Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 11.365
Filter
1.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 260(10): 3313-3319, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864182

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of day-long face mask wearing on non-invasive tear break-up time (NI-BUT) in health care staff due to working schedules. METHODS: Seventy-four right eyes of 74 participants were included in the study. Participants completed the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, and NI-BUT measurements were performed between 08.30-09.00 and 16.30-17.00 h. Participants with an initial NI-BUT measurement below 17 s were classified as group-1, and those over 17 s were classified as group-2. NI-BUT changes during the day and correlation to age, gender, and OSDI results were evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-eight women and 36 men, with a mean age of 30.9 ± 8.5 years, were included in the study. The mean OSDI score of the participants was 28.6 ± 17.1. NI-BUT means of group-1 at baseline and 8th hour were 11.4 ± 3.3 and 7.9 ± 3.6 s, respectively, and the mean NI-BUT at the 8th hour was statistically significantly lower than the baseline (p < 0.0001). Also, 24.2% (8 people) of those in group-2 had the 8th-hour NI-BUT value fallen into the measurable range (below 17 s). No significant correlation was found between the decrease in NI-BUT value and age, gender, and OSDI (p = 0.08, p = 0.3, and p = 0.2, respectively). CONCLUSION: The use of face masks throughout the day leads to a significant reduction in NI-BUT, regardless of age, gender, and OSDI score. Prolonged use of face masks should be considered as a risk factor for evaporative dry eye disease.


Subject(s)
Dry Eye Syndromes , Tears , Adult , Dry Eye Syndromes/etiology , Dry Eye Syndromes/prevention & control , Eye , Female , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
2.
Lancet ; 400(10365): 1803-1820, 2022 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2159959

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes accounts for nearly 90% of the approximately 537 million cases of diabetes worldwide. The number affected is increasing rapidly with alarming trends in children and young adults (up to age 40 years). Early detection and proactive management are crucial for prevention and mitigation of microvascular and macrovascular complications and mortality burden. Access to novel therapies improves person-centred outcomes beyond glycaemic control. Precision medicine, including multiomics and pharmacogenomics, hold promise to enhance understanding of disease heterogeneity, leading to targeted therapies. Technology might improve outcomes, but its potential is yet to be realised. Despite advances, substantial barriers to changing the course of the epidemic remain. This Seminar offers a clinically focused review of the recent developments in type 2 diabetes care including controversies and future directions.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Epidemics , Humans , Child , Young Adult , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Pharmacogenetics , Precision Medicine , Technology
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155040

ABSTRACT

The context of the COVID-19 pandemic imposed unprecedented restrictions. Within Canada, which is among the most stringent countries in terms of sanitary rules, Québec was among the provinces that imposed the strictest sanitary measures. The impacts of some measures were felt the most among athletes since they made it difficult, if not impossible, to practice their sports. This article therefore aimed to (1) evaluate the impact of the pandemic on the athletes' overall level of physical activity, (2) look at the relationship between overall level of physical activity and the level of psychological well-being and (3) analyze post-pandemic physical activity intentions. For this purpose, an online survey was conducted among 1456 athletes aged 3 to 61 years old. The results of this study show that the limitations imposed during the pandemic led to half of athletes decreasing their overall level of physical activity, leading to a deterioration in their psychological well-being (F(2.1438) = 54.707, p < 0.001). The current research provided further evidence that it is essential to implement strategies that favor practicing physical activities in a pandemic context. Furthermore, since almost all individuals who increased their practice of wheeled sports during the pandemic intend to continue after the pandemic, this is a great opportunity to promote active transportation among athletes by ensuring that the perception of the benefits associated with it does not decrease with time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quebec/epidemiology , Athletes/psychology , Canada , Exercise
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1008521, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154849

