Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 9 de 9
Filter
1.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(10): e1008942, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021974

ABSTRACT

Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a leading cause of viral respiratory infection in children, and can cause severe lower respiratory tract infection in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients. However, there remain no licensed vaccines or specific treatments for hMPV infection. Although the hMPV fusion (F) protein is the sole target of neutralizing antibodies, the immunological properties of hMPV F remain poorly understood. To further define the humoral immune response to the hMPV F protein, we isolated two new human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), MPV458 and MPV465. Both mAbs are neutralizing in vitro and were determined to target a unique antigenic site using competitive biolayer interferometry. We determined both MPV458 and MPV465 have higher affinity for monomeric hMPV F than trimeric hMPV F. MPV458 was co-crystallized with hMPV F, and the mAb primarily interacts with an alpha helix on the F2 region of the hMPV F protein. Surprisingly, the major epitope for MPV458 lies within the trimeric interface of the hMPV F protein, suggesting significant breathing of the hMPV F protein must occur for host immune recognition of the novel epitope. In addition, significant glycan interactions were observed with a somatically mutated light chain framework residue. The data presented identifies a novel epitope on the hMPV F protein for epitope-based vaccine design, and illustrates a new mechanism for human antibody neutralization of viral glycoproteins.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Pneumovirus/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Metapneumovirus/immunology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Viral Fusion Proteins/immunology
2.
N Engl J Med ; 386(17): 1615-1626, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a major cause of illness and death in infants worldwide, could be prevented by vaccination during pregnancy. The efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of a bivalent RSV prefusion F protein-based (RSVpreF) vaccine in pregnant women and their infants are uncertain. METHODS: In a phase 2b trial, we randomly assigned pregnant women, at 24 through 36 weeks' gestation, to receive either 120 or 240 µg of RSVpreF vaccine (with or without aluminum hydroxide) or placebo. The trial included safety end points and immunogenicity end points that, in this interim analysis, included 50% titers of RSV A, B, and combined A/B neutralizing antibodies in maternal serum at delivery and in umbilical-cord blood, as well as maternal-to-infant transplacental transfer ratios. RESULTS: This planned interim analysis included 406 women and 403 infants; 327 women (80.5%) received RSVpreF vaccine. Most postvaccination reactions were mild to moderate; the incidence of local reactions was higher among women who received RSVpreF vaccine containing aluminum hydroxide than among those who received RSVpreF vaccine without aluminum hydroxide. The incidences of adverse events in the women and infants were similar in the vaccine and placebo groups; the type and frequency of these events were consistent with the background incidences among pregnant women and infants. The geometric mean ratios of 50% neutralizing titers between the infants of vaccine recipients and those of placebo recipients ranged from 9.7 to 11.7 among those with RSV A neutralizing antibodies and from 13.6 to 16.8 among those with RSV B neutralizing antibodies. Transplacental neutralizing antibody transfer ratios ranged from 1.41 to 2.10 and were higher with nonaluminum formulations than with aluminum formulations. Across the range of assessed gestational ages, infants of women who were immunized had similar titers in umbilical-cord blood and similar transplacental transfer ratios. CONCLUSIONS: RSVpreF vaccine elicited neutralizing antibody responses with efficient transplacental transfer and without evident safety concerns. (Funded by Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04032093.).


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Viral Fusion Proteins , Aluminum Hydroxide/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Humans , Infant , Pregnancy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/adverse effects , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Vaccination , Viral Fusion Proteins/immunology
4.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481007

ABSTRACT

Nipah virus (NiV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) possess two surface glycoproteins involved in cellular attachment and membrane fusion, both of which are potential targets for vaccines. The majority of vaccine development is focused on the attachment (G) protein of NiV, which is the immunodominant target. In contrast, the fusion (F) protein of RSV is the main target in vaccine development. Despite this, neutralising epitopes have been described in NiV F and RSV G, making them alternate targets for vaccine design. Through rational design, we have developed a vaccine strategy applicable to phylogenetically divergent NiV and RSV that comprises both the F and G proteins (FxG). In a mouse immunization model, we found that NiV FxG elicited an improved immune response capable of neutralising pseudotyped NiV and a NiV mutant that is able to escape neutralisation by two known F-specific antibodies. RSV FxG elicited an immune response against both F and G and was able to neutralise RSV; however, this was inferior to the immune response of F alone. Despite this, RSV FxG elicited a response against a known protective epitope within G that is conserved across RSV A and B subgroups, which may provide additional protection in vivo. We conclude that inclusion of F and G antigens within a single design provides a streamlined subunit vaccine strategy against both emerging and established pathogens, with the potential for broader protection against NiV.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Henipavirus Infections/prevention & control , Nipah Virus/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Subunit/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins/administration & dosage , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Fusion Proteins/immunology
5.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470996

ABSTRACT

Infections with viral pathogens are widespread and can cause a variety of different diseases. In-depth knowledge about viral triggers initiating an immune response is necessary to decipher viral pathogenesis. Inflammasomes, as part of the innate immune system, can be activated by viral pathogens. However, viral structural components responsible for inflammasome activation remain largely unknown. Here we analyzed glycoproteins derived from SARS-CoV-1/2, HCMV and HCV, required for viral entry and fusion, as potential triggers of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pyroptosis in THP-1 macrophages. All tested glycoproteins were able to potently induce NLRP3 inflammasome activation, indicated by ASC-SPECK formation and secretion of cleaved IL-1ß. Lytic cell death via gasdermin D (GSDMD), pore formation, and pyroptosis are required for IL-1ß release. As a hallmark of pyroptosis, we were able to detect cleavage of GSDMD and, correspondingly, cell death in THP-1 macrophages. CRISPR-Cas9 knockout of NLRP3 and GSDMD in THP-1 macrophages confirmed and strongly support the evidence that viral glycoproteins can act as innate immunity triggers. With our study, we decipher key mechanisms of viral pathogenesis by showing that viral glycoproteins potently induce innate immune responses. These insights could be beneficial in vaccine development and provide new impulses for the investigation of vaccine-induced innate immunity.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate/immunology , Inflammasomes/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Viral Fusion Proteins/immunology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Hepacivirus/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/biosynthesis , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Pyroptosis/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , THP-1 Cells
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 683902, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282386

ABSTRACT

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a public health concern that causes acute lower respiratory tract infection. So far, no vaccine candidate under development has reached the market and the only licensed product to prevent RSV infection in at-risk infants and young children is a monoclonal antibody (Synagis®). Polyclonal human anti-RSV hyper-immune immunoglobulins (Igs) have also been used but were superseded by Synagis® owing to their low titer and large infused volume. Here we report a new drug class of immunoglobulins, derived from human non hyper-immune plasma that was generated by an innovative bioprocess, called Ig cracking, combining expertises in plasma-derived products and affinity chromatography. By using the RSV fusion protein (F protein) as ligand, the Ig cracking process provided a purified and concentrated product, designated hyper-enriched anti-RSV IgG, composed of at least 15-20% target-specific-antibodies from normal plasma. These anti-RSV Ig displayed a strong in vitro neutralization effect on RSV replication. Moreover, we described a novel prophylactic strategy based on local nasal administration of this unique hyper-enriched anti-RSV IgG solution using a mouse model of infection with bioluminescent RSV. Our results demonstrated that very low doses of hyper-enriched anti-RSV IgG can be administered locally to ensure rapid and efficient inhibition of virus infection. Thus, the general hyper-enriched Ig concept appeared a promising approach and might provide solutions to prevent and treat other infectious diseases. IMPORTANCE: Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the major cause of acute lower respiratory infections in children, and is also recognized as a cause of morbidity in the elderly. There are still no vaccines and no efficient antiviral therapy against this virus. Here, we described an approach of passive immunization with a new class of hyper-enriched anti-RSV immunoglobulins (Ig) manufactured from human normal plasma. This new class of immunoglobulin plasma derived product is generated by an innovative bioprocess, called Ig cracking, which requires a combination of expertise in both plasma derived products and affinity chromatography. The strong efficacy in a small volume of these hyper-enriched anti-RSV IgG to inhibit the viral infection was demonstrated using a mouse model. This new class of immunoglobulin plasma-derived products could be applied to other pathogens to address specific therapeutic needs in the field of infectious diseases or even pandemics, such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/administration & dosage , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Lung/drug effects , Lung/virology , Neutralization Tests , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Turbinates/drug effects , Turbinates/virology , Viral Fusion Proteins/immunology , Virus Replication/drug effects
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(18)2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189344

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic rages on, it is important to explore new evolution-resistant vaccine antigens and new vaccine platforms that can produce readily scalable, inexpensive vaccines with easier storage and transport. We report here a synthetic biology-based vaccine platform that employs an expression vector with an inducible gram-negative autotransporter to express vaccine antigens on the surface of genome-reduced bacteria to enhance interaction of vaccine antigen with the immune system. As a proof-of-principle, we utilized genome-reduced Escherichia coli to express SARS-CoV-2 and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) fusion peptide (FP) on the cell surface, and evaluated their use as killed whole-cell vaccines. The FP sequence is highly conserved across coronaviruses; the six FP core amino acid residues, along with the four adjacent residues upstream and the three residues downstream from the core, are identical between SARS-CoV-2 and PEDV. We tested the efficacy of PEDV FP and SARS-CoV-2 FP vaccines in a PEDV challenge pig model. We demonstrated that both vaccines induced potent anamnestic responses upon virus challenge, potentiated interferon-γ responses, reduced viral RNA loads in jejunum tissue, and provided significant protection against clinical disease. However, neither vaccines elicited sterilizing immunity. Since SARS-CoV-2 FP and PEDV FP vaccines provided similar clinical protection, the coronavirus FP could be a target for a broadly protective vaccine using any platform. Importantly, the genome-reduced bacterial surface-expressed vaccine platform, when using a vaccine-appropriate bacterial vector, has potential utility as an inexpensive, readily manufactured, and rapid vaccine platform for other pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Fusion Proteins/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Escherichia coli/genetics , Genome, Bacterial , Interferon-gamma/blood , RNA, Viral/analysis , Swine , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
8.
J Gen Virol ; 102(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873186

ABSTRACT

Although enveloped viruses canonically mediate particle entry through virus-cell fusion, certain viruses can spread by cell-cell fusion, brought about by receptor engagement and triggering of membrane-bound, viral-encoded fusion proteins on the surface of cells. The formation of pathogenic syncytia or multinucleated cells is seen in vivo, but their contribution to viral pathogenesis is poorly understood. For the negative-strand paramyxoviruses respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and Nipah virus (NiV), cell-cell spread is highly efficient because their oligomeric fusion protein complexes are active at neutral pH. The recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has also been reported to induce syncytia formation in infected cells, with the spike protein initiating cell-cell fusion. Whilst it is well established that fusion protein-specific antibodies can block particle attachment and/or entry into the cell (canonical virus neutralization), their capacity to inhibit cell-cell fusion and the consequences of this neutralization for the control of infection are not well characterized, in part because of the lack of specific tools to assay and quantify this activity. Using an adapted bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay, based on a split GFP-Renilla luciferase reporter, we have established a micro-fusion inhibition test (mFIT) that allows the identification and quantification of these neutralizing antibodies. This assay has been optimized for high-throughput use and its applicability has been demonstrated by screening monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated inhibition of RSV and NiV fusion and, separately, the development of fusion-inhibitory antibodies following NiV vaccine immunization in pigs. In light of the recent emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a similar assay was developed for SARS-CoV-2 and used to screen mAbs and convalescent patient plasma for fusion-inhibitory antibodies. Using mFITs to assess antibody responses following natural infection or vaccination is favourable, as this assay can be performed entirely at low biocontainment, without the need for live virus. In addition, the repertoire of antibodies that inhibit cell-cell fusion may be different to those that inhibit particle entry, shedding light on the mechanisms underpinning antibody-mediated neutralization of viral spread.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Henipavirus Infections/diagnosis , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Viral Fusion Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Fusion , Convalescence , Genes, Reporter , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Henipavirus Infections/immunology , Henipavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Immune Sera/chemistry , Luciferases/genetics , Luciferases/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Nipah Virus/immunology , Nipah Virus/pathogenicity , Protein Conformation , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Swine , Viral Fusion Protein Inhibitors/chemistry , Viral Fusion Protein Inhibitors/metabolism , Viral Fusion Protein Inhibitors/pharmacology , Viral Fusion Proteins/genetics , Viral Fusion Proteins/immunology
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2688, 2020 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-432476

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses (CoVs) are zoonotic pathogens with high fatality rates and pandemic potential. Vaccine development focuses on the principal target of the neutralizing humoral immune response, the spike (S) glycoprotein. Coronavirus S proteins are extensively glycosylated, encoding around 66-87 N-linked glycosylation sites per trimeric spike. Here, we reveal a specific area of high glycan density on MERS S that results in the formation of oligomannose-type glycan clusters, which were absent on SARS and HKU1 CoVs. We provide a comparison of the global glycan density of coronavirus spikes with other viral proteins including HIV-1 envelope, Lassa virus glycoprotein complex, and influenza hemagglutinin, where glycosylation plays a known role in shielding immunogenic epitopes. Overall, our data reveal how organisation of glycosylation across class I viral fusion proteins influence not only individual glycan compositions but also the immunological pressure across the protein surface.


Subject(s)
Glycoproteins/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Polysaccharides , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Fusion Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/immunology , Epitopes/metabolism , Glycoproteins/chemistry , Glycoproteins/ultrastructure , Glycosylation , HEK293 Cells , HIV-1/immunology , HIV-1/metabolism , Humans , Immune Evasion/physiology , Lassa virus/immunology , Lassa virus/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae/metabolism , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Viral Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Viral Fusion Proteins/ultrastructure , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/immunology , Viral Proteins/ultrastructure
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL