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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(6): 2748-2751, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173126

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by SARS-COV 2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus) that has become a global pandemic. COVID-19 mainly causes the respiratory complications of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), cytokine storm, and severe immune disruptions. The assays depict that though people recuperate from COVID-19, there are still symptoms that persists in the body causing discomfort, which is the consequence of the viral infection due to severe immune disruptions. Upon various difficulties of post COVID-19, the pulmonary fibrosis is the stumbling block in the lungs causing severe damage. In this review, we have shown the effectiveness and importance of the Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) secreted by Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) therapy on selective stoppage of the Transforming Growth Factor-Beta (TGF-ß) signalling pathway by causing immunomodulatory effects that ameliorate the pulmonary fibrosis through paracrine signalling. However, more pilot studies have to be carried out to determine the efficacy and outcomes of the re-emerging complication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Global Health , Humans , Pulmonary Fibrosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e038204, 2020 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148165

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia is one of the leading complications and causes of death after a spinal cord injury (SCI). After a cervical or thoracic lesion, impairment of the respiratory muscles decreases respiratory function, which increases the risk of respiratory complications. Pneumonia substantially reduces patient's quality of life, may prolong inpatient rehabilitation time, increase healthcare costs or at worse, lead to early death. Respiratory function and coughing can be improved through various interventions after SCI, but the available evidence as to which aspect of respiratory care should be optimised is inconclusive. Furthermore, ability of respiratory function parameters to predict pneumonia risk is insufficiently established. This paper details the protocol for a large-scale, multicentre research project that aims to evaluate the ability of parameters of respiratory function to predict and understand variation in inpatient risk of pneumonia in SCI. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: RESCOM, a prospective cohort study, began recruitment in October 2016 across 10 SCI rehabilitation centres from Australia, Austria, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland. Inpatients with acute SCI, with complete or incomplete cervical or thoracic lesions, 18 years or older and not/no more dependent on 24-hour mechanical ventilation within the first 3 months after injury are eligible for inclusion. The target sample size is 500 participants. The primary outcome is an occurrence of pneumonia; secondary outcomes include pneumonia-related mortality and quality of life. We will use the longitudinal data for prognostic models on inpatient pneumonia risk factors. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been reviewed and approved by all local ethics committees of all participating centres. Study results will be disseminated to the scientific community through peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations, to the SCI community, other stakeholders and via social media, newsletters and engagement activities. TRIAL REGISTRATION DETAILS: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02891096.


Subject(s)
Spinal Cord Injuries , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Developed Countries , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Spinal Cord Injuries/complications , Spinal Cord Injuries/epidemiology
3.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 629549, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120412

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused overwhelming challenges in healthcare worldwide. During such an outbreak, some needs of high-risk groups who require regular follow-ups and long-term management are not met. The vulnerable populations include patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Duchenne muscular dystrophy is characterized by respiratory complications caused by muscle weakness. Hence, patients with this condition are at high risk of severe diseases including COVID-19. Methods: To standardize care and provide optimal treatment to DMD patients in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic, a panel of experts including neurologists and pediatricians consolidated recommendations for healthcare professionals and caregivers. Results: During this pandemic, substituting unnecessary clinic visits with virtual clinic services was highly recommended, if possible, without compromising clinical outcomes. Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients with respiratory complications should be closely monitored, and those with cardiovascular complications must continue taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. Moreover, individualized home-based rehabilitation management was preferred. Glucocorticoid and new gene correction therapies should be continued. However, new gene correction therapy must be post-poned in newly diagnosed patients. A multidisciplinary decision was required before the initiation of hydroxychloroquine based on the COVID-19 treatment protocol. Conclusion: COVID-19 has caused challenges and transformed access to health care. However, these limitations have provided opportunities for the health care system to adapt. Further, telemedicine has become a reliable platform for follow-up appointments that should be conducted by a multidisciplinary team including physicians, dieticians, and physical therapists.

4.
Cureus ; 13(1): e12967, 2021 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115541

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel disease with various complications involving different organ systems caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. While the respiratory complications associated with COVID-19 have been well publicized, our understanding of the nonpulmonary complications of COVID-19 is lacking. Herein we present a case of a middle-aged woman who developed myopericarditis, pericardial effusion, and tamponade in the setting of COVID-19 infection.

5.
FEBS J ; 289(4): 883-900, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099705

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia is a serious complication associated with inflammation of the lungs due to infection with viral pathogens. Seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses, variola virus (agent of smallpox) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; agent of COVID-19) are some leading examples. Viral pneumonia is triggered by excessive inflammation associated with dysregulated cytokine production, termed 'cytokine storm'. Several cytokines have been implicated but tumour necrosis factor (TNF) plays a critical role in driving lung inflammation, severe lung pathology and death. Despite this, the exact role TNF plays in the aetiology and pathogenesis of virus infection-induced respiratory complications is not well understood. In this review, we discuss the pathological and immunomodulatory roles of TNF in contributing to immunopathology and resolution of lung inflammation, respectively, in mouse models of influenza- and smallpox (mousepox)-induced pneumonia. We review studies that have investigated dampening of inflammation on the outcome of severe influenza and orthopoxvirus infections. Most studies on the influenza model have evaluated the efficacy of treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs, including anti-TNF agents, in animal models on the day of viral infection. We question the merits of those studies as they are not transferable to the clinic given that individuals generally present at a hospital only after the onset of disease symptoms and not on the day of infection. We propose that research should be directed at determining whether dampening lung inflammation after the onset of disease symptoms will reduce morbidity and mortality. Such a treatment strategy will be more relevant clinically.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
6.
Ann Surg ; 273(1): 34-40, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082368

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the perioperative morbidity and mortality of patients with COVID-19 who undergo urgent and emergent surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Although COVID-19 infection is usually associated with mild disease, it can lead to severe respiratory complications. Little is known about the perioperative outcomes of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We examined patients who underwent urgent and emergent surgery at 2 hospitals in New York City from March 17 to April 15, 2020. Elective surgical procedures were cancelled throughout and routine, laboratory based COVID-19 screening was instituted on April 1. Mortality, complications, and admission to the intensive care unit were compared between patients with COVID-19 detected perioperatively and controls. RESULTS: Among 468 subjects, 36 (7.7%) had confirmed COVID-19. Among those with COVID-19, 55.6% were detected preoperatively and 44.4% postoperatively. Before the routine preoperative COVID-19 laboratory screening, 7.7% of cases were diagnosed preoperatively compared to 65.2% after institution of screening (P = 0.0008). The perioperative mortality rate was 16.7% in those with COVID-19 compared to 1.4% in COVID-19 negative subjects [aRR = 9.29; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.68-15.21]. Serious complications were identified in 58.3% of COVID-19 subjects versus 6.0% of controls (aRR = 7.02; 95%CI, 4.96-9.92). Cardiac arrest, sepsis/shock, respiratory failure, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and acute kidney injury were more common in those with COVID-19. The intensive care unit admission rate was 36.1% in those with COVID-19 compared to 16.4% of controls (aRR = 1.34; 95%CI, 0.86-2.09). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk for serious perioperative morbidity and mortality. A substantial number of patients with COVID-19 are not identified until after surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Procedures, Operative/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Morbidity/trends , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate/trends , United States/epidemiology
7.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(2)2021 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067768

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 may lead to serious respiratory complications which may necessitate ventilatory support. There is concern surrounding potential release of patient-derived bioaerosol during nebuliser drug refill, which could impact the health of caregivers. Consequently, mesh nebulisers have been recommended by various clinical practice guidelines. Currently, there is a lack of empirical data describing the potential for release of patient-derived bioaerosol during drug refill. This study examined the release of simulated patient-derived bioaerosol, and the effect on positive end expiratory pressure during nebuliser refill during mechanical ventilation of a simulated patient. During jet nebuliser refill, the positive end expiratory pressure decreased from 4.5 to 0 cm H2O. No loss in pressure was noted during vibrating mesh nebuliser refill. A median particle number concentration of 710 particles cm-3 above ambient was detected when refilling the jet nebuliser in comparison to no increase above ambient detected when using the vibrating mesh nebuliser. The jet nebuliser with the endotracheal tube clamped resulted in 60 particles cm-3 above ambient levels. This study confirms that choice of nebuliser impacts both the potential for patient-derived bioaerosol release and the ability to maintain ventilator circuit pressures and validates the recommended use of mesh nebulisers during mechanical ventilation.

8.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(1)2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1031119

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is affecting many countries all around the world. Unfortunately, no treatment has already been approved for the management of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. It seems that SARS-CoV-2 can induce the activation of an exaggerated immune response against itself according to different mechanisms that are not really well known. Inflammatory interleukins, such as IL-6 among others, play a central role in this uncontrolled immune response. There is a strong rational under ibrutinib use in in the treatment of immune-based diseases, such a as GVHD or RA. Ibrutinib achieves a reduction in the production of TNFα, IL1, IL-6 and Monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by neutrophils and macrophages, that are key players in keeping the inflammatory process. We present our clinical experience about ibrutinib use in ARDS secondary to SARS-CoV-2 in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).

9.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(5): 1875-1893, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012249

ABSTRACT

Although COVID-19 largely causes respiratory complications, it can also lead to various extrapulmonary manifestations resulting in higher mortality and these comorbidities are posing a challenge to the health care system. Reports indicate that 30-60% of patients with COVID-19 suffer from neurological symptoms. To understand the molecular basis of the neurologic comorbidity in COVID-19 patients, we have investigated the genetic association between COVID-19 and various brain disorders through a systems biology-based network approach and observed a remarkable resemblance. Our results showed 123 brain-related disorders associated with COVID-19 and form a high-density disease-disease network. The brain-disease-gene network revealed five highly clustered modules demonstrating a greater complexity of COVID-19 infection. Moreover, we have identified 35 hub proteins of the network which were largely involved in the protein catabolic process, cell cycle, RNA metabolic process, and nuclear transport. Perturbing these hub proteins by drug repurposing will improve the clinical conditions in comorbidity. In the near future, we assumed that in COVID-19 patients, many other neurological manifestations will likely surface. Thus, understanding the infection mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 and associated comorbidity is a high priority to contain its short- and long-term effects on human health. Our network-based analysis strengthens the understanding of the molecular basis of the neurological manifestations observed in COVID-19 and also suggests drug for repurposing.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Regulatory Networks , SARS-CoV-2 , Genetic Association Studies , Humans , Systems Biology
10.
BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med ; 6(1): e000849, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-901369

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic is a global health matter. The disease spread rapidly across the globe and brought the world of sports to an unprecedented stoppage. Usual symptoms of the disease are fever, cough, myalgia, fatigue, slight dyspnoea, sore throat and headache. In more severe cases, dyspnoea, hypoxaemia, respiratory failure, shock and multiorgan failure occur. This appears to be a self-limiting phenomenon related to individuals with coexisting medical conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Nevertheless, cases have been reported in professional soccer players in extremely good fitness condition, demonstrating that athletes are not spared by the disease. Despite COVID-19 clinical manifestations are mainly respiratory, major cardiac complications are being reported, leading to acute myocarditis. One difficulty is that symptoms of COVID-19 vary among individuals, with athletes being affected with no apparent sign of the disease. This could be a real danger for amateur or professional athletes when returning to their usual training and thus to play. Another threat is that the lock-down policies did not allow most athletes to follow their usual training routines. There is thus a need for a careful approach by the sports medicine community to ensure safety of all athletes before they return to sport. Here, we propose evaluation guidelines of fitness and health of athletes to (1) reduce any lethal risk of practice, especially myocarditis and sudden cardiac death; (2) evaluate the combined consequences of the disease and detraining on the physical abilities and biological profile of athletes; and (3) monitor postinfection fatigue symptoms.

11.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e925586, 2020 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892530

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND In early 2020, severe acute respiratory syndrome-corona virus 2 caused an outbreak of a viral pneumonia that rapidly progressed to a global pandemic. Most cases presented with mild respiratory symptoms and required only supportive care with instructions to self-quarantine at home. Others had more severe symptoms that became complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and required hospitalization. CASE REPORT In this report, we present the case of a young patient in New York City who presented to our hospital with coronavirus disease 2019-induced diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) that progressed to ARDS and subsequent death. The patient was managed for DKA on presentation with insulin protocol and acidosis management. However, it became evident that he had underlying respiratory complications, which later presented as ARDS requiring mechanical ventilation and antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS We recommend that clinicians be aware of this potentially fatal complication in all patients with pre-existing diabetes. Simultaneously, a low threshold for intubation should be advocated for patients with concurrent COVID-19 and type I diabetes mellitus since the potential for poor clinical outcomes from respiratory demise may be lessened by early respiratory intervention.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Obesity/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
12.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(1): 20-23, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-878470

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the impact of obesity on nonrespiratory complications in patients dying with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS: Medical charts of 3,694 of patients dying with COVID-19 in Italy were reviewed to extract information on demographics, preexisting comorbidities, and in-hospital complications leading to death. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to assess the association of obesity with nonrespiratory complications. These analyses were adjusted for age, gender, and number of preexisting comorbidities. RESULTS: Obesity was present in 411/3,694 (11.1%) patients dying with COVID-19. Obesity was significantly associated with increased probability of experiencing acute renal failure (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% CI: 1.04-1.71) and shock (adjusted OR, 1.54; 95% CI: 1.19-1.99). The associations of obesity with acute renal failure and shock were stronger in patients aged < 60 years (adjusted OR, 2.00; 95% CI: 1.09-3.67 and OR, 2.37; 95% CI 1.29-4.36) than in those aged 60 years or older (adjusted OR, 1.20; 95% CI: 0.90-1.60 and OR, 1.22; 95% CI: 0.91-1.65). CONCLUSIONS: In patients dying with COVID-19 in Italy, obesity is associated with an increased probability of nonrespiratory complications, particularly shock and acute renal failure. These associations seem stronger in younger than in older adults. Strategies should be put in place in patients with COVID-19 with obesity to prevent these complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Obesity/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Spinal Cord Ser Cases ; 6(1): 87, 2020 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779971

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Respiratory complications (RC) are a leading cause of death after spinal cord injury (SCI) due to compromised immune function and respiratory muscle weakness. Thus, individuals with SCI are at high risk of developing COVID-19 related RC. Results of a SCI clinical trial showed a supervised respiratory muscle training (RMT) program decreased risk of developing RC. The feasibility of conducting unsupervised RMT is not well documented. Four publications (n = 117) were identified in which unsupervised RMT was performed. Significant improvements in respiratory outcomes were reported in two studies: Maximal Inspiratory and Expiratory Pressure (MIP40% and MEP25%, respectively), Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF9%), seated and supine Forced Vital Capacity (FVC23% and 26%, respectively), and Peak Cough Flow (28%). This review and case report will attempt to show that an inspiratory muscle training (IMT) home exercise program (HEP) is feasible and may prepare the respiratory system for RC associated with COVID-19 in patients with SCI. CASE PRESENTATION: A 23-year-old with tetraplegia (P1), history of mechanical ventilation, and hospitalization for RC, completed 27 IMT HEP sessions in one month. MIP and sustained MIP (SMIP) increased from baseline by 28% and 26.5%, respectively. Expiratory volumes and rates also improved (FVC, FEV1, and PEF: 11.7%, 8.3%, and 14.2%, respectively). DISCUSSION: The effects of COVID-19 on patients with SCI remains inconclusive, but recent literature and the results of this case suggest that unsupervised IMT is feasible and may limit the severity of RC in patients with SCI who contract COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Breathing Exercises/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Inhalation/physiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Spinal Cord Injuries/therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Quadriplegia/complications , Quadriplegia/physiopathology , Quadriplegia/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spinal Cord Injuries/complications , Spinal Cord Injuries/physiopathology , Young Adult
14.
Arch Pediatr ; 27(8): 509-510, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753925

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a new disease leading to respiratory complications in adults. Children appear to have more modest symptoms than adults. Varicella is often described as a benign disease in the pediatric population. However, patients with varicella and COVID-19 co-infection can develop a more serious respiratory infection. We report the case of an infant who had a co-infection with both viruses that led to pleuropneumonia. The main question in the present case concerns the link between COVID-19 and varicella infection, and the possible modulation in immune response due to the two virus infections.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Chickenpox/diagnosis , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pleuropneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coinfection/virology , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Pleuropneumonia/virology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol ; 27(S Pt 1): e14-e25, 2020 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638400

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 disease is the most recent pandemic, since it has affected more than four and a half million people and caused more than 300,000 deaths. It is a very complex systemic disease in terms of pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis. Pharmacological treatment may include antiviral and antimalarial drugs, antibiotics, monoclonal antibodies, corticosteroids as well as low-molecular-weight heparins to prevent the evolution of the disease from reaching the severe inflammatory phase that can lead to respiratory complications, multiple organ failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and finally death. Therefore, pending the development of the much sought-after vaccine, there needs to be a multidisciplinary approach to tackling this disease, and it is essential to use different medical treatments at the correct pathogenic moment. The aim of this article is to evaluate the rationale and reason behind the use of antirheumatic drugs, by expert point of view, in the various phases of the disease. Another important aspect in the management of the disease is to identify patients at high risk, both to change their lifestyle and to correct the state of their health through non-pharmacological measures for improving their immuno-balance. Our literature review reveals the important role and the therapeutic potential of antirheumatic agents in preventing the progression of the disease and aiding recovery from the disease. However, there is a lack of clinical evidence to support the use of these agents, indicating that further randomized controlled studies are required.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology
16.
Sisli Etfal Hastan Tip Bul ; 54(2): 132-135, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-631227

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) arises from the virus SARS-CoV-2 which is similar to the original SARS virus. The most common symptoms of the COVID-19 infection are fever, coughing and shortness of breath. According to the current data, the primary mode of transmission for the COVID-19 virus is between people through respiratory droplets and contact routes. The virus may lead to worse respiratory complications, including pneumonia, especially in older patients and patients with pre-existing illnesses, such as cancer. Cancer patients are at a significantly higher risk of getting infected with COVID-19 since their immune system can be compromised and that reality has to do with both that they have cancer and that they are on therapy for their cancer. COVID-19 crisis has impacted every aspect of the practice, including outpatient, elective, wards, emergency care, conferences, teaching and research. We should make sure cancer patients on active treatment are treated appropriately. In this review, we tried to explain how to prevent the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer patients.

17.
Korean Circ J ; 50(7): 543-554, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616434

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide. Not just respiratory complications such as pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, cardiac manifestations have drawn attention due to the increased risk of mortality and morbidity related to SARS-CoV-2 infections. The mechanisms of the cardiac injury related to SARS-CoV-2 infections have been direct cardiac injury caused by angiotensin converting enzyme 2, hypoxemia, microvascular damage, and a systemic inflammatory response. Stress induced cardiomyopathy in a critically ill condition and acute coronary syndrome due to a vulnerable plaque rupture with coagulopathy can finally lead to acute heart failure with further cardiac manifestations. When dealing with the highly contagious viral disease-related cardiac manifestations, we should carefully apply the diagnostic and therapeutic methods to achieve the best therapeutic results without adding any risk of disease transmission.

18.
Clin Transl Radiat Oncol ; 24: 29-33, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-598827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a highly contagious viral infection with high morbidity that is draining health resources. The biggest complication is pneumonia, which has a serious inflammatory component, with no standardized treatment. Low-dose radiation therapy (LD-RT) is non-invasive and has anti-inflammatory effects that can interfere with the inflammatory cascade, thus reducing the severity of associated cytokine release and might be useful in the treatment of respiratory complications caused by COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This multicentric prospective clinical trial seeks to evaluate the efficacy of bilateral lung LD-RT therapy as a treatment for interstitial pneumonia in patients with COVID-19 for improving respiratory function.This prospective study will have 2 phases: I) an exploratory phase enrolling 10 patients, which will assess the feasibility and efficacy of low-dose lung irradiation, evaluated according to an increase in the PaO2/FiO2 ratio of at least 20% at 48-72 h with respect to the pre-irradiation value. If a minimum efficiency of 30% of the patients is not achieved, the study will not be continued. II) Non-randomized comparative phase in two groups: a control group, which will only receive pharmacological treatment, and an experimental arm with pharmacological treatment and LD-RT. It will include 96 patients, the allocation will be 1: 2, that is, 32 in the control arm and 64 in the experimental arm. The primary end-point will be the efficacy of LD-RT in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia according to an improvement in PaO2/FiO2. Secondary objectives will include the safety of bilateral lung LD-RT, an improvement in the radiology image, overall mortality rates at 15 and 30 days after irradiation and characterizing anti-inflammatory mechanisms of LD-RT by measuring the level of expression of adhesion molecules, anti-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress mediators.Trial registration: ClinicalTrial.gov NCT-04380818 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04380818?term=RADIOTHERAPY&cond=COVID&draw=2&rank=4.

20.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 75(9): 1796-1800, 2020 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aim of the present study is to describe characteristics of COVID-19-related deaths and to compare the clinical phenotype and course of COVID-19-related deaths occurring in adults (<65 years) and older adults (≥65 years). METHOD: Medical charts of 3,032 patients dying with COVID-19 in Italy (368 aged < 65 years and 2,664 aged ≥65 years) were revised to extract information on demographics, preexisting comorbidities, and in-hospital complications leading to death. RESULTS: Older adults (≥65 years) presented with a higher number of comorbidities compared to those aged <65 years (3.3 ± 1.9 vs 2.5 ± 1.8, p < .001). Prevalence of ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, stroke, hypertension, dementia, COPD, and chronic renal failure was higher in older patients (≥65 years), while obesity, chronic liver disease, and HIV infection were more common in younger adults (<65 years); 10.9% of younger patients (<65 years) had no comorbidities, compared to 3.2% of older patients (≥65 years). The younger adults had a higher rate of non-respiratory complications than older patients, including acute renal failure (30.0% vs 20.6%), acute cardiac injury (13.5% vs 10.3%), and superinfections (30.9% vs 9.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals dying with COVID-19 present with high levels of comorbidities, irrespective of age group, but a small proportion of deaths occur in healthy adults with no preexisting conditions. Non-respiratory complications are common, suggesting that the treatment of respiratory conditions needs to be combined with strategies to prevent and mitigate the effects of non-respiratory complications.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Dementia , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Age Factors , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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