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2.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(1): JC2, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526979

ABSTRACT

SOURCE CITATION: Lamontagne F, Agoritsas T, Macdonald H, et al. A living WHO guideline on drugs for covid-19. BMJ. 2020;370:m3379. 32887691.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Betacoronavirus , Critical Illness , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
3.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-10, 2021 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525624

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been shown to detrimentally affect eating disorder symptoms, including increased dietary restriction and increased binge eating. However, research in this area is thus far limited. Additionally, as a result of the pandemic, many eating disorder treatments have converted to tele-health platforms, however, little is known about patient perceptions of this modality. The aim of the present, exploratory study was to qualitatively examine: (1) The impact of COVID-19 on binge eating spectrum disorder symptoms (2) Patient perceptions of tele-therapy, and (3) Ways to address COVID-19 in eating disorder treatment. Data were collected through one-on-one, semi-structured interviews (N = 11), conducted as part of a mid-program assessment for those undergoing individual, outpatient therapy for binge eating spectrum disorders. After thematic analysis, it was identified that patients reported both symptom deterioration and improvement during COVID-19. Factors surrounding social distancing and stay-at-home measures were found to both improve and worsen symptoms for different patients. Further, patients reported positive perceptions of tele-therapy, particularly appreciating the convenience of this modality. Finally, patients provided variable feedback on the incorporation of COVID-related concerns into their eating disorder treatment, with some participants wishing for this inclusion, and others viewing COVID-19 and their eating disorder as separate issues. Findings from the present study preliminarily identify ways in which binge eating spectrum disorder symptoms may have improved due to COVID-19 and indicate positive patient perceptions of tele-therapy. Our results may be used to inform the adaptation of future eating disorder treatment during COVID-19.

4.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(4): 999-1006, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525574

ABSTRACT

A high incidence of thrombosis in hospitalised patients with COVID-19 was identified early during the pandemic. Accurately quantifying thrombotic risk may assist prognosis and guide appropriate thromboprophylaxis. Observational studies have estimated the rate of thrombosis in both hospitalised and non-hospitalised patients with COVID-19, and how this corresponds to the severity of illness. In this review, we provide an overview of the incidence and prevalence of arterial and venous thrombotic events in patients with COVID-19 and highlight the limitations in the studies to date. Asymptomatic individuals with COVID-19 and those with mild symptoms are at very low risk of thrombotic complications. However, rates of thrombosis are substantially increased in hospitalised patients, and are strikingly high in those patients who are critically-ill requiring treatment on the intensive care unit and especially those requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Clinicians managing such patients need to be aware of these risks and take appropriate steps with respect to thromboprophylaxis and heightened clinical vigilance. Large prospective observational studies will more accurately quantify thrombotic rate, and randomized controlled trials are currently investigating optimal thromboprophylactic strategies.

5.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526837

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has placed a significant burden on hospitals worldwide. Objective biomarkers for early risk stratification and clinical management are still lacking. The aim of this work was to determine whether bioactive adrenomedullin can assist in the risk stratification and clinical management of critically ill COVID-19 patients. Fifty-three patients with confirmed COVID-19 were included in this prospective observational cohort study between March and April 2020. Bioactive adrenomedullin (bio-ADM) plasma concentration was measured daily for seven days after admission. The prognostic value and clinical significance of bio-ADM plasma levels were evaluated for the severity of respiratory failure, the need for extracorporeal organ support and outcome (28-day mortality). Bio-ADM levels increased with the severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS; p < 0.001) and were significantly elevated in invasively ventilated patients (p = 0.006) and patients in need of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (p = 0.040) or renal replacement therapy (RRT; p < 0.001) compared to patients without these conditions. Non-survivors showed significantly higher bio-ADM levels than survivors (p = 0.010). Bio-ADM levels predicted 28-day mortality (C-index 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.56-0.87, p < 0.001). Bio-ADM plasma levels correlate with disease severity, the need for extracorporeal organ assistance, and outcome, and highlight the promising value of bio-ADM in the early risk stratification and management of patients with COVID-19.

6.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526833

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The in-hospital management of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) changed early in the COVID-19 pandemic. Routine in-hospital controls of CIEDs were converted into remote home monitoring (HM). The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of the lockdown period on CIEDs patients and its influence on in-hospital admissions through the analysis of HM data. METHODS: We analysed data recorded from 312 patients with HM during the national quarantine related to COVID-19 and then compared data from the same period of 2019. RESULTS: We observed a reduction in the number of HM events in 2020 when compared to 2019. Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia episodes decreased (18.3% vs. 9.9% p = 0.002) as well as atrial fibrillation episodes (29.2% vs. 22.4% p = 0.019). In contrast, heart failure (HF) alarm activation was lower in 2019 than in 2020 (17% vs. 25.3% p = 0.012). Hospital admissions for critical events recorded with CIEDs dropped in 2020, including those for HF. CONCLUSIONS: HM, combined with telemedicine use, has ensured the surveillance of CIED patients. In 2020, arrhythmic events and hospital admissions decreased significantly compared to 2019. Moreover, in 2020, patients with HF arrived in hospital in a worse clinical condition compared to previous months.

7.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526831

ABSTRACT

A clinical interpretation of the Randomized Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy (RECOVERY) study was performed to provide a useful tool to understand whether, when, and to whom dexamethasone should be administered during hospitalization for COVID-19. A post hoc analysis of data published in the preliminary report of the RECOVERY study was performed to calculate the person-based number needed to treat (NNT) and number needed to harm (NNH) of 6 mg dexamethasone once daily for up to 10 days vs. usual care with respect to mortality. At day 28, the NNT of dexamethasone vs. usual care was 36.0 (95%CI 24.9-65.1, p < 0.05) in all patients, 8.3 (95%CI 6.0-13.1, p < 0.05) in patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation, and 34.6 (95%CI 22.1-79.0, p < 0.05) in patients receiving oxygen only (with or without noninvasive ventilation). Dexamethasone increased mortality compared with usual care in patients not requiring oxygen supplementation, leading to a NNH value of 26.7 (95%CI 18.1-50.9, p < 0.05). NNT of dexamethasone vs. usual care was 17.3 (95%CI 14.9-20.6) in subjects <70 years, 27.0 (95%CI 18.5-49.8) in men, and 16.2 (95%CI 13.2-20.8) in patients in which the onset of symptoms was >7 days. Dexamethasone is effective in male subjects < 70 years that require invasive mechanical ventilation experiencing symptoms from >7 days and those patients receiving oxygen without invasive mechanical ventilation; it should be avoided in patients not requiring respiratory support.

8.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526828

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus-Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-outbreak correlated with the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was declared by the WHO in March 2020, resulting in numerous counted cases attributed to SARS-CoV-2 worldwide. Herein, we discuss current knowledge on the available therapy options for patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Based on available scientific data, we present an overview of solutions in COVID-19 management by use of drugs, vaccines and antibodies. Many questions with non-conclusive answers on the measures for the management of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on health still exist-i.e., the actual infection percentage of the population, updated precise mortality data, variability in response to infection by the population, the nature of immunity and its duration, vaccine development issues, a fear that science might end up with excessive promises in response to COVID-19-and were raised among scientists. Indeed, science may or may not deliver results in real time. In the presented paper we discuss some consequences of disease, its detection and serological tests, some solutions to disease prevention and management, pitfalls and obstacles, including vaccination. The presented ideas and data herein are meant to contribute to the ongoing debate on COVID-19 without pre-selection of available information.

9.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526827

ABSTRACT

Despite direct viral effect, the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) includes an overproduction of cytokines including interleukin 6 (IL-6). Therefore, tocilizumab (TOC), a monoclonal antibody against IL-6 receptors, was considered as a possible therapeutic option. Patients were selected from the SARSTer database, containing 2332 individuals with COVID-19. Current study included 825 adult patients with moderate to severe course. Analysis was performed in 170 patients treated with TOC and 655 with an alternative medication. The end-points of treatment effectiveness were death rate, need for mechanical ventilation, and clinical improvement. Patients treated with TOC were balanced compared to non-TOC regarding gender, age, BMI, and prevalence of coexisting conditions. Significant effect of TOC on death was demonstrated in patients with baseline IL-6 > 100 pg/mL (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.08-0.57). The best effectiveness of TOC was achieved in patients with a combination of baseline IL-6 > 100 pg/mL and either SpO2 ≤ 90% (HR: 0.07) or requiring oxygen supplementation (HR: 0.18). Tocilizumab administration in COVID-19 reduces mortality and speeds up clinical improvement in patients with a baseline concentration of IL-6 > 100 pg/mL, particularly if they need oxygen supplementation owing to the lower value of SpO2 ≤ 90%.

10.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526821

ABSTRACT

Comprehensive data on early prognostic indicators in patients with mild COVID-19 remains sparse. In this single center case series, we characterized the initial clinical presentation in 180 patients with mild COVID-19 and defined the earliest predictors of subsequent deterioration and need for hospitalization. Three broad patient phenotypes and four symptom clusters were characterized, differentiated by varying risk for adverse outcomes. Among 14 symptoms assessed, subjective shortness of breath (SOB) most strongly associated with adverse outcomes (odds ratio (OR) 21.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.7-166.4; p < 0.0001). In combination, SOB and number of comorbidities were highly predictive of subsequent hospitalization (area under the curve (AUC) 92%). Additionally, initial lymphopenia (OR 21.0, 95% CI: 2.1-210.1; p = 0.002) and male sex (OR 3.5, 95% CI: 0.9-13.0; p = 0.05) were associated with increased risk of poor outcomes. Patients with known comorbidities, especially multiple, and those presenting with subjective SOB or lymphopenia should receive close monitoring and consideration for preemptive treatment, even when presenting with mild symptoms.

11.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526820

ABSTRACT

In the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we aimed to evaluate the impact of anti-cytokine therapies (AT) in kidney transplant recipients requiring hospitalization due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. This is an observational retrospective study, which included patients from March to May 2020. An inverse probability of treatment weighting from a propensity score to receive AT was used in all statistical analyses, and we applied a bootstrap procedure in order to calculate an estimation of the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of odds ratio (OR). outcomes were measured using an ordinal scale determination (OSD). A total of 33 kidney recipients required hospitalization and 54% of them received at least one AT, mainly tocilizumab (42%), followed by anakinra (12%). There was no statistical effect in terms of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, respiratory secondary infections (35% vs. 7%) or mortality (16% vs. 13%) comparing patients that received AT with those who did not. Nevertheless, patients who received AT presented better outcomes during hospitalization in terms of OSD ≥5 ((OR 0.31; 2.5th, 97.5th percentiles (0.10; 0.72)). These analyses indicate, as a plausible hypothesis, that the use of AT in kidney transplant recipients presenting with COVID-19 could be beneficial, even though multicenter randomized control trials using these therapies in transplanted patients are needed.

12.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 645938, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526793

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 not only threatened the public's physical health but also brought unbearable psychological pressure, especially for those vulnerable groups like the elderly. However, studies on the psychological status of older adults during this public health emergency remained scant. This study aims to investigate the mental health status among the elderly Chinese population during COVID-19 pandemic and determine the influencing factors of psychological symptoms. Methods: From February 19 to March 19, 2020, an online survey was administered to Chinese older adults using a convenience sampling method. Information on demographic data, health status and other epidemic related factors were collected. Specifically, the study defined the psychological status as five primary disorder-depression, neurasthenia, fear, anxiety, and hypochondria-which were assessed by the Psychological Questionnaire for Emergent Event of Public Health (PQEEPH). Standard descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data. Results: Of 1,501 participants recruited from 31 provinces in China, 1,278 were valid for further analysis. Participants' scores on each sub-scale were described in median and interquartile [M(Q)]: depression [0.00 (0.33)], neurasthenia [0.00 (0.40)], fear [1.00 (0.83)], anxiety [0.00 (0.17)], hypochondria [0.00 (0.50)]. Chronic diseases (depression p = 0.001; neurasthenia p < 0.001; fear p = 0.023; anxiety p < 0.001; hypochondria p = 0.001) and the BMI index (depression p = 0.015; neurasthenia p = 0.046; fear p = 0.016; anxiety p = 0.015; hypochondria p = 0.013) had significant impacts on all of the five sub-scales. Specifically, the rural dwellers had a higher level of neurasthenia, fear, and hypochondria. Besides, education level (p = 0.035) and outbreak risk level (p = 0.004) had significant impacts on the depression. Higher household monthly income per capita (p = 0.031), and the community-level entry/exit control (p = 0.011) are factors against anxiety. Conclusions: Most elderly residents reported mild negative emotions during COVID-19 and more attention should be paid to the recognition and alleviation of fear. Our findings also identified factors associated with the mental health status of the elderly, which is of practical significance in the design and implementation of psychological interventions for this vulnerable population during COVID-19 and future emerging diseases.

13.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 652335, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526785

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It has a disastrous effect on mankind due to the contagious and rapid nature of its spread. Although vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 have been successfully developed, the proven, effective, and specific therapeutic molecules are yet to be identified for the treatment. The repurposing of existing drugs and recognition of new medicines are continuously in progress. Efforts are being made to single out plant-based novel therapeutic compounds. As a result, some of these biomolecules are in their testing phase. During these efforts, the whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 has given the direction to explore the omics systems and approaches to overcome this unprecedented health challenge globally. Genome, proteome, and metagenome sequence analyses have helped identify virus nature, thereby assisting in understanding the molecular mechanism, structural understanding, and disease propagation. The multi-omics approaches offer various tools and strategies for identifying potential therapeutic biomolecules for COVID-19 and exploring the plants producing biomolecules that can be used as biopharmaceutical products. This review explores the available multi-omics approaches and their scope to investigate the therapeutic promises of plant-based biomolecules in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection.

15.
Arch Dis Child ; 106(12): 1212-1217, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526461

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Children are relatively protected from COVID-19, due to a range of potential mechanisms. We investigated if contact with children also affords adults a degree of protection from COVID-19. DESIGN: Cohort study based on linked administrative data. SETTING: Scotland. STUDY POPULATION: All National Health Service Scotland healthcare workers and their household contacts as of March 2020. MAIN EXPOSURE: Number of young children (0-11 years) living in the participant's household. MAIN OUTCOMES: COVID-19 requiring hospitalisation, and any COVID-19 (any positive test for SARS-CoV-2) in adults aged ≥18 years between 1 March and 12 October 2020. RESULTS: 241 266, 41 198, 23 783 and 3850 adults shared a household with 0, 1, 2 and 3 or more young children, respectively. Over the study period, the risk of COVID-19 requiring hospitalisation was reduced progressively with increasing numbers of household children-fully adjusted HR (aHR) 0.93 per child (95% CI 0.79 to 1.10). The risk of any COVID-19 was similarly reduced, with the association being statistically significant (aHR per child 0.93; 95% CI 0.88 to 0.98). After schools reopened to all children in August 2020, no association was seen between exposure to young children and risk of any COVID-19 (aHR per child 1.03; 95% CI 0.92 to 1.14). CONCLUSION: Between March and October 2020, living with young children was associated with an attenuated risk of any COVID-19 and COVID-19 requiring hospitalisation among adults living in healthcare worker households. There was no evidence that living with young children increased adults' risk of COVID-19, including during the period after schools reopened.

16.
Lab Med ; 52(5): 493-498, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526169

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the role of midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We included 110 patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Biochemical biomarkers, including MR-proADM, were measured at admission. The association of plasma MR-proADM levels with COVID-19 severity, defined as a requirement for mechanical ventilation or in-hospital mortality, was evaluated. RESULTS: Patients showed increased levels of MR-proADM. In addition, MR-proADM was higher in patients who died during hospitalization than in patients who survived (median, 2.59 nmol/L; interquartile range, 2.3-2.95 vs median, 0.82 nmol/L; interquartile range, 0.57-1.03; P <.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed good accuracy of MR-proADM for predicting mortality. A MR-proADM value of 1.73 nmol/L was established as the best cutoff value, with 90% sensitivity and 95% specificity (P <.0001). CONCLUSION: We found that MR-proADM could represent a prognostic biomarker of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Protein Precursors/blood , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Interleukin-6/blood , Lung Diseases/blood , Lung Diseases/mortality , Lung Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Triage/methods
17.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526156

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Although cardiac involvement has prognostic significance in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is associated with severe forms, few studies have explored the prognostic role of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). We investigated the link between TTE parameters and prognosis in COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients with COVID-19 admitted to 24 French hospitals were retrospectively included. Comprehensive data, including clinical and biological parameters, were recorded at admission. Focused TTE was performed during hospitalization, according to clinical indication. Patients were followed for a primary composite outcome of death or transfer to intensive care unit (ICU) during hospitalization. Among 2878 patients, 445 (15%) underwent TTE. Most of these had cardiovascular risk factors, a history of cardiovascular disease, and were on cardiovascular treatments. Dilatation and dysfunction were observed in, respectively, 12% (48/412) and 23% (102/442) of patients for the left ventricle, and in 12% (47/407) and 16% (65/402) for the right ventricle (RV). Primary composite outcome occurred in 44% (n = 196) of patients [9% (n = 42) for death without ICU transfer and 35% (n = 154) for admission to ICU]. RV dilatation was the only TTE parameter associated with the primary outcome. After adjustment, male sex [hazard ratio (HR) 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09 - 2.25; P = 0.02], higher body mass index (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.02 - 1.18; P = 0.01), anticoagulation (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.33 - 0.86; P = 0.01), and RV dilatation (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.05 - 2.64; P = 0.03) remained independently associated with the primary outcome. CONCLUSION: Echocardiographic evaluation of RV dilatation could be useful for assessing risk of severe COVID-19 developing in hospitalized patients.

18.
Tech Innov Gastrointest Endosc ; 23(3): 234-243, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525964

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients' perception regarding the risks of COVID-19 infection with gastrointestinal (GI) and the preventive measures taken in GI endoscopy units to mitigate infection risk remains unclear. We aimed to assess patients' perception regarding risks of COVID-19 with GI endoscopy and the changes in the endoscopy unit as a result of the ongoing pandemic. Methods: Outpatients undergoing GI endoscopy at our institution were categorized into those scheduled to undergo GI endoscopy (preprocedure) and those who had recently undergone GI endoscopy during the pandemic (postprocedure). Two separate but similar survey instruments were designed. Patients were asked to respond on a 5-point Likert scale. Responses were stratified as "low," "neutral," and "high" for analysis. Results: A total of 150 and 355 respondents completed the preprocedure and postprocedure surveys, with a combined response rate of 82.5%. Non-white ethnicity was associated with reporting a "high" level of concern for endoscopy related COVID-19 exposure in both the preprocedure (OR 4.09, 95% CI 1.54-10.82) and postprocedure cohorts (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.04-4.29). 42% of patients in the preprocedure cohort and 11.8% in the postprocedure cohort reported their level of concern for COVID exposure as "high." Among the postprocedure cohort, 88% of the patients were likely to undergo repeat endoscopy during the pandemic if recommended. Conclusion: Patients are willing to undergo GI endoscopy during the COVID-19 pandemic. Non-white and older patients, and those undergoing screening examinations were more concerned with the GI endoscopy related COVID-19 transmission risk.

20.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(4): e1271, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525427

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Emerging evidence of dysregulation of the myeloid cell compartment urges investigations on neutrophil characteristics in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We isolated neutrophils from the blood of COVID-19 patients receiving general ward care and from patients hospitalised at intensive care units (ICUs) to explore the kinetics of circulating neutrophils and factors important for neutrophil migration and activation. Methods: Multicolour flow cytometry was exploited for the analysis of neutrophil differentiation and activation markers. Multiplex and ELISA technologies were used for the quantification of protease, protease inhibitor, chemokine and cytokine concentrations in plasma. Neutrophil polarisation responses were evaluated microscopically. Gelatinolytic and metalloproteinase activity in plasma was determined using a fluorogenic substrate. Co-culturing healthy donor neutrophils with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) allowed us to investigate viral replication in neutrophils. Results: Upon ICU admission, patients displayed high plasma concentrations of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and the chemokine CXCL8, accompanied by emergency myelopoiesis as illustrated by high levels of circulating CD10-, immature neutrophils with reduced CXCR2 and C5aR expression. Neutrophil elastase and non-metalloproteinase-derived gelatinolytic activity were increased in plasma from ICU patients. Significantly higher levels of circulating tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) in patients at ICU admission yielded decreased total MMP proteolytic activity in blood. COVID-19 neutrophils were hyper-responsive to CXCL8 and CXCL12 in shape change assays. Finally, SARS-CoV-2 failed to replicate inside human neutrophils. Conclusion: Our study provides detailed insights into the kinetics of neutrophil phenotype and function in severe COVID-19 patients, and supports the concept of an increased neutrophil activation state in the circulation.

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