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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 499-504, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pandemics are direct antecedent of distinctive physical, psychological, social and financial impacts. A large number of researches are being conducted regarding previous epidemics and pandemics and lot more is currently in progress vis-?-vis COVID-19. The current research is an attempt to explore psychological impacts of COVID-19 specifically to find out the existence, intensity and dynamics of COVID-19 fear in non-clinical educated population. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross sectional online study was conducted with non-clinical educated Pakistani citizens. Self-structured questionnaire comprising close and open ended questions was used for data collection from different cities of Pakistan. N=317 participants (men=121, women=196) were the sample for this study. Demographic information was also sought. The age range of sample was 18 to 50+ years. Most of the participants fall in the category of age group 23-28 of sample. All the participants were educated from Intermediate till PhD but majority of participants had 16 years of education. SPSS 22 was used for quantitative data analysis. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis and content analysis. RESULTS: Results yield significant age wise and profession wise difference in existence of COVID fear. Nine major themes were extracted regarding nature of fear i.e. Corona Fear, Loss, fear of isolation or quarantine, religion related fear, death, consequences of COVID-19, Under developed country, Psychological component of fear and empathy. Those who denied fear were asked the reasons and six major themes were extracted here i.e Religion, Inevitability of death, Precautions, Belief in self, Myths or misinterpretation of disease and Avoidant approach. CONCLUSIONS: Age and profession significantly influenced fear of COVID-19. Gender-wise exploration of themes yields interesting insights. Participants reflected positivity and empathy in crisis situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(14): 519-522, 2021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384037

ABSTRACT

CDC's National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) collects and reports annual mortality statistics using data from U.S. death certificates. Because of the time needed to investigate certain causes of death and to process and review data, final annual mortality data for a given year are typically released 11 months after the end of the calendar year. Daily totals reported by CDC COVID-19 case surveillance are timely but can underestimate numbers of deaths because of incomplete or delayed reporting. As a result of improvements in timeliness and the pressing need for updated, quality data during the global COVID-19 pandemic, NVSS expanded provisional data releases to produce near real-time U.S. mortality data.* This report presents an overview of provisional U.S. mortality data for 2020, including the first ranking of leading causes of death. In 2020, approximately 3,358,814 deaths† occurred in the United States. From 2019 to 2020, the estimated age-adjusted death rate increased by 15.9%, from 715.2 to 828.7 deaths per 100,000 population. COVID-19 was reported as the underlying cause of death or a contributing cause of death for an estimated 377,883 (11.3%) of those deaths (91.5 deaths per 100,000). The highest age-adjusted death rates by age, race/ethnicity, and sex occurred among adults aged ≥85 years, non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black) and non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons, and males. COVID-19 death rates were highest among adults aged ≥85 years, AI/AN and Hispanic persons, and males. COVID-19 was the third leading cause of death in 2020, after heart disease and cancer. Provisional death estimates provide an early indication of shifts in mortality trends and can guide public health policies and interventions aimed at reducing numbers of deaths that are directly or indirectly associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Mortality/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/ethnology , Cause of Death/trends , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/ethnology , United States/epidemiology , Vital Statistics , Young Adult
3.
J Xenobiot ; 11(2): 77-93, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834825

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, occurring due to SARS-COV-2 infection, is the most recent pandemic disease that has led to three million deaths at the time of writing. A great deal of effort has been directed towards altering the virus trajectory and/or managing the interactions of the virus with its subsequent targets in the human body; these interactions can lead to a chain reaction-like state manifested by a cytokine storm and progress to multiple organ failure. During cytokine storms the ratio of pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory mediators is generally increased, which contributes to the instigation of hyper-inflammation and confers advantages to the virus. Because cytokine expression patterns fluctuate from one person to another and even within the same person from one time to another, we suggest a road map of COVID-19 management using an individual approach instead of focusing on the blockbuster process (one treatment for most people, if not all). Here, we highlight the biology of the virus, study the interaction between the virus and humans, and present potential pharmacological and non-pharmacological modulators that might contribute to the global war against SARS-COV-2. We suggest an algorithmic roadmap to manage COVID-19.

4.
Palliat Care Soc Pract ; 15: 26323524211019056, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808293

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to death and hardship around the world, and increased popular discourse about end-of-life circumstances and conditions. The extent to which this discourse and related pandemic experiences have precipitated advance care planning (ACP) activities was the focus of this study with a particular emphasis on sexual orientation. METHODS: A large, national online survey was conducted between 10 August and 10 October 2020 in Canada. The final sample of 3923 persons aged 55 and older was recruited using social media, direct email, and Facebook advertising and in conjunction with community groups. Women comprised almost 78% of the sample; just more than 7% of the sample identified as lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB). Measures included demographic variables and a series of questions on ACP, including documents and discussions undertaken prior to the pandemic and since its onset. RESULTS: Descriptive analyses revealed few gender or sexual orientation differences on documents and discussions prior to the pandemic; since its onset, LGB persons have completed or initiated wills, powers of attorney, advance directives, representation agreements, and have engaged in ACP discussions in greater proportion than heterosexuals. Logistic regressions reveal the increased likelihood of pre-pandemic ACP engagement by age, gender (women), and education; since the pandemic onset, gender, education, and sexual orientation were predictive of greater ACP engagement. Care discussions were more likely undertaken by women and LGB persons since the pandemic most often with spouses, family, and friends, especially among LGB persons. DISCUSSION: Gender roles and previous pandemic experiences (HIV/AIDS, in particular) are implicated in this pattern of results; opportunities for educational interventions are considered.

5.
Rechtsmedizin (Berl) ; 30(5): 325-331, 2020.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797657

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a disease caused by the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), is a particular threat to old people. At the end of March 2020, the first and so far largest outbreak of the disease occurred in a retirement home in Hamburg. Methods: Analysis of procedures in dealing with a residential unit affected by SARS-CoV­2, accommodating a risk group of 60 seniors with dementia is presented as well as a detailed presentation of post-mortem examination results of all 8 deceased tested positive for SARS-CoV­2. Results: Out of 60 residents, 39 were infected by SARS-CoV­2. Due to preventive procedures it was possible to stop further spreading of the infection to other residential areas. In all 8 fatal cases, the autopsy diagnosis was death due to COVID-19. Autopsies revealed all COVID-19 patients to have a fatal (broncho)pneumonia and signs of relevant pre-existing cardiac, renal and pulmonary conditions in all cases. In 75% (n = 6) of the cases a fresh venous thrombosis was found. In 66.7% (n = 4) of the cases thrombotic events were combined with peripheral pulmonary artery thromboembolisms. Conclusion: The cohort of SARS-CoV­2 infected residents of a nursing home is characteristic for clinical and epidemiological features of the new coronavirus disease. Due to a centralized evaluation of all fatalities at the Institute of Legal Medicine in Hamburg, a detailed examination of all deceased positive for SARS-CoV­2 was possible. Thereby, increased case fatality rates of approximately 20% could in all cases be assigned to a relevant number of pre-existing comorbidities of multiple organ systems, which was consistent with the clinical data available.

6.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726007

ABSTRACT

In January 2020, Chinese health agencies reported an outbreak of a novel coronavirus-2 (CoV-2) which can lead to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The virus, which belongs to the coronavirus family (SARS-CoV-2), was named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). Full-length genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 showed 79.6% sequence identity to SARS-CoV, with 96% identity to a bat coronavirus at the whole-genome level. COVID-19 has caused over 133,000 deaths and there are over 2 million total confirmed cases as of April 15th, 2020. Current treatment plans are still under investigation due to a lack of understanding of COVID-19. One potential mechanism to slow disease progression is the use of antiviral drugs to either block the entry of the virus or interfere with viral replication and maturation. Currently, antiviral drugs, including chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and lopinavir/ritonavir, have shown effective inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Due to the high dose needed and narrow therapeutic window, many patients are experiencing severe side effects with the above drugs. Hence, repurposing these drugs with a proper formulation is needed to improve the safety and efficacy for COVID-19 treatment. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a family of natural carriers in the human body. They play a critical role in cell-to-cell communications. EVs can be used as unique drug carriers to deliver protease inhibitors to treat COVID-19. EVs may provide targeted delivery of protease inhibitors, with fewer systemic side effects. More importantly, EVs are eligible for major aseptic processing and can be upscaled for mass production. Currently, the FDA is facilitating applications to treat COVID-19, which provides a very good chance to use EVs to contribute in this combat.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Extracellular Vesicles/chemistry , HIV Protease Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Approval , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 730: 139087, 2020 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720870

ABSTRACT

In early March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 as a pandemic, and in late March 2020 partial lockdown was ordered by the São Paulo state government. The aim of this study was to assess impacts on air quality in São Paulo - Brazil, during the partial lockdown implemented to provide social distancing required due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We have analyzed data from four air quality stations in São Paulo, Brazil to assess air pollutant concentration variations during the partial lockdown. Data were compared to the five-year monthly mean and to the four-week before the partial lockdown. Overall, drastic reductions on NO (up to -77.3%), NO2 (up to -54.3%), and CO (up to -64.8%) concentrations were observed in the urban area during partial lockdown compared to the five-year monthly mean. By contrast, an increase of approximately 30% in ozone concentrations was observed in urban areas highly influenced by vehicle traffic, probably related to nitrogen monoxide decreases. Although the partial lockdown has contributed to a positive impact on air quality, it is important to take into account the negative impacts on social aspects, considering the deaths caused by COVID-19 and also the dramatic economic effects.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Air Pollutants , Brazil , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 80-81, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719341

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has posed an extreme threat to global health and become a leading cause of death worldwide. Loss, as a more encompassing theme, interweaves many aspects of people's life in this challenging time. Failure to address the pressing needs of those experiencing loss and grief may result in poor mental and physical health. Recognizing the uniqueness of each individual and their loss and grief will provide opportunities to develop tailored strategies that facilitate functional adaptation to loss and promote mental health and wellbeing in this crisis.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Bereavement , Coronavirus Infections , Grief , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Resilience, Psychological , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Disenfranchised Grief , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Transplantation ; 106(3): 641-647, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heart transplant (HT) recipients may be at higher risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection and developing critical illness. The aim of this study is to describe characteristics and outcomes of HT recipients infected by SARS-COV-2, from a high-volume transplant center. METHODS: We have described data of all adult HT recipients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 by RT-PCR in nasopharyngeal samples from April 5, 2020, to January 5, 2021. Outcomes and follow-up were recorded until February 5, 2021. RESULTS: Forty patients were included. Twenty-four patients (60%) were men; the median age was 53 (40-60) y old; median HT time was 34 mo; and median follow-up time 162 d. The majority needed hospitalization (83%). Immunosuppressive therapy was reduced/withdrawn in the majority of patients, except from steroids, which were maintained. Seventeen patients (42.5%) were classified as having severe disease according to the ordinal scale developed by the World Health Organization Committee. They tended to have lower absolute lymphocyte count (P < 0.001) during follow-up when compared with patients with mild disease. Thirty-day mortality was 12.5%. However, a longer follow-up revealed increased later mortality (27.5%), with median time to death around 35 d. Bacterial nosocomial infections were a leading cause of death. Cardiac allograft rejection (10%) and ventricular dysfunction (12.5%) were also not negligible. CONCLUSIONS: Major findings of this study corroborate other cohorts' results, but it also reports significant rate of later events, suggesting that a strict midterm surveillance is advisable to HT recipients with coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Transplantation , Adult , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
10.
Stoch Environ Res Risk Assess ; 35(3): 531-534, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680826

ABSTRACT

The 2019 coronavirus disease, called COVID-19, is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since it was first identified in China in December 2019, COVID-19 has spread to almost all countries and territories and caused over 310,000 deaths, as on May 16, 2020. The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic are now seen in almost every sector of our society. In this article, I discuss the impacts of COVID-19 on the water sector. I point out that our efforts to control the spread of COVID-19 will increase the water demand and worsen the water quality, leading to additional challenges in water planning and management. In view of the impacts of COVID-19 and other global-scale phenomena influencing water resources (e.g., global climate change), I highlight the urgent need for interdisciplinary collaborations among researchers studying water and new strategies to address water issues.

11.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(3): 630-634, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People from South Asian and black minority ethnic groups are disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. It is unknown whether deprivation mediates this excess ethnic risk. METHODS: We used UK Biobank with linked COVID-19 outcomes occurring between 16th March 2020 and 24th August 2020. A four-way decomposition mediation analysis was used to model the extent to which the excess risk of testing positive, severe disease and mortality for COVID-19 in South Asian and black individuals, relative to white individuals, would be eliminated if levels of high material deprivation were reduced within the population. RESULTS: We included 15 044 (53.0% women) South Asian and black and 392 786 (55.2% women) white individuals. There were 151 (1.0%) positive tests, 91 (0.6%) severe cases and 31 (0.2%) deaths due to COVID-19 in South Asian and black individuals compared with 1471 (0.4%), 895 (0.2%) and 313 (0.1%), respectively, in white individuals. Compared with white individuals, the relative risk of testing positive for COVID-19, developing severe disease and COVID-19 mortality in South Asian and black individuals were 2.73 (95% CI: 2.26, 3.19), 2.96 (2.31, 3.61) and 4.04 (2.54, 5.55), respectively. A hypothetical intervention moving the 25% most deprived in the population out of deprivation was modelled to eliminate between 40 and 50% of the excess risk of all COVID-19 outcomes in South Asian and black populations, whereas moving the 50% most deprived out of deprivation would eliminate over 80% of the excess risk of COVID-19 outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The excess risk of COVID-19 outcomes in South Asian and black communities could be substantially reduced with population level policies targeting material deprivation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Minority Groups , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
IEEE Rev Biomed Eng ; 15: 61-84, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642571

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic since early 2020. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has already caused more than three million deaths worldwide and affected people's physical and mental health. COVID-19 patients with mild symptoms are generally required to self-isolate and monitor for symptoms at least for 14 days in the case the disease turns towards severe complications. In this work, we overviewed the impact of COVID-19 on the patients' general health with a focus on their cardiovascular, respiratory and mental health, and investigated several existing patient monitoring systems. We addressed the limitations of these systems and proposed a wearable telehealth solution for monitoring a set of physiological parameters that are critical for COVID-19 patients such as body temperature, heart rate, heart rate variability, blood oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and cough. This physiological information can be further combined to potentially estimate the lung function using artificial intelligence (AI) and sensor fusion techniques. The prototype, which includes the hardware and a smartphone app, showed promising results with performance comparable to or better than similar commercial devices, thus potentially making the proposed system an ideal wearable solution for long-term monitoring of COVID-19 patients and other chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wearable Electronic Devices , Artificial Intelligence , Chronic Disease , Humans , Oxygen Saturation , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Biochem Biophys Rep ; 27: 101024, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525698

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2), which causes coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has caused more than 2 million deaths around the globe. The high transmissibility rate of the disease is related to the strong interaction between the virus spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as documented in several reports. In this study, using state-of-the-art computational methods, natural products were screened and their molecular mechanism to disrupt spike RBD-ACE2 recognition was evaluated. There is the sensitivity of results to receptor ensemble docking calculations. Binding free energy and MD simulation are important tools to evaluate the thermodynamics of binding stability and the capacity of top hits to disrupt RBD-ACE2 recognition. The free energy profiles provide a slight decrease in binding affinity of the virus-receptor interaction. Three flavonoids parvisoflavone B (3), alpinumisoflavone (5) and norisojamicin (2) were effective in blocking the viral entry by binding strongly at the spike RBD-ACE2 interface with the inhibition constant of 0.56, 0.78 and 0.93 µM, respectively. The same compounds demonstrated similar effect on free ACE2 protein. Compound (2), also demonstrated ability to bind strongly on free spike RBD. Well-tempered metadynamics established that parvisoflavone B (3) works by binding to three sites namely interface α, ß and loop thereby inhibiting viral cell entry. Owing to their desirable pharmacokinetic properties, the presented top hit natural products are suggested for further SARS-COV-2 molecular targets and subsequent in vitro and in vivo evaluations.