ABSTRACT

Background: There is a need to establish the effectiveness of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in reducing COVID-19-related hopitalization of patients in Jordan. As the vaccination program accelerates, it is important to determine whether the vaccines' effectiveness (VE) has successfully reduced the number of acute cases admitted to hospital. Methods: To determine the efficacy of Pfizer-BioNTech and Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccines among Jordanian patients admitted to Prince Hamza hospital, a single center case-control study was performed. The study analyzed the hospitalization rates of vaccinated (n = 536) and unvaccinated (n = 585) individuals across the 2-month period from February 6 to April 6, 2022. The cases were patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 ("case-patients"), whilst the control group were hospital patients who did not test positive for SARS-CoV-2 ("control-patients"). Results: This study found that among 1,121 total participants (561 cases and 560 control), the overall vaccine effectiveness (VE) among the participants was 84% (95% Cl 79-88%). VE was higher in females (88%, 95% Cl 84-93%) than in males (77%, 95% Cl 67-84%) (p < 0.001), and it was highest in those between the ages of 18 and 28-years-old (95%, 95% CI 86-98%). For patients with pre-existing conditions, including chronic heart disease, chronic lung disease, and diabetes, VE was higher compared to patients with no comorbidities, though the difference was not statistically significant. Finally, in comparing all vaccinated participants, VE was higher for those who received the Pfizer vaccine (VE = 92%, 95% CI 88-94%) (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.06-0.12) than for those who received the Sinopharm vaccine (VE = 67%, 95% CI 52-78%) (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.22-0.48); (p = 0.011). Conclusion: Overall, Pfizer and Sinopharm vaccines were found to be effective in limiting hospitalizations for acute cases of coronavirus among Jordanian adult's patient's cohort between February 6 and April 6, 2022, especially among patients with comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
Technol Health Care ; 30(6): 1287-1298, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic broke out in 2019 and rapidly spread across the globe. Most of the severe and dead cases are middle-aged and elderly patients with chronic systemic diseases. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the association between fasting blood glucose (FPG) and body mass index (BMI) levels in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) under different conditions. METHODS: Experimental-related information (age, gender, BMI, and FPG on the second day of admission) from 86 COVID-19 cases (47 males and 39 females) with an average age of (39 ± 17) years was collected in April and November 2020. These cases were divided into three groups according to the most severe classification of each case determined by the clinical early warning indicators of severe-critically illness, the degree of progression, and the treatment plan shown in the diagnosis and treatment plan of COVID-19 pneumonia. Statistical models were used to analyze the differences in the levels of FPG and BMI, age, and gender among the three groups. RESULTS: 1. Experimental group: 21 patients with asymptomatic or and mild symptoms (group A), 45 patients with common non-progression (group B), and 20 patients with common progression and severe symptoms (group C). 2. The age differences among the three groups were statistically significant and elderly patients had a higher risk of severe disease (t= 4.1404, 3.3933, 9.2123, P= 0.0001, 0.0012, 0.0000). There was a higher proportion of females than males in the normal progression and severe disease cases (χ2= 5.512, P= 0.019). 3. The level of FPG was significantly higher in group C than in group A (t= 3.1655, P= 0.0030) and B (t= 2.0212, P= 0.0475). The number of diabetes or IFG in group C was significantly higher than in group A (χ2= 5.979, P= 0.014) and group B (χ2= 6.088, P= 0.014). 4. BMI was significantly higher in group C than in groups A (t= 3.8839, P= 0.0004) and B (t= 3.8188, P= 0.0003). The number of overweight or obese patients in group C was significantly higher than in groups A (χ2= 8.838, P= 0.003) and B (χ2= 10.794, P= 0.001). 5. Patients' age, gender, and FPG were independent risk factors for COVID-19 disease progression (ß= 0.380, 0.191, 0.186; P= 0.000, 0.034, 0.045). CONCLUSION: The levels of FPG and BMI were significantly increased in the population with common progressive and severe COVID-19. FPG and age are independent risk factors for the progression of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle Aged , Aged , Male , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Blood Glucose , Retrospective Studies , Fasting , Pandemics
6.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(4): EN281521, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154411

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed individuals and families, causing adverse psychological effects, especially in young adults, women, and parents. This study aimed to verify the prevalence of current major depressive episode (CMDE) in mothers of preschoolers (up to five years old) and its associated stressors during the COVID-19 pandemic in a municipality in the Southern Brazil. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study with mothers. All mothers were interviewed by telephone call during the COVID-19 pandemic. We used the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I. Plus) to assess the presence of CMDE. Statistical analysis was conducted using the chi-square test and a multivariate logistic regression. We evaluated 666 mothers. The prevalence of CMDE was 12.3%. Mothers with financial losses had 2.1 (95%CI: 1.3-3.4) more odds of presenting CMDE than those financially stable. We observed that financial losses were determinant for the higher prevalence of depression in mothers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mothers/psychology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Young Adult
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(10): e0010838, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154218

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Mycetoma is a unique neglected tropical disease which is found endemic in areas known as the "mycetoma belt". Head and neck mycetoma is a rarity and it has many devastating impacts on patients and communities. In this study, we assessed clinical findings, investigations, and predictors for recurrence of head and neck mycetoma in Sudan. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective study was conducted at Mycetoma Research Center in Khartoum between January 1999 and December 2020 for all patients with head and neck mycetoma. Data were analyzed using R software version 4.0.2. RESULTS: We included 107 patients with head and neck mycetoma. 65.4% were young adult males from mycetoma endemic areas in Sudan, and most of them were students (33.6%). Most of patients (64.4%) had actinomycetoma. Before presenting with head and neck mycetoma, majority (75.7%) had a long duration with mycetoma, and 30.8% had a history of trauma. The commonest invaded site was the parietal region (30.8%). The lesion started gradually in most of the patients (96.3%). 53.3% of the patients had large size lesions with no sweating, regional lymph nodes involvement, or distal vein involvement. CT scan was the most accurate diagnostic tool while 8.4% of patients were diagnosed by clinical examinations only. Laboratory investigations confirmed that 24/45 (44.4%) of actinomycetoma was caused by Streptomyces somaliensis while 13/28 (46.4%) of eumycetoma was caused by Madurella mycetomatis. All patients with recurrence of head and neck mycetoma underwent surgical excision of the lesion (n = 41/41 {100%}, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In head and neck mycetoma, the most common type was actinomycetes in Sudan. Majority had a long course of mycetoma and the commonest causative organism was Streptomyces somaliensis. The treatment outcome was poor and characterized by a low cure rate.


Subject(s)
Madurella , Mycetoma , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Mycetoma/diagnosis , Mycetoma/drug therapy , Mycetoma/epidemiology , Mycetoma/microbiology , Retrospective Studies , Streptomyces , Sudan/epidemiology
8.
Lancet Public Health ; 7(11): e976-e982, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150893

ABSTRACT

Firearm-related injury is a leading cause of death disproportionately affecting adolescents and young adults across the world, especially in the Americas. Little progress has been made over the past four decades, as inaction and the adoption of ineffective or unevidenced interventions have become commonplace. The COVID-19 pandemic reconfigured health systems towards prevention and harm reduction, sharpened public attention to the burden of preventable deaths, and inspired a fresh ambition of eliminating avertable deaths. In this Viewpoint, we argue that preventing firearm injury should garner bolder action in post-pandemic public health and we present a case for reducing the global burden of firearm injury supported by evidence and international examples. Crucially, we aim to guide policy making in directions that end the cycle of grief, anger, activism, deflection, and inaction and create more peaceful and fairer societies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Firearms , Wounds, Gunshot , Adolescent , Young Adult , Humans , United States , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology , Wounds, Gunshot/prevention & control , Public Health , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control
9.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(11): e722, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2148332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent outbreak of Human Monkeypox (MPXV) in nonendemic regions of the world is of great concern. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically analyze the current epidemiology, clinical presentation, and outcomes of the Monkeypox virus. METHOD: Systematic literature was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, and Scopus using predefined MESH terms by using "AND" and "OR." The following search terms were used: Monkeypox [MeSH] OR "Monkeypox virus" [MeSH] OR "POX" OR "Monkeypox" AND "Outbreak" AND "Outcomes" from December 2019 till 14th June 2022 without restrictions of language. RESULTS: A total of 1074 (99.90%) patients tested positive for Monkeypox virus through RT-PCR while 1 (0.09) patient was suspected. There was a gender difference with male predominance (54.23% vs. 45.48%) compared with female patients. Mean age (±SD) of patients was 20.66 ± 16.45 years. The major symptoms were rash (100%), fever (96%), and other important symptoms were upper respiratory symptoms (97%), headache (95%), vomiting (95%), oral ulcers (96%), conjunctivitis (96%) and lymphadenopathy (85%). The average mean duration of treatment was 5 days, while the mean hospitalization duration was 13.3 ± 6.37 days. The outcome of 20 patients was available, 19 of 20 patients recovered fully from monkeypox, however, 1 patient was not able to survive resulting in death. CONCLUSION: The recent monkeypox virus outbreak has shown that the virus could transmit in ways that were not previously expected. Further research is needed to understand the possible outcomes and association with humans and their different organ systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Disease Outbreaks , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus/genetics , Prognosis
10.
Elife ; 92020 08 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155740

ABSTRACT

We conducted voluntary Covid-19 testing programmes for symptomatic and asymptomatic staff at a UK teaching hospital using naso-/oro-pharyngeal PCR testing and immunoassays for IgG antibodies. 1128/10,034 (11.2%) staff had evidence of Covid-19 at some time. Using questionnaire data provided on potential risk-factors, staff with a confirmed household contact were at greatest risk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.82 [95%CI 3.45-6.72]). Higher rates of Covid-19 were seen in staff working in Covid-19-facing areas (22.6% vs. 8.6% elsewhere) (aOR 2.47 [1.99-3.08]). Controlling for Covid-19-facing status, risks were heterogenous across the hospital, with higher rates in acute medicine (1.52 [1.07-2.16]) and sporadic outbreaks in areas with few or no Covid-19 patients. Covid-19 intensive care unit staff were relatively protected (0.44 [0.28-0.69]), likely by a bundle of PPE-related measures. Positive results were more likely in Black (1.66 [1.25-2.21]) and Asian (1.51 [1.28-1.77]) staff, independent of role or working location, and in porters and cleaners (2.06 [1.34-3.15]).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitals, Teaching/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
Elife ; 92020 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155738

ABSTRACT

As of 1 May 2020, there had been 6808 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Australia. Of these, 98 had died from the disease. The epidemic had been in decline since mid-March, with 308 cases confirmed nationally since 14 April. This suggests that the collective actions of the Australian public and government authorities in response to COVID-19 were sufficiently early and assiduous to avert a public health crisis - for now. Analysing factors that contribute to individual country experiences of COVID-19, such as the intensity and timing of public health interventions, will assist in the next stage of response planning globally. We describe how the epidemic and public health response unfolded in Australia up to 13 April. We estimate that the effective reproduction number was likely below one in each Australian state since mid-March and forecast that clinical demand would remain below capacity thresholds over the forecast period (from mid-to-late April).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Forecasting , Geography, Medical , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , Young Adult
13.
Indian J Public Health ; 66(Supplement): S76-S79, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144161

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of COVID-19 and its consequences is causing widespread fears, anxiety, and worries. To overcome the transmission of COVID-19, people resorted to compulsive behaviors. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs) due to COVID-19 pandemic, the prevalence of level of fear due to COVID-19 pandemic, and to assess the factors associated with OCSs due to COVID-19 pandemic among the undergraduate medical students of in tertiary unit in Southern India. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in 250 undergraduate medical students (both MBBS and BDS, from 1st to 4th year) in the institute. Students who had consented in the study were included as study participants. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19 S) were used in assessing OCSs and the level of fear due to COVID-19. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were used to compute the factors associated with OCS. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 21 ± 1.313 years. The prevalence of OCS in undergraduate medical students was 36 (14.4%), and the level of FCV-19 was 107 (42.8%). Male students (17.8%, 44.2%) had higher OCSs and levels of fear as compared to female students (13.6%, 42.4%). Students with FCV-19 were three (adjusted odds ratio-3.418, 95% confidence interval-1.596, 7.319) times more likely to manifest OCSs while factors such as age, gender, and course were not significantly associated with OCS. Conclusion: Psychological counseling for undergraduate students should be pivotal, especially during pandemics and outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Students, Medical , Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Prevalence , Pandemics , Tertiary Healthcare , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , India/epidemiology , Fear
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1020801, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142352

ABSTRACT

Introduction: While most governments instituted several interventions to stall the spread of COVID-19, little is known regarding the continued observance of the non-pharmaceutical COVID-19 preventive measures particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We investigated adherence to these preventive measures during the initial 6 months of the COVID-19 outbreak in some SSA countries. Methods: Between March and August 2020, the International Citizen Project on COVID-19 consortium (www.icpcovid.com) conducted online surveys in six SSA countries: Benin, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique, Somalia, and Uganda. A five-point individual adherence score was constituted by scoring respondents' observance of the following measures: mask use, physical distancing, hand hygiene, coughing hygiene, and avoiding to touch one's face. Community behaviors (going to public places, traveling during the pandemic) were also assessed. Data were analyzed in two time periods: Period 1 (March-May) and Period 2 (June-August). Results: Responses from 26,678 respondents were analyzed (mean age: 31.0 ± 11.1 years; 54.1% males). Mean individual adherence score decreased from 3.80 ± 1.37 during Period 1, to 3.57 ± 1.43 during Period 2; p < 0.001. At the community level, public events/places were significantly more attended with increased travels during Period 2 compared to Period 1 (p < 0.001). Using linear mixed models, predictors of increased individual adherence included: higher age (Coef = 0.005; 95% CI: 0.003-0.007), female gender (Coef = 0.071; 95% CI: 0.039-0.104), higher educational level (Coef = 0.999; 95% CI: 0.885-1.113), and working in the healthcare sector (Coef = 0.418; 95% CI: 0.380-0.456). Conclusion: Decreasing adherence to non-pharmaceutical measures over time constitutes a risk for the persistence of COVID-19 in SSA. Younger persons and those with lower education levels constitute target groups for improving adherence to such measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Male , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Disease Outbreaks
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 935405, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142316

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with computer vision syndrome in medical students at a private university in Paraguay. Methods: A survey study was conducted in 2021 in a sample of 228 medical students from the Universidad del Pacífico, Paraguay. The dependent variable was CVS, measured with the Computer Visual Syndrome Questionnaire (CVS-Q). Its association with covariates (hours of daily use of notebook, smartphone, tablet and PC, taking breaks when using equipment, use of preventive visual measures, use of glasses, etc.) was examined. Results: The mean age was 22.3 years and 71.5% were women. CVS was present in 82.5% of participants. Higher prevalence of CVS was associated with wearing a framed lens (PR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03-1.20). In contrast, taking a break when using electronic equipment at least every 20 min and every 1 h reduced 7% (PR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87-0.99) and 6% (PR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89-0.99) the prevalence of CVS, respectively. Conclusion: Eight out of 10 students experienced CVS during the COVID-19 pandemic. The use of framed lenses increased the presence of CVS, while taking breaks when using electronic equipment at least every 20 min and every 1 h reduced CVS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Diseases , Students, Medical , Adult , Computers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ergonomics , Female , Humans , Male , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Paraguay/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Syndrome , Universities , Young Adult
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1017590, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142027

ABSTRACT

Background: In response to SARS-CoV-2 mutations and waning antibody levels after two-dose inactivated vaccines, we assessed whether a third dose of recombinant protein subunit vaccine (ZF2001) boosts immune responses. Methods: An open-label single-center non-random trial was conducted on people aged 18 years and above at five sites in China. All participants received a two-dose inactivated vaccine (CoronaVac) as their prime doses within 3-9 months of the trial. Primary outcomes were safety and immunogenicity, primarily the geometric mean titers (GMTs) of neutralizing antibodies to live wildtype SARS-CoV-2. Results: A total of 480 participants (median age, 51; range 21-84 years) previously vaccinated with two-dose CoronaVac received a third booster dose of ZF2001 3-4, 5-6, or 7-9-months later. The overall incidence of adverse reactions within 30 days after vaccination was 5.83% (28/480). No serious adverse reactions were reported after the third dose of ZF2001. GMTs in the 3-4-, 5-6-, and 7-9-month groups before vaccination were 3.96, 4.60, and 3.78, respectively. On Day 14, GMTs increased to 33.06, 47.51, and 44.12, respectively. After the booster, GMTs showed no significant difference among the three prime-boost interval groups (all P>0.05). Additionally, GMTs in older adults were lower than those in younger adults on Day 14 for the three groups (P=0.0005, P<0.0001, and P<0.0001). Conclusion: Heterologous boosting with ZF2001 was safe and immunogenic, and prime-boost intervals did not affect the immune response. The immune response was weaker in older than younger adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Protein Subunits , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Subunit/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Young Adult , Adult , Aged, 80 and over
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 938378, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141954

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) has infected millions of people around the world. Vaccination is a pillar in the strategy to control transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 spread. Immune responses to vaccination require elucidation. Methods: The immune responses to vaccination with three doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine were followed in a cohort of 37 healthy adults (18-59 years old). Blood samples were collected at multiple time points and submitted to peptide array, machine learning modeling, and sequence alignment analyses, the results of which were used to generate vaccine-induced antibody-binding region (VIABR) immunosignatures (Registration number: ChiCTR2200058571). Results: Antibody spectrum signals showed vaccination stimulated antibody production. Sequence alignment analyses revealed that a third vaccine dose generated a new highly represented VIABR near the A570D mutation, and the whole process of inoculation enhanced the VIABR near the N501Y mutation. In addition, the antigen conformational epitopes varied between short- and long-term samples. The amino acids with the highest scores in the short-term samples were distributed primarily in the receptor binding domain (RBD) and N-terminal domain regions of spike (S) protein, while in the long-term samples (12 weeks after the 2nd dose), some new conformational epitopes (CEs) were localized to crevices within the head of the S protein trimer. Conclusion: Protective antigenic epitopes were revealed by immunosignatures after three doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine inoculation. A third dose results in a new top-10 VIABR near the A570D mutation site of S protein, and the whole process of inoculation enhanced the VIABR near the N501Y mutation, thus potentially providing protection from strains that have gained invasion and immune escape abilities through these mutation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Young Adult
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 919408, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141937

ABSTRACT

Background: In late 2021, the pandemic wave was dominated by the Delta SARS-CoV-2 variant in Hungary. Booster vaccines were offered for the vulnerable population starting from August 2021. Methods: The nationwide HUN-VE 3 study examined the effectiveness and durability of primary immunization and single booster vaccinations in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection, Covid-19 related hospitalization and mortality during the Delta wave, compared to an unvaccinated control population without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: The study population included 8,087,988 individuals who were 18-100 years old at the beginning of the pandemic. During the Delta wave, after adjusting for age, sex, calendar day, and chronic diseases, vaccine effectiveness (VE) of primary vaccination against registered SARS-CoV-2 infection was between 11% to 77% and 18% to 79% 14-120 days after primary immunization in the 16-64 and 65-100 years age cohort respectively, while it decreased to close to zero in the younger age group and around 40% or somewhat less in the elderly after 6 months for almost all vaccine types. In the population aged 65-100 years, we found high, 88.1%-92.5% adjusted effectiveness against Covid-19 infection after the Pfizer-BioNTech, and 92.2%-95.6% after the Moderna booster dose, while Sinopharm and Janssen booster doses provided 26.5%-75.3% and 72.9%-100.0% adjusted VE, respectively. Adjusted VE against Covid-19 related hospitalization was high within 14-120 days for Pfizer-BioNTech: 76.6%, Moderna: 83.8%, Sputnik-V: 78.3%, AstraZeneca: 73.8%, while modest for Sinopharm: 45.7% and Janssen: 26.4%. The waning of protection against Covid-19 related hospitalization was modest and booster vaccination with mRNA vaccines or the Janssen vaccine increased adjusted VE up to almost 100%, while the Sinopharm booster dose proved to be less effective. VE against Covid-19 related death after primary immunization was high or moderate: for Pfizer-BioNTech: 81.5%, Moderna: 93.2%, Sputnik-V: 100.0%, AstraZeneca: 84.8%, Sinopharm: 58.6%, Janssen: 53.3%). VE against this outcome also showed a moderate decline over time, while booster vaccine types restored effectiveness up to almost 100%, except for the Sinopharm booster. Conclusions: The HUN-VE 3 study demonstrated waning VE with all vaccine types for all examined outcomes during the Delta wave and confirmed the outstanding benefit of booster vaccination with the mRNA or Janssen vaccines, and this is the first study to provide clear and comparable effectiveness results for six different vaccine types after primary immunization against severe during the Delta pandemic wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Infant , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1039811, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141715

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in the widespread use of N95 respirators and surgical masks, with anecdotal reports among healthcare providers and the public of xerostomia, halitosis, and gingivitis, a consortium of symptoms colloquially termed "mask mouth". However, this has not been scientifically verified. The aim of this study was to assess changes in salivary flow rate, gingival health status and oral microbiome associated with prolonged mask use. A total of 25 dental students (mean age = 26.36 ± 1.58) were included in the study and evaluated at three time points: T1, at the end of at least 2 months of full-day mask wear (7.26 ± 1.56 hours/day); T2, at the end of a period of minimal mask use (1.13 ± 1.13 hours/day); and T3, at the end of 2-3 weeks of resuming full-day mask wear (6.93 ± 1.80 hours/day). Unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) flow rate, xerostomia (on a quantitative scale of 10), gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI) were assessed at each time point. The salivary microbiome was characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Overall, UWS flow rates were normal (mean of 0.679 ml/min) and xerostomia, PI and GI scores were low (Mean of 3.11, 0.33 and 0.69, respectively) with no significant differences as a result of prolonged mask wearing. Similarly, there were no significant microbial changes at a false discovery rate (FDR) ≤ 0.05. However, some trends were identified using a nominal p-value cut-off of ≤ 0.01, namely Gemella sanguinis, Streptococcus sp. Oral taxon 066 and Oral taxon 058 were associated with prolonged mask wear. Trends were also seen by gender, race and age, for example an increase in P. gingivalis and P. intermedia with age. In conclusion, we found no evidence that prolonged mask wear adversely affects oral health. The findings support that the oral microbiome of healthy individuals is resilient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Xerostomia , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Pilot Projects , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Pandemics , Health Status
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(11): e40719, 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Depression has a high prevalence among young adults, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, mental health services remain scarce and underutilized worldwide. Mental health chatbots are a novel digital technology to provide fully automated interventions for depressive symptoms. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test the clinical effectiveness and nonclinical performance of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based mental health chatbot (XiaoE) for young adults with depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In a single-blind, 3-arm randomized controlled trial, participants manifesting depressive symptoms recruited from a Chinese university were randomly assigned to a mental health chatbot (XiaoE; n=49), an e-book (n=49), or a general chatbot (Xiaoai; n=50) group in a ratio of 1:1:1. Participants received a 1-week intervention. The primary outcome was the reduction of depressive symptoms according to the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) at 1 week later (T1) and 1 month later (T2). Both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were conducted under analysis of covariance models adjusting for baseline data. Controlled multiple imputation and δ-based sensitivity analysis were performed for missing data. The secondary outcomes were the level of working alliance measured using the Working Alliance Questionnaire (WAQ), usability measured using the Usability Metric for User Experience-LITE (UMUX-LITE), and acceptability measured using the Acceptability Scale (AS). RESULTS: Participants were on average 18.78 years old, and 37.2% (55/148) were female. The mean baseline PHQ-9 score was 10.02 (SD 3.18; range 2-19). Intention-to-treat analysis revealed lower PHQ-9 scores among participants in the XiaoE group compared with participants in the e-book group and Xiaoai group at both T1 (F2,136=17.011; P<.001; d=0.51) and T2 (F2,136=5.477; P=.005; d=0.31). Better working alliance (WAQ; F2,145=3.407; P=.04) and acceptability (AS; F2,145=4.322; P=.02) were discovered with XiaoE, while no significant difference among arms was found for usability (UMUX-LITE; F2,145=0.968; P=.38). CONCLUSIONS: A CBT-based chatbot is a feasible and engaging digital therapeutic approach that allows easy accessibility and self-guided mental health assistance for young adults with depressive symptoms. A systematic evaluation of nonclinical metrics for a mental health chatbot has been established in this study. In the future, focus on both clinical outcomes and nonclinical metrics is necessary to explore the mechanism by which mental health chatbots work on patients. Further evidence is required to confirm the long-term effectiveness of the mental health chatbot via trails replicated with a longer dose, as well as exploration of its stronger efficacy in comparison with other active controls. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2100052532; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=135744.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Humans , Young Adult , Female , Adolescent , Male , Depression/therapy , Single-Blind Method , Pandemics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL