needed to address the challenges posed by the implementation of the country's National COVID-19 Vaccination Plan. The use of spatial artificial intelligence-based methodologies can help improve the country's COVID-19 response.


O objetivo deste artigo é analisar o uso da inteligência artificial espacial no contexto da imunização contra COVID-19 para a seleção adequada dos recursos necessários. Trata-se de estudo ecológico de caráter transversal baseado em uma abordagem espaço-temporal utilizando dados secundários, em Unidades Básicas de Saúde do Brasil. Foram adotados quatro passos analíticos para atribuir um volume de população por unidade básica, aplicando algoritmos de inteligência artificial a imagens de satélite. Em paralelo, as condições de acesso à internet móvel e o mapeamento de tendências espaço-temporais de casos graves de COVID-19 foram utilizados para caracterizar cada município do país. Cerca de 18% da população idosa brasileira está a mais de 4 quilômetros de distância de uma sala de vacina. No total, 4.790 municípios apresentaram tendência de agudização de casos de Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave. As regiões Norte e Nordeste apresentaram o maior número de Unidades Básicas de Saúde com mais de 5 quilômetros de distância de antenas de celular. O Plano nacional de vacinação requer o uso de estratégias inovadoras para contornar os desafios do país. O uso de metodologias baseadas em inteligência artificial espacial pode contribuir para melhoria do planejamento das ações de resposta à COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , Artificial Intelligence , Brazil , Cities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intelligence , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(7): 2859-2862, 2021 Jul.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238440

ABSTRACT

The process of developing Brazil's COVID-19 immunization plan began belatedly and involved a number of experts, including a technical group responsible for defining priority groups for vaccination. This process was permeated by contradictions between the government and researchers. Finally, on 20 January 2021, the government published an updated version of the plan, which remains limited in scope.


O processo de elaboração do Plano de Imunização contra Covid-19 no Brasil se iniciou tardiamente e contou com a participação de especialistas incluindo o grupo técnico responsável pela definição de grupos prioritários para a vacinação. Este processo foi permeado de indefinições entre o Governo Federal e pesquisadores e, finalmente, no dia 20 de janeiro de 2021 foi divulgada a versão atualizada do Plano ainda incipiente no que tange a sua abrangência.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brazil , Humans , Immunization , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(8): 2937-2947, 2021 Aug.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232909

ABSTRACT

Routine immunization during pandemics can be harmed. This study estimated the influenza vaccination coverage in older adults during the COVID-19 through the EPICOVID-19, a population-based study conducted in 133 cities from the 26 Brazilian states and Federal District. We selected 25 census tracts per city, with probability proportional to the tract's size, ten households by census tract, and one random individual interviewed. A total of 8,265 older adults (≥60 years old) were interviewed and asked whether they had been vaccinated against flu in 2020. Vaccination coverage was 82.3% (95% CI: 80.1-84.2) with no difference by gender, age, and region; higher vaccination coverage was observed among the wealthiest (84.7% versus 80.1% in the poorest) and among the more educated (87.3% versus 83.2% less educated); lower coverage among indigenous (56.9% versus > 80% among other ethnic groups). A positive association was identified with the number of comorbidities among men but not among women. Most of the population was vaccinated (97.5%) in the public health system. The private network was chosen mainly in the South by the wealthiest and more educated. Vaccination coverage was seven percentage points lower than the government target (90%), and inequalities should be reversed in future campaigns.


Imunizações de rotina durante pandemias podem ser prejudicadas. Este estudo estimou a cobertura vacinal para influenza em idosos durante a COVID-19 através do EPICOVID-19, inquérito populacional realizado em 133 cidades sentinelas dos 26 estados brasileiros e Distrito Federal. Selecionou-se 25 setores censitários por cidade, amostragem proporcional ao tamanho, dez domicílios por setor e uma pessoa por domicílio, aleatoriamente. O quantitativo de 8.265 idosos (≥ 60 anos) foram entrevistados e responderam se haviam sido vacinados contra gripe em 2020. A cobertura foi 82,3% (IC95% 80,1; 84,2), sem diferenças por sexo, idade ou região. Maiores coberturas ocorreram nos mais ricos (84,7% versus 80,1% nos mais pobres) e nos mais escolarizados (87,3% versus 83,2% nos menos escolarizados). Menor cobertura nos indígenas (56,9% versus coberturas superiores a 80% nos demais grupos étnicos). Houve associação positiva com número de comorbidades entre homens, mas não entre mulheres. A maioria vacinou-se na rede pública (97,5%), sendo a rede privada mais utilizada na região Sul, pelos mais escolarizados e mais ricos. Conclui-se que a cobertura vacinal ficou sete pontos percentuais abaixo da meta governamental (90%), e que desigualdades devem ser revertidas em futuras campanhas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Aged , Cities , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
10.
Iran J Med Sci ; 47(5): 391-393, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239884
11.
Infect Dis Now ; 52(8S): S7-S8, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238432

ABSTRACT

Heterologous prime boost vaccination is a primary vaccination with different vaccines, most often from different vaccine platforms. It combines the immunological properties of the different vaccines and thereby induces humoral, cellular and, in some cases, mucosal response. For Covid prevention, it has been used in primary vaccination, due to safety issues and in boosters. We have evaluated some articles reporting on the results of this type of vaccine, and demonstrating its usefulness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization, Secondary/methods , Vaccination/methods
13.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(4): 570-578, 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237020

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Unvaccinated emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are at increased risk of contracting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and potentially transmitting the virus to their families, coworkers, and patients. Effective vaccines for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus exist; however, vaccination rates among EMS professionals remain largely unknown. Consequently, we sought to document vaccination rates of EMS professionals and identify predictors of vaccination uptake. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of North Carolina EMS professionals after the COVID-19 vaccines were widely available. The survey assessed vaccination status as well as beliefs regarding COVID-19 illness and vaccine effectiveness. Prediction of vaccine uptake was modeled using logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 860 EMS professionals completed the survey, of whom 74.7% reported receiving the COVID-19 vaccination. Most respondents believed that COVID-19 is a serious threat to the population, that they are personally at higher risk of infection, that vaccine side effects are outweighed by illness prevention, and the vaccine is safe and effective. Despite this, only 18.7% supported mandatory vaccination for EMS professionals. Statistically significant differences were observed between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups regarding vaccine safety and effectiveness, recall of employer vaccine recommendation, perceived risk of infection, degree of threat to the population, and trust in government to take actions to limit the spread of disease. Unvaccinated respondents cited reasons such as belief in personal health and natural immunity as protectors against infection, concerns about vaccine safety and effectiveness, inadequate vaccine knowledge, and lack of an employer mandate for declining the vaccine. Predictors of vaccination included belief in vaccine safety (odds ratio [OR] 5.5, P=<0.001) and effectiveness (OR 4.6, P=<0.001); importance of vaccination to protect patients (OR 15.5, P=<0.001); perceived personal risk of infection (OR 1.8, P=0.04); previous receipt of influenza vaccine (OR 2.5, P=0.003); and sufficient knowledge to make an informed decision about vaccination (OR 2.4, P=0.024). CONCLUSION: In this survey of EMS professionals, over a quarter remained unvaccinated for COVID-19. Given the identified predictors of vaccine acceptance, EMS systems should focus on countering misinformation through employee educational campaigns as well as on developing policies regarding workforce immunization requirements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Health Personnel , Vaccination , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Decision Making , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Health Surveys , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , North Carolina , Occupational Health , Patient Safety , Vaccination/legislation & jurisprudence , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
14.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(3): 969-978, 2022 Mar.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236329

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the vaccination numbers for immunization geared toward individuals under 12 months of age in Brazil. This study analyzed the numbers of the nationwide vaccination coverage of ten vaccines present in the calendar from the National Immunization Program (NIP) over the past eight years (2013-2020). This is an ecological study, and all data were taken from the NIP. In comparison to the previous years, 2020 recorded the lowest figures of vaccination coverage (VC) of the average of the group of studied vaccines - 79.07% - while in 2019, this same index was 84.44%, resulting in a drop of 11.10% between these two periods. Moreover, during the year of the pandemic, of the ten analyzed vaccines, nine recorded their lowest historical VC figures, all of which were at least 14 percentage points below the goals set by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MS, in Portuguese). Although there had already been a tendency toward a decline in VC, for various reasons, the present study illustrates that the numbers recorded in 2020 were significantly lower, a phenomenon also reported in other countries. Therefore, although it is impossible to affirm that the COVID-19 pandemic and its distancing measures are the causes for the drop in the immunization numbers, it can be inferred that there is indeed an association.


O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o impacto da pandemia de COVID-19 nos valores de vacinação para as imunizações voltadas a indivíduos com menos de um ano de vida no Brasil. Analisou-se os valores de cobertura vacinal, em território nacional, de dez vacinas presentes no calendário do Programa Nacional de Imunizações (PNI) durante os últimos oito anos (2013-2020). Esse é um estudo ecológico e todos os dados foram extraídos do PNI. Comparativamente aos anos prévios, em 2020 registrou-se o menor valor de cobertura vacinal da média do conjunto das vacinas estudadas, 75,07%, enquanto em 2019 esse mesmo índice ficou em 84,44%, resultando em uma queda de 11,10% entre esses dois períodos. Além disso, no ano da pandemia, das dez vacinas analisadas, nove registraram o seu menor valor histórico de cobertura, todas estando a no mínimo 14 pontos percentuais abaixo da meta do Ministério da Saúde. Embora já houvesse uma tendência de queda na cobertura vacinal, por diversos motivos, o presente estudo demonstra que os valores registrados em 2020 foram significativamente menores, fenômeno também registrado em outros países. Portanto, mesmo não conseguindo afirmar que a pandemia de COVID-19 e as medidas de distanciamento sejam as causas da queda dos valores de imunização, podemos inferir que há uma associação.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Humans , Immunization Programs , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
16.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(11): 4213, 2022 Nov.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235504

ABSTRACT

The article aims to identify who the "Doctors for Life" are, their academic and professional information, which assumptions have been mobilized for the defense of "early treatment" and the denial of vaccines for COVID-19, and the representativeness of their discourses in the medical practice context in Brazil. The analysis is based on a list of 276 doctors' names, cataloged from their website, and on academic and professional information obtained through research on the Federal Medical Conseil website and the Scientific and Technological Development Nacional Council platform. The content analysis points to the centrality of the medical specialties of homeopathy and acupuncture in the population of Doctors for Life when compared to the set of specialist doctors in Brazil. The significant accession of homeopaths and acupuncturists to the Doctors for Life movement can clarify the understanding of specific medical rationalities, allowing us to distinguish which categories and ideas about the health-disease process are in dispute. It is concluded that, more than describing the problem, it is needed to establish its correlations with a group of events, practices, political decisions, economic linkages, shared beliefs, and a chain of processes that configure its undeniably social characteristics.


O artigo pretende identificar quem são os "Médicos pela Vida" (MPV), suas informações acadêmicas e profissionais, quais as premissas utilizadas para a defesa do "tratamento precoce" e da negação das vacinas contra COVID-19 e qual a representatividade de seus discursos no contexto da prática médica no Brasil. A análise baseia-se na lista de 276 profissionais médicos catalogados no site dos MPV e em informações acadêmicas e profissionais coletadas nos sites do Conselho Federal de Medicina e da Plataforma Lattes, do Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico. A análise do conteúdo aponta para a centralidade das especialidades da Homeopatia e Acupuntura na população de MPV quando comparada ao conjunto dos especialistas do Brasil. A adesão significativa de homeopatas e acupunturistas ao movimento dos MPV pode iluminar a compreensão sobre racionalidades médicas específicas, permitindo distinguir quais categorias e ideias acerca dos processos de saúde e doença estão em disputa. Conclui-se que, para além de descrever a problemática, é preciso estabelecer suas correlações com um conjunto de acontecimentos, práticas, decisões políticas, encadeamentos econômicos, compartilhamento de crenças e uma corrente de processos que configuram seu caráter inegavelmente social.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination
17.
Int Health ; 14(6): 632-638, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231890

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunization is a cost-effective public health strategy to reduce vaccine preventable disease, especially in childhood. METHODS: This paper reports the philosophy, service delivery, achievements and lessons learned from an immunization program in rural Nigeria privately financed via a corporate social responsibility initiative from GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals. RESULTS: The immunization program served the community for a 16-y period extending from 1998 until 2015, resulting in an increase in age-appropriate immunization coverage from 43% to 78%. CONCLUSION: In its success, this immunization program exemplified the importance of early and sustained community engagement, integration of strategies to optimize implementation outcomes and effective team building well before some of these principles were accepted and codified in the literature. The project also underscores the important role that the private sector can bring to achieving critical immunization goals, especially among underserved populations and provides a model for successful public-private partnership.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , Humans , Nigeria , Immunization Programs , Immunization , Vaccination
18.
Eur Heart J ; 44(24): 2234-2243, 2023 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234164

ABSTRACT

AIMS: A comprehensive nationwide study on the incidence and outcomes of COVID-19 vaccination-related myocarditis (VRM) is in need. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 44 276 704 individuals with at least 1 dose of COVID-19 vaccination, the incidence and clinical courses of VRM cases confirmed by the Expert Adjudication Committee of the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency were analyzed. COVID-19 VRM was confirmed in 480 cases (1.08 cases per 100 000 persons). Vaccination-related myocarditis incidence was significantly higher in men than in women (1.35 vs. 0.82 per 100 000 persons, P < 0.001) and in mRNA vaccines than in other vaccines (1.46 vs. 0.14 per 100 000 persons, P < 0.001). Vaccination-related myocarditis incidence was highest in males between the ages of 12 and 17 years (5.29 cases per 100 000 persons) and lowest in females over 70 years (0.16 cases per 100 000 persons). Severe VRM was identified in 95 cases (19.8% of total VRM, 0.22 per 100 000 vaccinated persons), 85 intensive care unit admission (17.7%), 36 fulminant myocarditis (7.5%), 21 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy (4.4%), 21 deaths (4.4%), and 1 heart transplantation (0.2%). Eight out of 21 deaths were sudden cardiac death (SCD) attributable to VRM proved by an autopsy, and all cases of SCD attributable to VRM were aged under 45 years and received mRNA vaccines. CONCLUSION: Although COVID-19 VRM was rare and showed relatively favorable clinical courses, severe VRM was found in 19.8% of all VRM cases. Moreover, SCD should be closely monitored as a potentially fatal complication of COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , mRNA Vaccines , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
19.
S Afr Med J ; 113(4): e16554, 2023 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Malawi, only 1 072 229 people out of a national target population of 13 546 324 had received at least one dose of the AstraZeneca COVID­19 vaccine by 26 December 2021, and only 672 819 people were classified as fully vaccinated. Phalombe District in Malawi had particularly low COVID­19 vaccine uptake, with only 4% (n=8 538) of 225 219 people being fully vaccinated by 26 December. OBJECTIVES: To explore reasons for vaccine hesitancy and refusal among people living in Phalombe District. METHODS: This cross-sectional qualitative study employed six focus group discussions (FGDs) and 19 in-depth interviews (IDIs) to collect data. We purposefully selected two traditional authorities (TAs), Nazombe and Nkhumba, as study areas, and conducted FGDs and IDIs in 6 randomly selected villages in these two TAs. Participants were religious leaders, traditional leaders, youths, traditional healers and ordinary community members. We explored reasons for vaccine refusal and hesitancy, how contextual cultural beliefs influenced people's decision to receive the COVID­19 vaccine, and which sources of information were trusted in the community. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis. RESULTS: We conducted 19 IDIs and six FGDs. Themes that emerged from the data were reasons for vaccine refusal and hesitancy, contextual cultural beliefs affecting the decision whether to be vaccinated, ways to improve COVID­19 vaccine uptake, and means of communicating information about COVID­19 vaccines. Participants mentioned that myths contributing to vaccine refusal and hesitancy circulated in the community through social media. With regard to contextual cultural beliefs, most participants believed that COVID­19 was a disease of rich people, while others believed that it signalled the end of the world and that it could not be cured. CONCLUSION: Health systems should recognise and acknowledge the reasons leading to vaccine hesitancy and refusal and address these appropriately to improve vaccine uptake. Effective community sensitisation and engagement should be enhanced to clarify myths and address misinformation about the COVID­19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adolescent , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Malawi/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , South Africa , Vaccination
20.
BMJ Open ; 13(6): e066897, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233982

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To (1) understand what behaviours, beliefs, demographics and structural factors predict US adults' intention to get a COVID-19 vaccination, (2) identify segments of the population ('personas') who share similar factors predicting vaccination intention, (3) create a 'typing tool' to predict which persona people belong to and (4) track changes in the distribution of personas over time and across the USA. DESIGN: Three surveys: two on a probability-based household panel (NORC's AmeriSpeak) and one on Facebook. SETTING: The first two surveys were conducted in January 2021 and March 2021 when the COVID-19 vaccine had just been made available in the USA. The Facebook survey ran from May 2021 to February 2022. PARTICIPANTS: All participants were aged 18+ and living in the USA. OUTCOME MEASURES: In our predictive model, the outcome variable was self-reported vaccination intention (0-10 scale). In our typing tool model, the outcome variable was the five personas identified by our clustering algorithm. RESULTS: Only 1% of variation in vaccination intention was explained by demographics, with about 70% explained by psychobehavioural factors. We identified five personas with distinct psychobehavioural profiles: COVID Sceptics (believe at least two COVID-19 conspiracy theories), System Distrusters (believe people of their race/ethnicity do not receive fair healthcare treatment), Cost Anxious (concerns about time and finances), Watchful (prefer to wait and see) and Enthusiasts (want to get vaccinated as soon as possible). The distribution of personas varies at the state level. Over time, we saw an increase in the proportion of personas who are less willing to get vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Psychobehavioural segmentation allows us to identify why people are unvaccinated, not just who is unvaccinated. It can help practitioners tailor the right intervention to the right person at the right time to optimally influence behaviour.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Adult , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Self Report , Intention , Probability , Vaccination
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