Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 198
Filter
1.
J Med Virol ; 93(11): 6116-6123, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349155

ABSTRACT

Virus invasion activates the host's innate immune response, inducing the production of numerous cytokines and interferons to eliminate pathogens. Except for viral DNA/RNA, viral proteins are also targets of pattern recognition receptors. Membrane-bound receptors such as Toll-like receptor (TLR)1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, and TLR10 relate to the recognition of viral proteins. Distinct TLRs perform both protective and detrimental roles for a specific virus. Here, we review viral proteins serving as pathogen-associated molecular patterns and their corresponding TLRs. These viruses are all enveloped, including respiratory syncytial virus, hepatitis C virus, measles virus, herpesvirus human immunodeficiency virus, and coronavirus, and can encode proteins to activate innate immunity in a TLR-dependent way. The TLR-viral protein relationship plays an important role in innate immunity activation. A detailed understanding of their pathways contributes to a novel direction for vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Diseases/immunology , Viruses/immunology , Animals , HIV/immunology , HIV/metabolism , HIV/pathogenicity , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepacivirus/metabolism , Hepacivirus/pathogenicity , Herpesviridae/immunology , Herpesviridae/metabolism , Herpesviridae/pathogenicity , Humans , Measles virus/immunology , Measles virus/metabolism , Measles virus/pathogenicity , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules/chemistry , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/metabolism , Viruses/pathogenicity
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934078

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) initiates the cytokine/chemokine storm-mediated lung injury. The SARS-CoV unique domain (SUD) with three macrodomains (N, M, and C), showing the G-quadruplex binding activity, was examined the possible role in SARS pathogenesis in this study. The chemokine profile analysis indicated that SARS-CoV SUD significantly up-regulated the expression of CXCL10, CCL5 and interleukin (IL)-1ß in human lung epithelial cells and in the lung tissues of the mice intratracheally instilled with the recombinant plasmids. Among the SUD subdomains, SUD-MC substantially activated AP-1-mediated CXCL10 expression in vitro. In the wild type mice, SARS-CoV SUD-MC triggered the pulmonary infiltration of macrophages and monocytes, inducing CXCL10-mediated inflammatory responses and severe diffuse alveolar damage symptoms. Moreover, SUD-MC actuated NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-dependent pulmonary inflammation, as confirmed by the NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor and the NLRP3-/- mouse model. This study demonstrated that SARS-CoV SUD modulated NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent CXCL10-mediated pulmonary inflammation, providing the potential therapeutic targets for developing the antiviral agents.


Subject(s)
Chemokine CXCL10/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , SARS Virus/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Cell Line , Chemokine CXCL10/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/deficiency , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Pneumonia/pathology , Pneumonia/virology , Promoter Regions, Genetic , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Up-Regulation , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10896, 2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908284

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a pneumonia-like disease with a pattern of acute respiratory symptoms, currently remains a significant public health concern causing tremendous human suffering. Although several approved vaccines exist, vaccine hesitancy, limited vaccine availability, high rate of viral mutation, and the absence of approved drugs account for the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 infections. The investigation of possibly repurposing of phytochemical compounds as therapeutic alternatives has gained momentum due to their reported affordability and minimal toxicity. This study investigated anti-viral phytochemical compounds from ethanolic leaf extracts of Spondias mombin L as potential inhibitor candidates against SARS-CoV-2. We identified Geraniin and 2-O-Caffeoyl-(+)-allohydroxycitric acid as potential SARS-CoV-2 inhibitor candidates targeting the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent polymerase receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 viral S-protein and the 3C-like main protease (3CLpro). Geraniin exhibited binding free energy (ΔGbind) of - 25.87 kcal/mol and - 21.74 kcal/mol towards SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent polymerase and receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 viral S-protein respectively, whereas 2-O-Caffeoyl-(+)-allohydroxycitric acid exhibited a ΔGbind of - 32 kcal/mol towards 3CLpro. Molecular Dynamics simulations indicated a possible interference to the functioning of SARS-CoV-2 targets by the two identified inhibitors. However, further in vitro and in vivo evaluation of these potential SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic inhibitor candidates is needed.


Subject(s)
Anacardiaceae , COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/chemistry
4.
Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol ; 131: 261-276, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866754

ABSTRACT

Numerous viruses have evolved mechanisms to inhibit or alter the host cell's apoptotic response as part of their coevolution with their hosts. The analysis of virus-host protein interactions require an in-depth understanding of both the viral and host protein structures and repertoires, as well as evolutionary mechanisms and pertinent biological facts. Throughout the course of a viral infection, there is constant battle for binding between virus and cellular proteins. Exogenous interfaces facilitating viral-host interactions are well known for constantly targeting and suppressing endogenous interfaces mediating intraspecific interactions, such as viral-viral and host-host connections. In these interactions, the protein-protein interactions (PPIs), are mostly shown as networks (protein interaction networks, PINs), with proteins represented as nodes and their interactions represented as edges. Host proteins with a higher degree of connectivity are more likely to interact with viral proteins. Due to technical advancements, three-dimensional interactions may now be visualized computationally utilizing molecular modeling and cryo-EM approaches. The uniqueness of viral domain repertoires, their evolution, and their activities during viral infection make viruses fascinating models for research. This chapter aims to provide readers a complete picture of the viral hijacking mechanism in protein-protein interactions.


Subject(s)
Host Microbial Interactions , Viral Proteins , Humans , Viral Proteins/chemistry
5.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e250667, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817550

ABSTRACT

Nigella sativa is known for the safety profile, containing a wealth of useful antiviral compounds. The main protease (Mpro, 3CLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is being considered as one of the most attractive viral target, processing the polyproteins during viral pathogenesis and replication. In the current investigation we analyzed the potency of active component, thymoquinone (TQ) of Nigella sativa against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The structures of TQ and Mpro was retrieved from PubChem (CID10281) and Protein Data Bank (PDB ID 6MO3) respectively. The Mpro and TQ were docked and the complex was subjected to molecular dynamic (MD) simulations for a period 50ns. Protein folding effect was analyzed using radius of gyration (Rg) while stability and flexibility was measured, using root means square deviations (RMSD) and root means square fluctuation (RMSF) respectively. The simulation results shows that TQ is exhibiting good binding activity against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, interacting many residues, present in the active site (His41, Cys145) and also the Glu166, facilitating the pocket shape. Further, experimental approaches are needed to validate the role of TQ against virus infection. The TQ is interfering with pocket maintaining residues as well as active site of virus Mpro which may be used as a potential inhibitor against SARS-CoV-2 for better management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nigella sativa , Benzoquinones , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Nigella sativa/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism
6.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 391, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815611

ABSTRACT

Protease inhibitors are among the most powerful antiviral drugs. However, for SARS-CoV-2 only a small number of protease inhibitors have been identified thus far and there is still a great need for assays that efficiently report protease activity and inhibition in living cells. Here, we engineer a safe VSV-based system to report both gain- and loss-of-function of coronavirus main protease (Mpro/3CLpro/Nsp5) activity in living cells. We use SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro in this system to confirm susceptibility to known inhibitors (boceprevir, GC376, PF-00835231, and PF-07321332/nirmatrelvir) and reevaluate other reported inhibitors (baicalein, ebselen, carmofur, ethacridine, ivermectin, masitinib, darunavir, and atazanavir). Moreover, we show that the system can be adapted to report both the function and the chemical inhibition of proteases from different coronavirus species as well as from distantly related viruses. Together with the fact that live cell assays also reflect compound permeability and toxicity, we anticipate that this system will be useful for both identification and optimization of additional coronavirus protease inhibitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cysteine Endopeptidases , Humans , Indoles , Lactams , Leucine , Nitriles , Peptide Hydrolases , Proline , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyrrolidinones , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/chemistry
7.
Radiat Res ; 198(1): 68-80, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793416

ABSTRACT

Here we show an interplay between the structures present in ionization tracks and nucleocapsid RNA structural biology, using fast ion-beam inactivation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) virion as an example. This interplay could be a key factor in predicting dose-inactivation curves for high-energy ion-beam inactivation of virions. We also investigate the adaptation of well-established cross-section data derived from radiation interactions with water to the interactions involving the components of a virion, going beyond the density-scaling approximation developed previously. We conclude that solving one of the grand challenges of structural biology - the determination of RNA tertiary/quaternary structure - is linked to predicting ion-beam inactivation of viruses and that the two problems can be mutually informative. Indeed, our simulations show that fast ion beams have a key role to play in elucidating RNA tertiary/quaternary structure.


Subject(s)
Nucleic Acid Conformation , RNA, Viral/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Inactivation , Ions , Models, Molecular , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Radiobiology/methods , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virion/chemistry
8.
J Virol ; 94(12)2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723543

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that recently emerged in China is thought to have a bat origin, as its closest known relative (BatCoV RaTG13) was described previously in horseshoe bats. We analyzed the selective events that accompanied the divergence of SARS-CoV-2 from BatCoV RaTG13. To this end, we applied a population genetics-phylogenetics approach, which leverages within-population variation and divergence from an outgroup. Results indicated that most sites in the viral open reading frames (ORFs) evolved under conditions of strong to moderate purifying selection. The most highly constrained sequences corresponded to some nonstructural proteins (nsps) and to the M protein. Conversely, nsp1 and accessory ORFs, particularly ORF8, had a nonnegligible proportion of codons evolving under conditions of very weak purifying selection or close to selective neutrality. Overall, limited evidence of positive selection was detected. The 6 bona fide positively selected sites were located in the N protein, in ORF8, and in nsp1. A signal of positive selection was also detected in the receptor-binding motif (RBM) of the spike protein but most likely resulted from a recombination event that involved the BatCoV RaTG13 sequence. In line with previous data, we suggest that the common ancestor of SARS-CoV-2 and BatCoV RaTG13 encoded/encodes an RBM similar to that observed in SARS-CoV-2 itself and in some pangolin viruses. It is presently unknown whether the common ancestor still exists and, if so, which animals it infects. Our data, however, indicate that divergence of SARS-CoV-2 from BatCoV RaTG13 was accompanied by limited episodes of positive selection, suggesting that the common ancestor of the two viruses was poised for human infection.IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses are dangerous zoonotic pathogens; in the last 2 decades, three coronaviruses have crossed the species barrier and caused human epidemics. One of these is the recently emerged SARS-CoV-2. We investigated how, since its divergence from a closely related bat virus, natural selection shaped the genome of SARS-CoV-2. We found that distinct coding regions in the SARS-CoV-2 genome evolved under conditions of different degrees of constraint and are consequently more or less prone to tolerate amino acid substitutions. In practical terms, the level of constraint provides indications about which proteins/protein regions are better suited as possible targets for the development of antivirals or vaccines. We also detected limited signals of positive selection in three viral ORFs. However, we warn that, in the absence of knowledge about the chain of events that determined the human spillover, these signals should not be necessarily interpreted as evidence of an adaptation to our species.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Selection, Genetic , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , COVID-19 , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Models, Molecular , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics
9.
Protein J ; 39(3): 198-216, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718840

ABSTRACT

The devastating effects of the recent global pandemic (termed COVID-19 for "coronavirus disease 2019") caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) are paramount with new cases and deaths growing at an exponential rate. In order to provide a better understanding of SARS CoV-2, this article will review the proteins found in the SARS CoV-2 that caused this global pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Drug Discovery/methods , Genome, Viral , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Polyproteins , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/chemistry , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/genetics , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins
10.
Biomolecules ; 12(2)2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715101

ABSTRACT

Protein-based carriers are promising vehicles for the intracellular delivery of therapeutics. In this study, we designed and studied adenovirus protein fiber constructs with potential applications as carriers for the delivery of protein and nanoparticle cargoes. We used as a basic structural framework the fibrous shaft segment of the adenovirus fiber protein comprising of residues 61-392, connected to the fibritin foldon trimerization motif at the C-terminal end. A fourteen-amino-acid biotinylation sequence was inserted immediately after the N-terminal, His-tagged end of the construct in order to enable the attachment of a biotin moiety in vivo. We report herein that this His-tag biotinylated construct folds into thermally and protease-stable fibrous nanorods that can be internalized into cells and are not cytotoxic. Moreover, they can bind to proteins and nanoparticles through the biotin-streptavidin interaction and mediate their delivery to cells. We demonstrate that streptavidin-conjugated gold nanoparticles can be transported into NIH3T3 fibroblast and HeLa cancer cell lines. Furthermore, two streptavidin-conjugated model proteins, alkaline phosphatase and horseradish peroxidase can be delivered into the cell cytoplasm in their enzymatically active form. This work is aimed at establishing the proof-of-principle for the rational engineering of diverse functionalities onto the initial protein structural framework and the use of adenovirus fiber-based proteins as nanorods for the delivery of nanoparticles and model proteins. These constructs could constitute a stepping stone for the development of multifunctional and modular fibrous nanorod platforms that can be tailored to applications at the sequence level.


Subject(s)
Viral Proteins , Adenoviridae/chemistry , Animals , Biotin/chemistry , Biotin/metabolism , Gold/chemistry , HeLa Cells , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Mice , NIH 3T3 Cells , Streptavidin/chemistry , Viral Proteins/chemistry
11.
Brief Bioinform ; 23(2)2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713564

ABSTRACT

The development of autoimmune diseases following SARS-CoV-2 infection, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome, has been reported, and several mechanisms have been suggested, including molecular mimicry. We developed a scalable, comparative immunoinformatics pipeline called cross-reactive-epitope-search-using-structural-properties-of-proteins (CRESSP) to identify cross-reactive epitopes between a collection of SARS-CoV-2 proteomes and the human proteome using the structural properties of the proteins. Overall, by searching 4 911 245 proteins from 196 352 SARS-CoV-2 genomes, we identified 133 and 648 human proteins harboring potential cross-reactive B-cell and CD8+ T-cell epitopes, respectively. To demonstrate the robustness of our pipeline, we predicted the cross-reactive epitopes of coronavirus spike proteins, which were recognized by known cross-neutralizing antibodies. Using single-cell expression data, we identified PARP14 as a potential target of intermolecular epitope spreading between the virus and human proteins. Finally, we developed a web application (https://ahs2202.github.io/3M/) to interactively visualize our results. We also made our pipeline available as an open-source CRESSP package (https://pypi.org/project/cressp/), which can analyze any two proteomes of interest to identify potentially cross-reactive epitopes between the proteomes. Overall, our immunoinformatic resources provide a foundation for the investigation of molecular mimicry in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases following COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology/methods , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Software , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/immunology , Algorithms , Cross Reactions/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/chemistry , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/chemistry , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/immunology , Models, Molecular , Molecular Mimicry , Neural Networks, Computer , Proteome , Proteomics/methods , Structure-Activity Relationship , Web Browser
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3316, 2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713215

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, caused the COVID-19 pandemic, characterized by its high rate of contamination, propagation capacity, and lethality rate. In this work, we approach the use of phthalocyanines as an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2, as they present several interactive properties of the phthalocyanines (Pc) of Cobalt (CoPc), Copper (CuPc) and without a metal group (NoPc) can interact with SARS-CoV-2, showing potential be used as filtering by adsorption on paints on walls, masks, clothes, and air conditioning filters. Molecular modeling techniques through Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics were used, where the target was the external structures of the virus, but specifically the envelope protein, main protease, and Spike glycoprotein proteases. Using the g_MM-GBSA module and with it, the molecular docking studies show that the ligands have interaction characteristics capable of adsorbing the structures. Molecular dynamics provided information on the root-mean-square deviation of the atomic positions provided values between 1 and 2.5. The generalized Born implicit solvation model, Gibbs free energy, and solvent accessible surface area approach were used. Among the results obtained through molecular dynamics, it was noticed that interactions occur since Pc could bind to residues of the active site of macromolecules, demonstrating good interactions; in particular with CoPc. Molecular couplings and free energy showed that S-gly active site residues interacted strongly with phthalocyanines with values ​​of - 182.443 kJ/mol (CoPc), 158.954 kJ/mol (CuPc), and - 129.963 kJ/mol (NoPc). The interactions of Pc's with SARS-CoV-2 may predict some promising candidates for antagonists to the virus, which if confirmed through experimental approaches, may contribute to resolving the global crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cobalt/chemistry , Coordination Complexes/chemistry , Copper/chemistry , Isoindoles/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Humans
13.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(4): 2847-2856, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661716

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recombinase (uvsY and uvsX) from bacteriophage T4 is a key enzyme for recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) that amplifies a target DNA sequence at a constant temperature with a single-stranded DNA-binding protein and a strand-displacing polymerase. The present study was conducted to examine the effects of the N- and C-terminal tags of uvsY on its function in RPA to detect SARS-CoV-2 DNA. METHODS: Untagged uvsY (uvsY-Δhis), N-terminal tagged uvsY (uvsY-Nhis), C-terminal tagged uvsY (uvsY-Chis), and N- and C-terminal tagged uvsY (uvsY-NChis) were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. RPA reaction was carried out with the in vitro synthesized standard DNA at 41 °C. The amplified products were separated on agarose gels. RESULTS: The minimal initial copy numbers of standard DNA from which the amplified products were observed were 6 × 105, 60, 600, and 600 copies for the RPA with uvsY-Δhis, uvsY-Nhis, uvsY-Chis, and uvsY-NChis, respectively. The minimal reaction time at which the amplified products were observed were 20, 20, 30, and 20 min for the RPA with uvsY-Δhis, uvsY-Nhis, uvsY-Chis, and uvsY-NChis, respectively. The RPA with uvsY-Nhis exhibited clearer bands than that with either of other three uvsYs. CONCLUSIONS: The reaction efficiency of RPA with uvsY-Nhis was the highest, suggesting that uvsY-Nhis is suitable for use in RPA.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophage T4/enzymology , DNA, Viral/chemistry , DNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry , Membrane Proteins/chemistry , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Proteins/chemistry , DNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(4)2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621333

ABSTRACT

The emergence of new variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a major concern given their potential impact on the transmissibility and pathogenicity of the virus as well as the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. Here, we predict the mutability of all positions in SARS-CoV-2 protein domains to forecast the appearance of unseen variants. Using sequence data from other coronaviruses, preexisting to SARS-CoV-2, we build statistical models that not only capture amino acid conservation but also more complex patterns resulting from epistasis. We show that these models are notably superior to conservation profiles in estimating the already observable SARS-CoV-2 variability. In the receptor binding domain of the spike protein, we observe that the predicted mutability correlates well with experimental measures of protein stability and that both are reliable mutability predictors (receiver operating characteristic areas under the curve ∼0.8). Most interestingly, we observe an increasing agreement between our model and the observed variability as more data become available over time, proving the anticipatory capacity of our model. When combined with data concerning the immune response, our approach identifies positions where current variants of concern are highly overrepresented. These results could assist studies on viral evolution and future viral outbreaks and, in particular, guide the exploration and anticipation of potentially harmful future SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Epistasis, Genetic , Epitopes , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Algorithms , Area Under Curve , Computational Biology/methods , DNA Mutational Analysis , Databases, Protein , Deep Learning , Epitopes/chemistry , Genome, Viral , Humans , Models, Statistical , Mutagenesis , Probability , Protein Domains , ROC Curve
15.
Comput Biol Chem ; 96: 107621, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611674

ABSTRACT

Quantitative physicochemical perspective on life processes has been a great asset, in bioengineering and biotechnology. The quantitative physicochemical approach can be applied to practically all organisms, including viruses, if their chemical composition and thermodynamic properties are known. In this paper, a new method is suggested for determining elemental composition of viruses, based on atom counting. The atom counting method requires knowledge of genetic sequence, protein sequences and protein copy numbers. An algorithm was suggested for a program that finds elemental composition of various viruses (DNA or RNA, enveloped or non-enveloped). Except for the nucleic acid, capsid proteins, lipid bilayer and carbohydrates, this method includes membrane proteins, as well as spike proteins. The atom counting method has been compared with the existing molecular composition and geometric methods on 5 viruses of different morphology, as well as experimentally determined composition of the poliovirus. The atom counting method was found to be more accurate in most cases. The three methods were found to be complementary, since they require different kind of input information. Moreover, since the 3 methods rest on different assumptions, results of one model can be compared to those of the other two.


Subject(s)
Viruses/chemistry , Algorithms , Animals , Carbohydrates/chemistry , Chemical Phenomena , Computational Biology , DNA, Viral/chemistry , DNA, Viral/genetics , Elements , Environmental Science , Humans , Lipids/chemistry , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Thermodynamics , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viruses/genetics
16.
Infect Genet Evol ; 96: 105155, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525880

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to predict the binding potential of carbon nanotube and nano fullerene towards multiple targets of SARS-CoV-2. Based on the virulent functions, the spike glycoprotein, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, main protease, papain-like protease, and RNA binding domain of the nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-CoV-2 were prioritized as the molecular targets and their three-dimensional (3D) structures were retrieved from the Protein Data Bank. The 3D structures of carbon nanotubes and nano-fullerene were computationally modeled, and the binding potential of these nanoparticles to the selected molecular targets was predicted by molecular docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. The drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic features of the lead molecules were computationally predicted. The current study suggested that carbon fullerene and nanotube demonstrated significant binding towards the prioritized multi-targets of SARS-CoV-2. Interestingly, carbon nanotube showed better interaction with these targets when compared to carbon fullerene. MD simulation studies clearly showed that the interaction of nanoparticles and selected targets possessed stability and conformational changes. This study revealed that carbon nanotubes and fullerene are probably used as effectual binders to multiple targets of SARS-CoV-2, and the study offers insights into the experimental validation and highlights the relevance of utilizing carbon nanomaterials as a therapeutic remedy against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Fullerenes/metabolism , Nanotubes, Carbon , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Fullerenes/chemistry , Fullerenes/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Nanotubes, Carbon/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism
17.
Cell Rep ; 37(4): 109882, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525720

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV), a nucleotide analog with broad-spectrum features, has exhibited effectiveness in COVID-19 treatment. However, the precise working mechanism of RDV when targeting the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) has not been fully elucidated. Here, we solve a 3.0-Å structure of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RdRP elongation complex (EC) and assess RDV intervention in polymerase elongation phase. Although RDV could induce an "i+3" delayed termination in meta-stable complexes, only pausing and subsequent elongation are observed in the EC. A comparative investigation using an enterovirus RdRP further confirms similar delayed intervention and demonstrates that steric hindrance of the RDV-characteristic 1'-cyano at the -4 position is responsible for the "i+3" intervention, although two representative Flaviviridae RdRPs do not exhibit similar behavior. A comparison of representative viral RdRP catalytic complex structures indicates that the product RNA backbone encounters highly conserved structural elements, highlighting the broad-spectrum intervention potential of 1'-modified nucleotide analogs in anti-RNA virus drug development.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Proteins/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/drug effects , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Virus Replication/drug effects
18.
Protein Sci ; 31(1): 283-289, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516798

ABSTRACT

The PDBsum web server provides structural analyses of the entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Two recent additions are described here. The first is the detailed analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 virus protein structures in the PDB. These include the variants of concern, which are shown both on the sequences and 3D structures of the proteins. The second addition is the inclusion of the available AlphaFold models for human proteins. The pages allow a search of the protein against existing structures in the PDB via the Sequence Annotated by Structure (SAS) server, so one can easily compare the predicted model against experimentally determined structures. The server is freely accessible to all at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pdbsum.


Subject(s)
Databases, Protein , Proteins/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Models, Molecular , Protein Conformation , Protein Folding , Software
19.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(D1): D858-D866, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511005

ABSTRACT

SCoV2-MD (www.scov2-md.org) is a new online resource that systematically organizes atomistic simulations of the SARS-CoV-2 proteome. The database includes simulations produced by leading groups using molecular dynamics (MD) methods to investigate the structure-dynamics-function relationships of viral proteins. SCoV2-MD cross-references the molecular data with the pandemic evolution by tracking all available variants sequenced during the pandemic and deposited in the GISAID resource. SCoV2-MD enables the interactive analysis of the deposited trajectories through a web interface, which enables users to search by viral protein, isolate, phylogenetic attributes, or specific point mutation. Each mutation can then be analyzed interactively combining static (e.g. a variety of amino acid substitution penalties) and dynamic (time-dependent data derived from the dynamics of the local geometry) scores. Dynamic scores can be computed on the basis of nine non-covalent interaction types, including steric properties, solvent accessibility, hydrogen bonding, and other types of chemical interactions. Where available, experimental data such as antibody escape and change in binding affinities from deep mutational scanning experiments are also made available. All metrics can be combined to build predefined or custom scores to interrogate the impact of evolving variants on protein structure and function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Databases, Genetic , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Software , Viral Proteins/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Genome, Viral , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Internet , Models, Molecular , Phylogeny , Point Mutation , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Mapping , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Structure-Activity Relationship , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism
20.
ACS Synth Biol ; 10(11): 3209-3235, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504658

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 triggered a worldwide pandemic disease, COVID-19, for which an effective treatment has not yet been settled. Among the most promising targets to fight this disease is SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro), which has been extensively studied in the last few months. There is an urgency for developing effective computational protocols that can help us tackle these key viral proteins. Hence, we have put together a robust and thorough pipeline of in silico protein-ligand characterization methods to address one of the biggest biological problems currently plaguing our world. These methodologies were used to characterize the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro with an α-ketoamide inhibitor and include details on how to upload, visualize, and manage the three-dimensional structure of the complex and acquire high-quality figures for scientific publications using PyMOL (Protocol 1); perform homology modeling with MODELLER (Protocol 2); perform protein-ligand docking calculations using HADDOCK (Protocol 3); run a virtual screening protocol of a small compound database of SARS-CoV-2 candidate inhibitors with AutoDock 4 and AutoDock Vina (Protocol 4); and, finally, sample the conformational space at the atomic level between SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and the α-ketoamide inhibitor with Molecular Dynamics simulations using GROMACS (Protocol 5). Guidelines for careful data analysis and interpretation are also provided for each Protocol.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Databases, Protein , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Ligands
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL