Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 2.177
Filter
2.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270504, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021838

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 vaccination effectively reduces severe disease and death from COVID-19. However, both vaccine uptake and intention to vaccinate differ amongst population groups. Vaccine hesitancy is highest amongst specific ethnic minority groups. There is very limited understanding of the barriers and facilitators to COVID-19 vaccine uptake in Black and South Asian ethnicities. Therefore, we aimed to explore COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy in primary care patients from South Asian (Bangladeshi/Pakistani) and Black or Black British/African/Caribbean/Mixed ethnicities. METHODS: Patients from the above ethnicities were recruited using convenience sampling in four London general practices. Telephone interviews were conducted, using an interpreter if necessary, covering questions on the degree of vaccine hesitancy, barriers and potential facilitators, and decision-making. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Data collection and analysis occurred concurrently with the iterative development of the topic guide and coding framework. Key themes were conceptualised through discussion with the wider team. RESULTS: Of thirty-eight interviews, 55% (21) of these were in Black or Black British/African/Caribbean/Mixed ethnicities, 32% (12) in Asian / British Asian and 13% (5) in mixed Black and White ethnicities. Key themes included concerns about the speed of vaccine roll-out and potential impacts on health, mistrust of official information, and exposure to misinformation. In addition, exposure to negative messages linked to vaccination appears to outweigh positive messages received. Facilitators included the opportunity to discuss concerns with a healthcare professional, utilising social influences via communities and highlighting incentives. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 has disproportionately impacted ethnic minority groups. Vaccination is an effective strategy for mitigating risk. We have demonstrated factors contributing to vaccine reluctance, hesitancy and refusal and highlighted levers for change.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Ethnicity , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Minority Groups , Primary Health Care , Vaccination
5.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 187: 114313, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007372

ABSTRACT

Pandemics and epidemics are continually challenging human beings' health and imposing major stresses on the societies particularly over the last few decades, when their frequency has increased significantly. Protecting humans from multiple diseases is best achieved through vaccination. However, vaccines thermal instability has always been a hurdle in their widespread application, especially in less developed countries. Furthermore, insufficient vaccine processing capacity is also a major challenge for global vaccination programs. Continuous drying of vaccine formulations is one of the potential solutions to these challenges. This review highlights the challenges on implementing the continuous drying techniques for drying vaccines. The conventional drying methods, emerging technologies and their adaptation by biopharmaceutical industry are investigated considering the patented technologies for drying of vaccines. Moreover, the current progress in applying Quality by Design (QbD) in each of the drying techniques considering the critical quality attributes (CQAs), critical process parameters (CPPs) are comprehensively reviewed. An expert advice is presented on the required actions to be taken within the biopharmaceutical industry to move towards continuous stabilization of vaccines in the realm of QbD.


Subject(s)
Epidemics , Vaccines , Desiccation/methods , Drug Compounding , Humans , Immunization Programs
6.
Rural Remote Health ; 22(2): 7128, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006680

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 vaccination is widely recommended as a prevention strategy; however, vaccine uptake is disproportionately lower among rural Americans compared to their urban counterparts. Development of public health activities to address the rural-urban vaccine gap requires an understanding of determinants of vaccine hesitation. The present study explores perceptions of and barriers to COVID-19 vaccination among rural Oklahomans. METHODS: Between March and May 2021, 222 residents, unvaccinated for COVID-19, within rural Oklahoma counties completed a cross-sectional, online questionnaire to qualitatively assess perceptions, benefits, and concerns regarding getting vaccinated for COVID-19. RESULTS: Approximately two-fifths of rural respondents in the present study were hesitant to get vaccinated, even when a vaccine was made available to them. Major factors included limited knowledge and understanding about the vaccine, including potential side-effects and long-term complications, as well as skepticism surrounding COVID-19 vaccine development and efficacy. Among the potential perceived benefits of vaccination were protecting the health of vulnerable individuals and the ability to return to normal day-to-day activities. CONCLUSION: Increases in COVID-19 cases and deaths in rural areas are expected to continue as new variants are introduced within communities. The present findings highlight the need for the development of culturally tailored vaccine information, to be disseminated by local leaders within rural communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
7.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 10(1)2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002665
8.
J Biomed Semantics ; 13(1): 22, 2022 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Vaccine Ontology (VO) is a biomedical ontology that standardizes vaccine annotation. Errors in VO will affect a multitude of applications that it is being used in. Quality assurance of VO is imperative to ensure that it provides accurate domain knowledge to these downstream tasks. Manual review to identify and fix quality issues (such as missing hierarchical is-a relations) is challenging given the complexity of the ontology. Automated approaches are highly desirable to facilitate the quality assurance of VO. METHODS: We developed an automated lexical approach that identifies potentially missing is-a relations in VO. First, we construct two types of VO concept-pairs: (1) linked; and (2) unlinked. Each concept-pair further derives an Acquired Term Pair (ATP) based on their lexical features. If the same ATP is obtained by a linked concept-pair and an unlinked concept-pair, this is considered to indicate a potentially missing is-a relation between the unlinked pair of concepts. RESULTS: Applying this approach on the 1.1.192 version of VO, we were able to identify 232 potentially missing is-a relations. A manual review by a VO domain expert on a random sample of 70 potentially missing is-a relations revealed that 65 of the cases were valid missing is-a relations in VO (a precision of 92.86%). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that our approach is highly effective in identifying missing is-a relation in VO.


Subject(s)
Biological Ontologies , Vaccines , Adenosine Triphosphate
9.
Curr Opin Pharmacol ; 62: 43-59, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000360

ABSTRACT

To face the COVID-19 pandemic, prophylactic vaccines have been developed in record time, but vaccine coverage is still limited, accessibility is not equitable worldwide, and the vaccines are not fully effective against emerging variants. Therefore, therapeutic treatments are urgently needed to control the pandemic and treat vulnerable populations, but despite all efforts made, options remain scarce. However, the knowledge gained during 2020 constitutes an invaluable platform from which to build future therapies. In this review, we highlight the main drug repurposing strategies and achievements made over the first 18 months of the pandemic, but also discuss the antivirals, immunomodulators and drug combinations that could be used in the near future to cure COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 30(4): 666-672, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994935

ABSTRACT

In the modern conditions of the coronavirus pandemic, the issue of transportation of immunobiological drugs is particularly actual, since control measures in this direction provide for supply of vaccines to different states, that naturally involves duration of transportation and compliance with certain established temperature regime at all stages of logistics chain, violation of which results in loss of pharmaceutical properties by drugs. The analysis demonstrated that currently transportation of immunobiological drugs is carried out within the framework of cold chain approach, which establishes mandatory compliance with temperature range of storage and transportation. Thus, the most important issue is control of compliance with temperature regime, which requires appropriate technical equipment at all levels of cold chain, ensuring fixation of detected violations.


Subject(s)
Refrigeration , Vaccines , Drug Storage , Transportation
11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 949482, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993910

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), the Chinese government has taken a number of measures to effectively control the pandemic. By the end of 2021, China achieved a full vaccination rate higher than 85%. The Chinese Plan provides an important model for the global fight against COVID-19. Internet search reflects the public's attention toward and potential demand for a particular thing. Research on the spatiotemporal characteristics of online attention to vaccines can determine the spatiotemporal distribution of vaccine demand in China and provides a basis for global public health policy making. This study analyzes the spatiotemporal characteristics of online attention to vaccines and their influencing factors in 31 provinces/municipalities in mainland China with Baidu Index as the data source by using geographic concentration index, coefficient of variation, GeoDetector, and other methods. The following findings are presented. First, online attention to vaccines showed an overall upward trend in China since 2011, especially after 2016. Significant seasonal differences and an unbalanced monthly distribution were observed. Second, there was an obvious geographical imbalance in online attention to vaccines among the provinces/municipalities, generally exhibiting a spatial pattern of "high in the east and low in the west." Low aggregation and obvious spatial dispersion among the provinces/municipalities were also observed. The geographic distribution of hot and cold spots of online attention to vaccines has clear boundaries. The hot spots are mainly distributed in the central-eastern provinces and the cold spots are in the western provinces. Third, the spatiotemporal differences in online attention to vaccines are the combined result of socioeconomic level, socio-demographic characteristics, and disease control level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 948880, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993909

ABSTRACT

Social media is increasingly being used to express opinions and attitudes toward vaccines. The vaccine stance of social media posts can be classified in almost real-time using machine learning. We describe the use of a Transformer-based machine learning model for analyzing vaccine stance of Italian tweets, and demonstrate the need to address changes over time in vaccine-related language, through periodic model retraining. Vaccine-related tweets were collected through a platform developed for the European Joint Action on Vaccination. Two datasets were collected, the first between November 2019 and June 2020, the second from April to September 2021. The tweets were manually categorized by three independent annotators. After cleaning, the total dataset consisted of 1,736 tweets with 3 categories (promotional, neutral, and discouraging). The manually classified tweets were used to train and test various machine learning models. The model that classified the data most similarly to humans was XLM-Roberta-large, a multilingual version of the Transformer-based model RoBERTa. The model hyper-parameters were tuned and then the model ran five times. The fine-tuned model with the best F-score over the validation dataset was selected. Running the selected fine-tuned model on just the first test dataset resulted in an accuracy of 72.8% (F-score 0.713). Using this model on the second test dataset resulted in a 10% drop in accuracy to 62.1% (F-score 0.617), indicating that the model recognized a difference in language between the datasets. On the combined test datasets the accuracy was 70.1% (F-score 0.689). Retraining the model using data from the first and second datasets increased the accuracy over the second test dataset to 71.3% (F-score 0.713), a 9% improvement from when using just the first dataset for training. The accuracy over the first test dataset remained the same at 72.8% (F-score 0.721). The accuracy over the combined test datasets was then 72.4% (F-score 0.720), a 2% improvement. Through fine-tuning a machine-learning model on task-specific data, the accuracy achieved in categorizing tweets was close to that expected by a single human annotator. Regular training of machine-learning models with recent data is advisable to maximize accuracy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Language , Machine Learning , Pandemics
13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 944887, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993908

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccine hesitancy in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic is a complex issue that undermines our national ability to reduce the burden of the disease and control the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic revealed widening health disparities and disproportionate adverse health outcomes in terms of transmission, hospitalizations, morbidity and mortality among Arizona's Latinx rural, underserved, farmworker, disabled and elderly populations. In March 2021, ~8.1% of those vaccinated were Latinx, though Latinxs make up 32% of Arizona's population. The Arizona Vaccine Confidence Network (AzVCN) proposed to leverage the expertise of the Arizona Prevention Research Center (AzPRC) and the resources of the Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health (MEZCOPH) Mobile Health Unit (MHU) to identify, implement and evaluate a MHU intervention to increase uptake of COVID-19 vaccines. Methods: The AzVCN focused efforts on Latinx, rural, un/underinsured and farmworker communities in the four Arizona border counties that are at greater risk of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality and may have limited access to vaccination and other essential health services. The AzVCN used listening sessions to create a feedback loop with key stakeholders and critical health care workers to validate barriers/enablers and identify solutions to increase vaccination uptake emerging from the network. The AzVCN also implemented a community-based intervention using community health workers (CHWs) based in a MHU to increase knowledge of the COVID-19 vaccines, reduce vaccination hesitancy and increase vaccination uptake among Latinx rural, un/underinsured and farmworker populations in Southern Arizona. Results: AzVCN outcomes include: identification of enablers and barriers of COVID-19 vaccination in the priority populations; identification of strategies and solutions to address vaccine hesitancy and increase vaccine uptake among priority population; and evidence that the proposed solutions being tested through the AzVCN contribute to increased vaccine uptake among the priority populations. Conclusion: Through these efforts the AzPRC contributed to the CDC's Vaccinate with Confidence Strategy by collaborating with CHWs and other key stakeholders to engage directly with communities in identifying and addressing structural and misinformation barriers to vaccine uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Equity , Vaccines , Aged , Arizona , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Community Health Workers , Humans , Pandemics
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 938067, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993901

ABSTRACT

Since healthcare professionals (HCPs) play a critical role in shaping their local communities' attitudes toward vaccines, HCPs' beliefs and attitudes toward vaccination are of vital importance for primary prevention strategies. The present study was designed as a cross-sectional survey-based study utilizing a self-administered questionnaire to collect data about COVID-19 vaccine booster hesitancy (VBH) among Polish HCPs and students of medical universities (MUSs). Out of the 443 included participants, 76.3% were females, 52.6% were HCPs, 31.8% were previously infected by SARS-CoV-2, and 69.3% had already received COVID-19 vaccine booster doses (VBD). Overall, 74.5% of the participants were willing to receive COVID-19 VBD, while 7.9 and 17.6% exhibited their hesitance and rejection, respectively. The most commonly found promoter for acceptance was protection of one's health (95.2%), followed by protection of family's health (81.8%) and protection of community's health (63.3%). Inferential statistics did not show a significant association between COVID-19 VBH and demographic variables, e.g., age and gender; however, the participants who had been previously infected by SARS-CoV-2 were significantly more inclined to reject the VBD. Protection from severe infection, community transmission, good safety profile, and favorable risk-benefit ratio were the significant determinants of the COVID-19 VBD acceptance and uptake. Fear of post-vaccination side effects was one of the key barriers for accepting COVID-19 VBD, which is consistent with the pre-existing literature. Public health campaigns need to highlight the postulated benefits of vaccines and the expected harms of skipping VBD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Male , Poland , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 929445, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993896
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 895538, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993859

ABSTRACT

This study examines the accessibility to COVID-19 vaccination resources in two counties surrounding Newark, NJ in the New York Metropolitan Area, United States. The study area represents diverse population makeups. COVID-19 vaccines were made available by different types of vaccination sites including county mass vaccination sites, medical facilities and pharmacies, and a FEMA community vaccination center in spring 2021. We used the two-step floating catchment area method to measure accessibility and calculated the average accessibility scores of different population groups. We examined the patterns and tested the significance of the differences in accessibility across population groups. The results showed clear spatial heterogeneity in the accessibility to vaccine resources with the existing infrastructure (medical/pharmacy vaccine sites). Accessibility patterns changed with the introduction of county mass sites and the FEMA community site. The county mass vaccination sites in one county greatly increased accessibilities for populations of minority and poverty. The FEMA community site in the other county accomplished the same. Both the local health department and the federal government played an important role in mitigating pre-existing inequalities during the vaccination campaign. Our study shows that social determinants of health need to be addressed and taken into explicit consideration when planning resource distribution during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Catchment Area, Health , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , United States
17.
Intern Med ; 61(8): 1139-1143, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993646

ABSTRACT

Objective We evaluated the change in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody titers from three to six months after the administration of the BNT162b2 vaccine among healthcare workers. Methods A total of 337 healthcare workers who received 2 doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine were included in this study. Factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers at three and six months and the change in SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers between three and six months after vaccine administration were analyzed using a logistic regression analysis. Results The SARS-CoV-2 antibody titer at 3 months was 4,812.1±3,762.9 AU/mL in all subjects and was lower in older workers than in younger ones. The SARS-CoV-2 antibody titer at 6 months was 1,368.9±1,412.3 AU/mL in all subjects. The SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers that were found to be high at three months were also high at six months. The change in SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers from 3 to 6 months was -68.9%±16.1%. The higher SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers at three months showed a more marked decrease from three to six months than lower titers. Conclusion This study demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers at three months decreased with age and were associated with the antibody titers at six months and the change in titer from three to six months. Older individuals in particular need to be aware of the declining SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers at six months after the BNT162b2 vaccine. The results of this study may provide insight into COVID-19 vaccine booster strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Japan , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
19.
BMJ ; 378: o1971, 2022 08 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993004
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_1): S93-S97, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992147

ABSTRACT

In high-income countries that were first to roll out coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, older adults have thus far usually been prioritized for these vaccines over younger adults. Age-based priority primarily resulted from interpreting evidence available at the time, which indicated that vaccinating the elderly first would minimize COVID-19 deaths and hospitalizations. The World Health Organization counsels a similar approach for all countries. This paper argues that some low- and middle-income countries that are short of COVID-19 vaccine doses might be justified in revising this approach and instead prioritizing certain younger persons when allocating current vaccines or future variant-specific vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Developed Countries , Developing Countries , Humans
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL