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1.
J Clin Med ; 10(2)2021 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526818

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir (FPV) is a novel antiviral drug acting as a competitive inhibitor of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), preventing viral transcription and replication. FPV was approved in Japan in 2014 for therapy of influenza unresponsive to standard antiviral therapies. FPV was also used in the therapy of Ebola virus disease (EVD) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetic parameters, toxicity, and adverse effects of FPV, as well as clinical studies evaluating the use of FPV in the therapy of influenza virus (IV) infection, EVD, and SARS-CoV-2 infection, along with its effectiveness in treating other human RNA infections.

2.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 2021 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504184

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus strain and the causative agent of COVID-19 was identified to have emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 [1]. This pandemic situation and magnitude of suffering has led to global effort to find out effective measures for discovery of new specific drugs and vaccines to combat this deadly disease. In addition to many initiatives to develop vaccines for protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2, some of which are at various stages of clinical trials researchers worldwide are currently using available conventional therapeutic drugs with potential to combat the disease effectively in other viral infections and it is believed that these antiviral drugs could act as a promising immediate alternative. Remdesivir (RDV), a broad-spectrum anti-viral agent, initially developed for the treatment of Ebola virus (EBOV) and known to show promising efficiency in in vitro and in vivo studies against SARS and MERS coronaviruses, is now being investigated against SARS-CoV-2. On May 1, 2020, The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for RDV to treat COVID-19 patients [2]. A number of multicentre clinical trials are on-going to check the safety and efficacy of RDV for the treatment of COVID-19. Results of published double blind, and placebo-controlled trial on RDV against SARS-CoV-2, showed that RDV administration led to faster clinical improvement in severe COVID-19 patients compared to placebo. This review highlights the available knowledge about RDV as a therapeutic drug for coronaviruses and its preclinical and clinical trials against COVID-19.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8968, 2021 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387471

ABSTRACT

A significant number of studies invoked diabetes as a risk factor for virus infections, but the issue remains controversial. We aimed to examine whether non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus enhances the risk of virus infections compared with the risk in healthy individuals without non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we assessed case-control and cohort studies on the association between non-autoimmune diabetes and viruses. We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science with no language restriction, to identify articles published until February 15, 2021. The main outcome assessment was the risk of virus infection in individuals with non-autoimmune diabetes. We used a random-effects model to pool individual studies and assessed heterogeneity (I2) using the χ2 test on Cochrane's Q statistic. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42019134142. Out of 3136 articles identified, we included 68 articles (90 studies, as the number of virus and or diabetes phenotype varied between included articles). The summary OR between non-autoimmune diabetes and virus infections risk were, 10.8(95% CI: 10.3-11.4; 1-study) for SARS-CoV-2; 3.6(95%CI: 2.7-4.9, I2 = 91.7%; 43-studies) for HCV; 2.7(95% CI: 1.3-5.4, I2 = 89.9%, 8-studies;) for HHV8; 2.1(95% CI: 1.7-2.5; 1-study) for H1N1 virus; 1.6(95% CI: 1.2-2.13, I2 = 98.3%, 27-studies) for HBV; 1.5(95% CI: 1.1-2.0; 1-study) for HSV1; 3.5(95% CI: 0.6-18.3 , I2 = 83.9%, 5-studies) for CMV; 2.9(95% CI: 1-8.7, 1-study) for TTV; 2.6(95% CI: 0.7-9.1, 1-study) for Parvovirus B19; 0.7(95% CI: 0.3-1.5 , 1-study) for coxsackie B virus; and 0.2(95% CI: 0-6.2; 1-study) for HGV. Our findings suggest that, non-autoimmune diabetes is associated with increased susceptibility to viruses especially SARS-CoV-2, HCV, HHV8, H1N1 virus, HBV and HSV1. Thus, these viruses deserve more attention from diabetes health-care providers, researchers, policy makers, and stakeholders for improved detection, overall proper management, and efficient control of viruses in people with non-autoimmune diabetes.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Complications , Virus Diseases/complications , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Humans , Risk Factors
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5890, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387466