14.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522913

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a recently emerged virus that causes coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, like SARS-CoV-1, uses the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a cellular receptor to initiate infection. Compounds that interfere with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain protein (RBD)-ACE2 receptor interaction may function as entry inhibitors. Here, we used a dual strategy of molecular docking and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) screening of compound libraries to identify those that bind to human ACE2 or the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD). Molecular modeling screening interrogated 57,641 compounds and focused on the region of ACE2 that is engaged by RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and vice versa. SPR screening used immobilized human ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein to evaluate the binding of these proteins to a library of 3,141 compounds. These combined screens identified compounds from these libraries that bind at KD (equilibrium dissociation constant) <3 µM affinity to their respective targets, 17 for ACE2 and 6 for SARS-CoV-2 RBD. Twelve ACE2 binders and six of the RBD binders compete with the RBD-ACE2 interaction in an SPR-based competition assay. These compounds included registered drugs and dyes used in biomedical applications. A Vero-E6 cell-based SARS-CoV-2 infection assay was used to evaluate infection blockade by candidate entry inhibitors. Three compounds demonstrated dose-dependent antiviral in vitro potency-Evans blue, sodium lifitegrast, and lumacaftor. This study has identified potential drugs for repurposing as SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors or as chemical scaffolds for drug development.IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has caused more than 60 million cases worldwide with almost 1.5 million deaths as of November 2020. Repurposing existing drugs is the most rapid path to clinical intervention for emerging diseases. Using an in silico screen of 57,641 compounds and a biophysical screen of 3,141 compounds, we identified 22 compounds that bound to either the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and/or the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (SARS-CoV-2 spike protein RBD). Nine of these drugs were identified by both screening methods. Three of the identified compounds, Evans blue, sodium lifitegrast, and lumacaftor, were found to inhibit viral replication in a Vero-E6 cell-based SARS-CoV-2 infection assay and may have utility as repurposed therapeutics. All 22 identified compounds provide scaffolds for the development of new chemical entities for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Attachment/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Aminopyridines/pharmacology , Animals , Benzodioxoles/pharmacology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Repositioning , Evans Blue/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phenylalanine/analogs & derivatives , Phenylalanine/pharmacology , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sulfones/pharmacology , Surface Plasmon Resonance , Vero Cells
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2890-e2897, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health problem that has already caused more than 662 000 deaths worldwide. Although the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are dominated by respiratory symptoms, some patients present other severe damage such as cardiovascular, renal and liver injury, and/or multiple organ failure, suggesting a spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in blood. Recent ultrasensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology now allows absolute quantification of nucleic acids in plasma. We intend to use the droplet-based digital PCR technology to obtain sensitive detection and precise quantification of plasma SARS-CoV-2 viral load (SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Fifty-eight consecutive COVID-19 patients with pneumonia 8 to 12 days after onset of symptoms and 12 healthy controls were analyzed. Disease severity was categorized as mild to moderate in 17 patients, severe in 16, and critical in 26. Plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia was quantified by droplet digital Crystal Digital PCR next-generation technology (Stilla Technologies, Villejuif, France). RESULTS: Overall, SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia was detected in 43 (74.1%) patients. Prevalence of positive SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia correlated with disease severity, ranging from 53% in mild-to-moderate patients to 88% in critically ill patients (P = .036). Levels of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia were associated with severity (P = .035). Among 9 patients who experienced clinical deterioration during follow-up, 8 had positive SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia at baseline, whereas only 1 critical patient with undetectable SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia at the time of analysis died at day 27. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia measured by droplet-based digital PCR constitutes a promising prognosis biomarker in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness , Humans , RNA, Viral , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 21(4): 541-552, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496791

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has caused global public health issues after being reported for the first time in Wuhan province of China. So far, there have been approximately 14.8 million confirmed cases and 0.614 million deaths due to the SARS-CoV-2 infection globally, and still, numbers are increasing. Although the virus has caused a global public health concern, no effective treatment has been developed. OBJECTIVE: One of the strategies to combat the COVID-19 disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 is the development of vaccines that can make humans immune to these infections. Considering this approach, in this study, an attempt has been made to design epitope-based vaccine for combatting COVID-19 disease by analyzing the complete proteome of the virus by using immuno-informatics tools. METHODS: The protein sequence of the SARS-CoV-2 was retrieved and the individual proteins were checked for their allergic potential. Then, from non-allergen proteins, antigenic epitopes were identified that could bind with MHCII molecules. The epitopes were modeled and docked to predict the interaction with MHCII molecules. The stability of the epitope-MHCII complex was further analyzed by performing a molecular dynamics simulation study. The selected vaccine candidates were also analyzed for their global population coverage and conservancy among SARS-related coronavirus species. RESULTS: The study has predicted 5 peptide molecules that can act as potential candidates for epitope- based vaccine development. Among the 5 selected epitopes, the peptide LRARSVSPK can be the most potent epitope because of its high geometric shape complementarity score, low ACE and very high response towards it by the world population (81.81% global population coverage). Further, molecular dynamic simulation analysis indicated the formation of a stable epitope-MHCII complex. The epitope LRARSVSPK was also found to be highly conserved among the SARS-CoV- -2 isolated from different countries. CONCLUSION: The study has predicted T-cell epitopes that can elicit a robust immune response in the global human population and act as potential vaccine candidates. However, the ability of these epitopes to act as vaccine candidate needs to be validated in wet lab studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
17.
Health Inf Sci Syst ; 9(1): 11, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375014

ABSTRACT

Kawasaki Disease is a vasculitis syndrome that is extremely harmful to children. Kawasaki Disease can cause severe symptoms of ischemic heart disease or develop into ischemic heart disease, leading to death in children. Researchers and clinicians need to analyze various knowledge and data resources to explore aspects of Kawasaki Disease. Knowledge Graphs have become an important AI approach to integrating various types of complex knowledge and data resources. In this paper, we present an approach for the construction of Knowledge Graphs of Kawasaki Disease. It integrates a wide range of knowledge resources related to Kawasaki Disease, including clinical guidelines, clinical trials, drug knowledge bases, medical literature, and others. It provides a basic integration foundation of knowledge and data concerning Kawasaki Disease for clinical study. In this paper, we will show that this disease-specific Knowledge Graphs are useful for exploring various aspects of Kawasaki Disease.

18.
Phytother Res ; 35(9): 4988-5006, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432473

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus, responsible for COVID-19, spread rapidly worldwide and became a pandemic in 2020. In some patients, the virus remains in the respiratory tract, causing pneumonia, respiratory failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and sepsis, leading to death. Natural flavonoids (aglycone and glycosides) possess broad biological activities encompassing antiinflammatory, antiviral, antitumoral, antiallergic, antiplatelet, and antioxidant effects. While many studies have focused on the effects of natural flavonoids in experimental models, reports based on clinical trials are still insufficient. In this review, we highlight the effects of flavonoids in controlling pulmonary diseases, particularly the acute respiratory distress syndrome, a consequence of COVID-19, and their potential use in coronavirus-related diseases. Furthermore, we also focus on establishing a relationship between biological potential and chemical aspects of related flavonoids and discuss several possible mechanisms of action, pointing out some possible effects on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Flavonoids , Lung Injury , COVID-19/complications , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Lung Injury/drug therapy , Lung Injury/virology , Pandemics
19.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 52-61, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436195

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the declaration of COVID-19 by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as a global pandemic on 11th March 2020, the number of deaths continue to increase worldwide. Reports on its pathologic manifestations have been published with very few from the Sub-Saharan African region. This article reports autopsies on COVID-19 patients from the Ga-East and the 37 Military Hospitals to provide pathological evidence for better understanding of COVID-19 in Ghana. METHODS: Under conditions required for carrying out autopsies on bodies infected with category three infectious agents, with few modifications, complete autopsies were performed on twenty patients with ante-mortem and/or postmortem RT -PCR confirmed positive COVID-19 results, between April and June, 2020. RESULTS: There were equal proportion of males and females. Thirteen (65%) of the patients were 55years or older with the same percentage (65%) having Type II diabetes and/or hypertension. The most significant pathological feature found at autopsy was diffuse alveolar damage. Seventy per cent (14/20) had associated thromboemboli in the lungs, kidneys and the heart. Forty per cent (6/15) of the patients that had negative results for COVID-19 by the nasopharyngeal swab test before death had positive results during postmortem using bronchopulmonary specimen. At autopsy all patients were identified to have pre-existing medical conditions. CONCLUSION: Diffuse alveolar damage was a key pathological feature of deaths caused by COVID-19 in all cases studied with hypertension and diabetes mellitus being major risk factors. Individuals without co-morbidities were less likely to die or suffer severe disease from SARS-CoV-2. FUNDING: None declared.


Subject(s)
Autopsy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/pathology , Hospitals, Military/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Municipal/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , Risk Factors
20.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(8): 1184-1191, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433936

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have been highlighted as important risk factors for COVID-19 mortality. However, insufficient data exist on the wider context of infectious diseases in people with NCDs. We aimed to investigate the association between NCDs and the risk of death from any infection before the COVID-19 pandemic (up to Dec 31, 2019). METHODS: For this observational study, we used data from the UK Biobank observational cohort study to explore factors associated with infection death. We excluded participants if data were missing for comorbidities, body-mass index, smoking status, ethnicity, and socioeconomic deprivation, and if they were lost to follow-up or withdrew consent. Deaths were censored up to Dec 31, 2019. We used Poisson regression models including NCDs present at recruitment to the UK Biobank (obesity [defined by use of body-mass index] and self-reported hypertension, chronic heart disease, chronic respiratory disease, diabetes, cancer, chronic liver disease, chronic kidney disease, previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack, other neurological disease, psychiatric disorder, and chronic inflammatory and autoimmune rheumatological disease), age, sex, ethnicity, smoking status, and socioeconomic deprivation. Separate models were constructed with individual NCDs replaced by the total number of prevalent NCDs to define associations with multimorbidity. All analyses were repeated with non-infection-related death as an alternate outcome measure to establish differential associations of infection death and non-infection death. Associations are reported as incidence rate ratios (IRR) accompanied by 95% CIs. FINDINGS: After exclusion of 9210 (1·8%) of the 502 505 participants in the UK Biobank cohort, our study sample comprised 493 295 individuals. During 5 273 731 person-years of follow-up (median 10·9 years [IQR 10·1-11·6] per participant), 27 729 deaths occurred, of which 1385 (5%) were related to infection. Advancing age, male sex, smoking, socioeconomic deprivation, and all studied NCDs were independently associated with the rate of both infection death and non-infection death. Compared with White ethnicity, a pooled Black, Asian, and minority ethnicity group was associated with a reduced risk of infection death (IRR 0·64, 95% CI 0·46-0·87) and non-infection death (0·80, 0·75-0·86). Stronger associations with infection death than with non-infection death were observed for advancing age (age 65 years vs 45 years: 7·59, 95% CI 5·92-9·73, for infection death vs 5·21, 4·97-5·48, for non-infection death), current smoking (vs never smoking: 3·69, 3·19-4·26, vs 2·52, 2·44-2·61), socioeconomic deprivation (most vs least deprived quintile: 2·13, 1·78-2·56, vs 1·38, 1·33-1·43), class 3 obesity (vs non-obese: 2·21, 1·74-2·82, vs 1·55, 1·44-1·66), hypertension (1·36, 1·22-1·53, vs 1·15, 1·12-1·18), respiratory disease (2·21, 1·96-2·50, vs 1·28, 1·24-1·32), chronic kidney disease (5·04, 4·28-7·31, vs 2·50, 2·20-2·84), psychiatric disease (1·56, 1·30-1·86, vs 1·23, 1·18-1·29), and chronic inflammatory and autoimmune rheumatological disease (2·45, 1·99-3·02, vs 1·41, 1·32-1·51). Accrual of multimorbidity was also more strongly associated with risk of infection death (five or more comorbidities vs none: 9·53, 6·97-13·03) than of non-infection death (5·26, 4·84-5·72). INTERPRETATION: Several NCDs are associated with an increased risk of infection death, suggesting that some of the reported associations with COVID-19 mortality might be non-specific. Only a subset of NCDs, together with the accrual of multimorbidity, advancing age, smoking, and socioeconomic deprivation, were associated with a greater IRR for infection death than for other causes of death. Further research is needed to define why these risk factors are more strongly associated with infection death, so that more effective preventive strategies can be targeted to high-risk groups. FUNDING: British Heart Foundation.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19/etiology , Noncommunicable Diseases , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
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