ABSTRACT

To circumvent time-consuming clinical trials, testing whether existing drugs are effective inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2, has led to the discovery of Remdesivir. We decided to follow this path and screened approved medications "off-label" against SARS-CoV-2. Fluoxetine inhibited SARS-CoV-2 at a concentration of 0.8 µg/ml significantly in these screenings, and the EC50 was determined with 387 ng/ml. Furthermore, Fluoxetine reduced viral infectivity in precision-cut human lung slices showing its activity in relevant human tissue targeted in severe infections. Fluoxetine treatment resulted in a decrease in viral protein expression. Fluoxetine is a racemate consisting of both stereoisomers, while the S-form is the dominant serotonin reuptake inhibitor. We found that both isomers show similar activity on the virus, indicating that the R-form might specifically be used for SARS-CoV-2 treatment. Fluoxetine inhibited neither Rabies virus, human respiratory syncytial virus replication nor the Human Herpesvirus 8 or Herpes simplex virus type 1 gene expression, indicating that it acts virus-specific. Moreover, since it is known that Fluoxetine inhibits cytokine release, we see the role of Fluoxetine in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients of risk groups.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Fluoxetine/pharmacology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Fluoxetine/therapeutic use , Humans , Lung/pathology , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Virus Replication/drug effects
5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 172: 524-541, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385677

ABSTRACT

The infectious microscopic viruses invade living cells to reproduce themselves, and causes chronic infections such as HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, flu, etc. in humans which may lead to death if not treated. Different strategies have been utilized to develop new and superior antiviral drugs to counter the viral infections. The FDA approval of HIV nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, zidovudine in 1987 boosted the development of antiviral agents against different viruses. Currently, there are a number of combination drugs developed against various viral infections to arrest the activity of same or different viral macromolecules at multiple stages of its life cycle; among which majority are targeted to interfere with the replication of viral genome. Besides these, other type of antiviral molecules includes entry inhibitors, integrase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, interferons, immunomodulators, etc. The antiviral drugs can be toxic to human cells, particularly in case of administration of combination drugs, and on the other hand viruses can grow resistant to the antiviral drugs. Furthermore, emergence of new viruses like Ebola, coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2) emphasizes the need for more innovative strategies to develop better antiviral drugs to fight the existing and the emerging viral infections. Hence, we reviewed the strategic enhancements in developing antiviral drugs for the treatment of different viral infections over the years.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Approval , United States Food and Drug Administration , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , United States , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
6.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 76(11): 1615-1618, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384377

ABSTRACT

AIM: SARS-CoV-2 infection has been divided by scientific opinion into three phases: the first as asymptomatic or slightly symptomatic and the second and the third with greater severity, characterized by a hyperinflammatory and fibrotic state, responsible for lung lesions, in some cases fatal. The development of antiviral drugs directed against SARS-CoV-2 and effective vaccines is progressing; meanwhile, the best pharmacological objective is related to the management of all the complications caused by this viral infection, mainly controlling the inflammatory and fibrotic state and preventing the infection from moving into the most serious phases. SUBJECT AND METHOD: Describe the scientific rationale related to the use of an antifibrotic therapy with pirfenidone, as monotherapy and/or in combination with anti-inflammatory drugs to manage and control complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Based on the scientific literature and epidemiological results and considering the pathophysiological, biological, and molecular characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, an antifibrotic drug such as pirfenidone as monotherapy or in combination with anti-inflammatory drugs can be (acting early, at the right doses and at the right time) therapeutically effective to avoid serious complications during viral infection. The same approach can also be effective as postinfection therapy in patients with residual pulmonary fibrotic damage. Management of inflammation and fibrotic status with a combination therapy of pirfenidone and IL-6 or IL-1 inhibitors could represent a pharmacological synergy with added value. CONCLUSION: In this article, we consider the role of antifibrotic therapy with pirfenidone in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection on going or in the stage of postinfection with pulmonary fibrotic consequences. The scientific rationale for its use is also described.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Physiol ; 11: 802, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389234

ABSTRACT

We dissect the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 in human lung host from the initial phase of receptor binding to viral replication machinery. Two independent lung protein interactome were constructed to reveal the signaling process on receptor activation and host protein hijacking machinery in the pathogenesis of virus. Further, we test the functional role of the hubs derived from the interactome. Most hubs proteins were differentially regulated on SARS-CoV-2 infection. Also, the proteins in viral replication hubs were related with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and hypertension confirming the vulnerability and severity of infection in the risk individual. Additionally, the hub proteins were closely linked with other viral infection, including MERS and HCoVs which suggest similar infection pattern in SARS-CoV-2. We identified five hubs that interconnect both networks that show the preparation of optimal environment in the host for viral replication process upon receptor attachment. Interestingly, we propose that seven potential miRNAs, targeting the intermediate phase that connects receptor and viral replication process a better choice as a drug for SARS-CoV-2.

8.
Mar Drugs ; 19(1)2020 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389434

ABSTRACT

Compromised lung function is a feature of both infection driven and non-infective pathologies. Viral infections-including the current pandemic strain SARS-CoV-2-that affect lung function can cause both acute and long-term chronic damage. SARS-CoV-2 infection suppresses innate immunity and promotes an inflammatory response. Targeting these aspects of SARS-CoV-2 is important as the pandemic affects greater proportions of the population. In clinical and animal studies, fucoidans have been shown to increase innate immunity and decrease inflammation. In addition, dietary fucoidan has been shown to attenuate pulmonary damage in a model of acute viral infection. Direct inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro has been described, but is not universal. This short review summarizes the current research on fucoidan with regard to viral lung infections and lung damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Lung/drug effects , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Lung/physiology , Lung Diseases/drug therapy , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
9.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389268

ABSTRACT

Various studies have shown that certain flavonoids, flavonoid-containing plant extracts, and foods can improve human health. Experimental studies showed that flavonoids have the capacity to alter physiological processes as well as cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with their antioxidant properties. An important function of flavonoids was determined in the cardiovascular system, namely their capacity to lower blood pressure and to improve endothelial function. (-)-Epicatechin and taxifolin are two flavonoids with notable antihypertensive effects and multiple beneficial actions in the cardiovascular system, but they also possess antiviral effects, which may be of particular importance in the ongoing pandemic situation. Thus, this review is focused on the current knowledge of (-)-epicatechin as well as (+)-taxifolin and/or (-)-taxifolin-modified biological action and underlining molecular mechanisms determined in preclinical studies, which are relevant not only to the treatment of hypertension per se but may provide additional antiviral benefits that could be relevant to the treatment of hypertensive subjects with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

10.
Curr Diabetes Rev ; 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367728

ABSTRACT

The article has been withdrawn at the request of the authors and editor of the journal Current Diabetes Reviews, due to incoherent content.Bentham Science apologizes to the readers of the journal for any inconvenience this may have caused.The Bentham Editorial Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://benthamscience.com/editorial-policies-main.php. BENTHAM SCIENCE DISCLAIMER: It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to this journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere. Furthermore, any data, illustration, structure or table that has been published elsewhere must be reported, and copyright permission for reproduction must be obtained. Plagiarism is strictly forbidden, and by submit-ting the article for publication the authors agree that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors, if plagiarism or fabricated information is discovered. By submitting a manuscript, the authors agree that the copyright of their article is transferred to the publishers if and when the article is accepted for publication.

11.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(5): 1051-1071, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352581

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been declared a pandemic by WHO on March 11, 2020. No specific treatment and vaccine with documented safety and efficacy for the disease have been established. Hence it is of utmost importance to identify more therapeutics such as Chinese medicine formulae to meet the urgent need. Qing Fei Pai Du Tang (QFPDT), a Chinese medicine formula consisting of 21 herbs from five classical formulae has been reported to be efficacious on COVID-19 in 10 provinces in mainland China. QFPDT could prevent the progression from mild cases and shorten the average duration of symptoms and hospital stay. It has been recommended in the 6th and 7th versions of Clinical Practice Guideline on COVID-19 in China. The basic scientific studies, supported by network pharmacology, on the possible therapeutic targets of QFPDT and its constituent herbs including Ephedra sinica, Bupleurum chinense, Pogostemon cablin, Cinnamomum cassia, Scutellaria baicalensis were reviewed. The anti-oxidation, immuno-modulation and antiviral mechanisms through different pathways were collated. Two clusters of actions identified were cytokine storm prevention and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor binding regulation. The multi-target mechanisms of QFPDT for treating viral infection in general and COVID-19 in particular were validated. While large scale clinical studies on QFPDT are being conducted in China, one should use real world data for exploration of integrative treatment with inclusion of pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and herb-drug interaction studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Animals , Antiviral Agents/history , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/history , History, Ancient , Humans , Medicine in Literature , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Drug Deliv Transl Res ; 11(3): 748-787, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343054

ABSTRACT

The host immune system is highly compromised in case of viral infections and relapses are very common. The capacity of the virus to destroy the host cell by liberating its own DNA or RNA and replicating inside the host cell poses challenges in the development of antiviral therapeutics. In recent years, many new technologies have been explored for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of viral infections. Nanotechnology has emerged as one of the most promising technologies on account of its ability to deal with viral diseases in an effective manner, addressing the limitations of traditional antiviral medicines. It has not only helped us to overcome problems related to solubility and toxicity of drugs, but also imparted unique properties to drugs, which in turn has increased their potency and selectivity toward viral cells against the host cells. The initial part of the paper focuses on some important proteins of influenza, Ebola, HIV, herpes, Zika, dengue, and corona virus and those of the host cells important for their entry and replication into the host cells. This is followed by different types of nanomaterials which have served as delivery vehicles for the antiviral drugs. It includes various lipid-based, polymer-based, lipid-polymer hybrid-based, carbon-based, inorganic metal-based, surface-modified, and stimuli-sensitive nanomaterials and their application in antiviral therapeutics. The authors also highlight newer promising treatment approaches like nanotraps, nanorobots, nanobubbles, nanofibers, nanodiamonds, nanovaccines, and mathematical modeling for the future. The paper has been updated with the recent developments in nanotechnology-based approaches in view of the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19.Graphical abstract.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Drug Carriers , Nanomedicine , Nanoparticles , Polymers/chemistry , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Drug Compounding , Humans , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology
13.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(10): 5704-5713, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327136

ABSTRACT

Many viral infections do not have treatments or resistant to existing antiviral therapeutic interventions, and a novel strategy is required to combat virus-mediated fatalities. A novel coronavirus (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) emerged in Wuhan, China, in late 2019 and rapidly spread across the globe. COVID-19 has impacted human society with life-threatening and unprecedented health, social, and economic issues, and it continues to affect millions of people. More than 5,800 clinical trials are in place worldwide to develop treatments to eradicate COVID-19. Historically, traditional medicine or natural products, such as medicinal plants, marine organisms and microbes, have been efficacious in treating viral infections. Nevertheless, important parameters for natural products, including clinical trial information, pharmacokinetic data, potency and toxicity profiles, in vivo and in vitro data, and product safety require validation. In this review article, an evaluation is performed of the potential application of natural product-based antiviral compounds, including crude extracts and bioactive chemical compounds obtained from medicinal plants, marine organisms, and microbes, to treat the viral infections COVID-19.

14.
Biochimie ; 179: 237-246, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326916

ABSTRACT

The anti-malarial drug Chloroquine (CQ) and its derivative hydroxychloroquine have shown antiviral activities in vitro against many viruses, including coronaviruses, dengue virus and the biosafety level 4 Nipah and Hendra paramyxoviruses. The in vivo efficacy of CQ in the treatment of COVID-19 is currently a matter of debate. CQ is a lysosomotrophic compound that accumulates in lysosomes, as well as in food vacuoles of Plasmodium falciparum. In the treatment of malaria, CQ impairs the digestion and growth of the parasite by increasing the pH of the food vacuole. Similarly, it is assumed that the antiviral effects of CQ results from the increase of lysosome pH and the inhibition of acidic proteases involved in the maturation of virus fusion protein. CQ has however other effects, among which phospholipidosis, characterized by the accumulation of multivesicular bodies within the cell. The increase in phospholipid species particularly concerns bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP), a specific lipid of late endosomes involved in vesicular trafficking and pH-dependent vesicle budding. It was shown previously that drugs like progesterone, the cationic amphiphile U18666A and the phospholipase inhibitor methyl arachidonyl fluoro phosphonate (MAFP) induce the accumulation of BMP in THP-1 cells and decrease cell infection by human immunodeficiency virus. HIV viral particles were found to be retained into large endosomal-type vesicles, preventing virus spreading. Since BMP was also reported to favour virus entry through hijacking of the endocytic pathway, we propose here that BMP could play a dual role in viral infection, with its antiviral effects triggered by lysosomotropic drugs like CQ.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Endocytosis/drug effects , Endosomes/drug effects , Endosomes/metabolism , Lysophospholipids/metabolism , Monoglycerides/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
15.
Phytother Res ; 35(7): 3447-3483, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323905

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of viral diseases like novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) prompted the scientific world to examine antiviral bioactive compounds rather than nucleic acid analogous, protease inhibitors, or other toxic synthetic molecules. The emerging viral infections significantly associated with 2019-nCoV have challenged humanity's survival. Further, there is a constant emergence of new resistant viral strains that demand novel antiviral agents with fewer side effects and cell toxicity. Despite significant progress made in immunization and regenerative medicine, numerous viruses still lack prophylactic vaccines and specific antiviral treatments that are so often influenced by the generation of viral escape mutants. Of importance, medicinal herbs offer a wide variety of therapeutic antiviral chemotypes that can inhibit viral replication by preventing viral adsorption, adhering to cell receptors, inhibiting virus penetration in the host cell, and competing for pathways of activation of intracellular signals. The present review will comprehensively summarize the promising antiviral activities of medicinal plants and their bioactive molecules. Furthermore, it will elucidate their mechanism of action and possible implications in the treatment/prevention of viral diseases even when their mechanism of action is not fully understood, which could serve as the base for the future development of novel or complementary antiviral treatments.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Plants, Medicinal , Virus Diseases , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Humans , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
16.
Pharmacol Res ; 157: 104849, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318926

ABSTRACT

Taking anti-inflammatory drugs, including non-steroidal (NSAIDs), during Covid-19 infection, how much is risky? The French Minister of Health, who has raised an alarm on a possible risk deriving from the use of ibuprofen for the control of fever and other symptoms during the disease, opened the debate a few days ago. In this paper we examine available evidence from preclinical and clinical studies that had analysed the role of COX in the inflammatory process and the effects of NSAIDs in patients with infections. Most of the published studies that suggested not protective effects of NSAIDs were mainly performed in vitro or on animals. Therefore, their meaning in humans is to be considered with great caution. Based also on data suggesting protective effects of NSAIDs, we concluded that currently there is no evidence suggesting a correlation between NSAIDs and a worsening of infections. Further studies will be certainly needed to better define the role of NSAIDs and particularly COX2 inhibitors in patients with infections. In the meantime, we must wait for results of the revision started by the PRAC on May 2019 on the association ibuprofen/ketoprofen​​​​​​ and worsening of infections. Since nowadays no scientific evidence establishes a correlation between NSAIDS and worsening of COVID-19, patients should be advice against any NSAIDs self-medication when COVID-19 like symptoms are present.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(4)2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305767

ABSTRACT

To date, the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide include viral infections, such as Ebola, influenza virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and recently COVID-19 disease, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Currently, we can count on a narrow range of antiviral drugs, especially older generation ones like ribavirin and interferon which are effective against viruses in vitro but can often be ineffective in patients. In addition to these, we have antiviral agents for the treatment of herpes virus, influenza virus, HIV and hepatitis virus. Recently, drugs used in the past especially against ebolavirus, such as remdesivir and favipiravir, have been considered for the treatment of COVID-19 disease. However, even if these drugs represent important tools against viral diseases, they are certainly not sufficient to defend us from the multitude of viruses present in the environment. This represents a huge problem, especially considering the unprecedented global threat due to the advancement of COVID-19, which represents a potential risk to the health and life of millions of people. The demand, therefore, for new and effective antiviral drugs is very high. This review focuses on three fundamental points: (1) presents the main threats to human health, reviewing the most widespread viral diseases in the world, thus describing the scenario caused by the disease in question each time and evaluating the specific therapeutic remedies currently available. (2) It comprehensively describes main phytochemical classes, in particular from plant foods, with proven antiviral activities, the viruses potentially treated with the described phytochemicals. (3) Consideration of the various applications of drug delivery systems in order to improve the bioavailability of these compounds or extracts. A PRISMA flow diagram was used for the inclusion of the works. Taking into consideration the recent dramatic events caused by COVID-19 pandemic, the cry of alarm that denounces critical need for new antiviral drugs is extremely strong. For these reasons, a continuous systematic exploration of plant foods and their phytochemicals is necessary for the development of new antiviral agents capable of saving lives and improving their well-being.

18.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 199(8): 3159-3176, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292557

ABSTRACT

Globally, viral diseases continue to pose a significant threat to public health. Recent outbreaks, such as influenza, coronavirus, Ebola, and dengue, have emphasized the urgent need for new antiviral therapeutics. Considerable efforts have focused on developing metal nanoparticles for the treatment of several pathogenic viruses. As a result of these efforts, metal nanoparticles are demonstrating promising antiviral activity against pathogenic surrogates and clinical isolates. This review summarizes the application of metal nanoparticles for the treatment of viral infections. It provides information on synthesis methods, size-related properties, nano-bio-interaction, and immunological effects of metal nanoparticles. This article also addresses critical criteria and considerations for developing clinically translatable nanosized metal particles to treat viral diseases.


Subject(s)
Metal Nanoparticles , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Metals
19.
Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst ; 38(2): 75-102, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1251764

ABSTRACT

Viral infections such as AIDS, hepatitis, herpes keratitis, and herpes labialis became resistant to drugs and it is difficult to design vaccine. In current era drug-resistant viruses are now treated by nanoparticles (NPs) and this field is known as nanobiotechnology that relates nanoscience with the biological system. NPs due to their antiviral activity are used in the treatment of viral diseases. The advantages of using the NP is its specific target action and increase the efficiency of treatment with minimum side effects. Liposomes, quantum dots, polymeric NPs, solid lipid NPs, silver NPs, gold NPs, and magnetic NPs are used to treat viral infections. NP-based therapeutics have completely replaced the usage of drugs and vaccines for viral diseases treatment. Nano vaccines have been investigated for the delivery of drugs; biomaterials-based NPs are in development to be formulated into nano vaccines. But there are limitations in the manufacturing and stabilization of NPs in the body. This review focuses on the antiviral activity of several NPs, its uptake by different viruses for viral disease treatment, nano vaccines, and the limitation of the NPs as nanotherapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Compounding/methods , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Viruses/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Drug Resistance, Viral , Humans , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Treatment Outcome , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/isolation & purification
20.
Endocr Pract ; 27(8): 850-855, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263262

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the use of melatonin as an early treatment option on the first day of diagnosis for COVID-19. METHODS: Medical Subject Headings terms "COVID-19" and "viral diseases" were manually searched on PubMed, and relevant articles were included. RESULTS: The results showed that melatonin acts to reduce reactive oxygen species-mediated damage, cytokine-induced inflammation, and lymphopenia in viral diseases similar to COVID-19. CONCLUSION: These conclusions provide evidence for potential benefits in melatonin use for COVID-19 treatment as early as the day of diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Melatonin , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Melatonin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
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