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1.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-11, 2021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035346

ABSTRACT

The effect of the COVID-19 related stressors on the mental health of both infected patients and the general public has been well established. However, knowledge is limited on how psychosocial support buffers the association. This study aimed to examine this buffering role in the context of China. We utilized cross-sectional data collected online in mid-March 2020, involving 585 respondents. Mental health status was determined through depression symptoms and loneliness. COVID-19 related stressors include three aspects: perceived severity, perceived threat to life and health, and perceived risk of COVID-19 infection. Psychosocial support included family and social supports. Analyses include ordinary linear regression. The finding showed that psychosocial support buffered the negative effect of loneliness in the context of perceived severity of COVID-19, but appeared to intensify the negative effect of depression symptoms in the context of perceived threat to life and health. However, there was no significant buffering effect on depression or loneliness in the context of the perceived risk of infection. The buffering effect of psychosocial support on COVID-19 related stressors is of mixed patterns. This study contributes to the emerging body of literature trying to understand how the COVID-19 impacts the mental health of individuals.

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3.
Am J Med Case Rep ; 8(8): 225-228, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1989681

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic that started in China in December 2019 and carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality. To-date (4-22-2020) it affected over 2.6 million people and resulted in nearly 200,000 death worldwide mainly due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2). Among the major underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms in COVID 19 is hypercoagulability, leading to increased risk for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism that contribute to increased morbidity and mortality. In this report, we present the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with COVID-19 pneumonia, and was found to have a thrombus in transit by routine point of care ultrasound (POCUS). While computer tomography (CT) angiography is the test of choice, the utilization of point of care ultrasound (POCUS) has gained traction as an adjunctive means of surveillance for the development of VTE in patients with COVID-19. In this report, we discuss the clinical utility of POCUS in diagnosing thrombus in transit in COVID 19 populations.

4.
Am J Med Case Rep ; 8(7): 192-196, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1989680

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic that started in the Wuhan province of China in December 2019. It is associated with increased morbidity and mortality mainly due to severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-Cov-2). Cardiac manifestations related to COVID-19 include demand ischemia, fulminant myocarditis, myocardial infarction and arrhythmias. In this report, we present a case of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in a 68-year-old man with COVID-19 who initially presented with chest pain and shortness of breath. Patient's STEMI was managed with pharmaco-invasive strategy with tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). He then developed acute hypoxic respiratory failure that was managed in the intensive care unit (ICU), together with multi-organ failure from which the patient died 2 days after presentation. Although the pathophysiologic mechanisms of STEMI in COVID-19 patients has not been clearly established, we hypothesize that interrelated pathogenetic factors, that we highlight in this report, can play a role in the development of STEMI, including plaque rupture secondary to systemic inflammation, increased pro-coagulants, endothelial dysfunction, impaired fibrinolysis and impaired oxygen utilization leading to demand/supply mismatch and myocardial ischemia.

5.
Am J Med Case Rep ; 8(10): 337-340, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1989678

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) is currently a public health emergency and has been listed by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a pandemic. It has commonly been associated with pulmonary manifestations and there is a growing body of evidence of multisystem involvement of the virus. As evidenced by various case reports and cohort studies, COVID-19-associated coagulopathy has been a common manifestation amongst the critically ill and has been associated with increased mortality. The presence of venous thromboembolic events in patients who are critically ill due to COVID-19 has prompted the adoption of anticoagulation regimens aimed at preventing thromboembolic phenomena. Coagulation abnormalities have also been implicated in the progression and the severity of COVID-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). There is strong evidence that D-dimer levels help predict which patients are at risk of thromboembolic events, progression to ARDS, DIC, immune dysregulation and mortality. We will review the utility of D-dimer as screening tool and in the risk stratification of COVID-19 patients prone to developing thromboembolic events, DIC, immune dysregulation and death. To date, the studies that have been published show the presence of elevated D-dimer levels in both the adult and pediatric populations and the measured level correlates with disease severity. Studies have also shown the relative increase of D-dimer levels in non-survivors compared to survivors. The elevation of D-dimer levels has shown to guide clinical decision making, namely the initiation of therapeutic anticoagulation and mortality benefit in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia compared to severe non COVID-19 pneumonia. Although the current body of literature suggested the use of D-dimer as a risk stratification tool and as a test to augment clinical judgement regarding the initiation of anticoagulation, randomized control trials are needed to fully understand the relationship between COVID-19 infection and the efficacy of D-dimer assays in clinical decision making.

6.
Minerva Med ; 113(4): 695-706, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975625

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease characterized by systemic inflammation, which might enhance baseline thrombotic risk, especially in hospitalized patients. Little is, however, known about predictors of thrombotic complications in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We prospectively followed up 180 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Demographics, clinical and laboratory features at presentation and past medical history were tested as predictors of the first thrombotic complication through multivariate Cox regression analysis and a categorical score generated based on the results. RESULTS: Sixty-four thromboses were recorded in 54 patients, of whom seven with thrombosis on admission and 47 with thrombosis during hospitalization. Patients with thrombosis were mainly Caucasian and diabetic, had marked baseline signs of inflammation and organ damage, lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio, higher D-dimer levels and history of major hemorrhages. The latter three variables were independently associated to thrombotic complications and concurred to a 0-5 score, which accounted for 80% of the total sample variability. Patients with three or more points of the newly generated score were at higher risk for thrombotic complications (HR=4.9, P<0.001). Patients with thrombotic complications were more likely to be admitted to intensive care and/or to die (HR=1.9, P=0.036). Five of 180 patients were diagnosed with disseminated intravascular coagulation and three of them died. Eleven minor and no major bleeding events were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk for thrombosis and might be stratified on admission based on lower Pao2/FiO2 ratio, higher D-dimer levels and history of major hemorrhages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thromboembolism , Thrombosis , Algorithms , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hemorrhage , Humans , Inflammation , Preliminary Data , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology
7.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120 Suppl 1: S77-S85, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: A synthesis design and multistate analysis is required for assessing the clinical efficacy of antiviral therapy on dynamics of multistate disease progression and in reducing the mortality and enhancing the recovery of patients with COVID-19. A case study on remdesivir was illustrated for the clinical application of such a novel design and analysis. METHODS: A Bayesian synthesis design was applied to integrating the empirical evidence on the one-arm compassion study and the two-arm ACTT-1 trial for COVID-19 patients treated with remdesivir. A multistate model was developed to model the dynamics of hospitalized COVID-19 patients from three transient states of low, medium-, and high-risk until the two outcomes of recovery and death. The outcome measures for clinical efficacy comprised high-risk state, death, and discharge. RESULTS: The efficacy of remdesivir in reducing the risk of death and enhancing the odds of recovery were estimated as 31% (95% CI, 18-44%) and 10% (95% CI, 1-18%), respectively. Remdesivir therapy for patients with low-risk state showed the efficacy in reducing subsequent progression to high-risk state and death by 26% (relative rate (RR), 0.74; 95% CI, 0.55-0.93) and 62% (RR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.29-0.48), respectively. Less but still statistically significant efficacy in mortality reduction was noted for the medium- and high-risk patients. Remdesivir treated patients had a significantly shorter period of hospitalization (9.9 days) compared with standard care group (12.9 days). CONCLUSION: The clinical efficacy of remdesvir therapy in reducing mortality and accelerating discharge has been proved by the Bayesian synthesis design and multistate analysis.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
8.
Can J Ophthalmol ; 57(4): 236-241, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972162

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate vascular changes in the early period after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and at 6-month follow-up. METHODS: This study included 50 eyes of 25 patients who had been hospitalized for polymerase chain reaction-positive COVID-19 infection and 50 eyes of 25 healthy individuals. All subjects underwent optical coherence tomography angiography using a 6 × 6 macular protocol in the early period after hospital discharge and 6 months later. Foveal vessel density (VD) and parafoveal VD values were measured from 4 quadrants (superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal) of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and the deep capillary plexus (DCP). The choriocapillaris (CC) flow area and the foveal avascular zone area also were measured. The OCTA measurements of the patient group were compared both between time points and with the control group at each time point. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients showed lower VD values than control subjects in all parafoveal quadrants of both the SCP (superior, p = 0.01; inferior, p = 0.048; nasal, p = 0.003; temporal, p = 0.048) and the DCP (superior, p = 0.001; inferior, p = 0.011; nasal, p = 0.012; temporal, p = 0.018) at the initial checkup and in all parafoveal quadrants of the SCP (superior, p = 0.0001; inferior, p = 0.007; nasal, p = 0.001; temporal, p = 0.017) and in 2 of the parafoveal quadrants of the DCP (superior, p = 0.003; inferior, p = 0.016) at 6-month follow-up. CC flow area values were significantly lower at the 6-month follow-up than at the initial examination (p = 0.044). CONCLUSION: It is important to perform appropriate follow-up for COVID-19 patients because retinal vascular flow changes may persist in the long term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Retinal Vessels , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Fovea Centralis/blood supply , Humans , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
10.
Pathologe ; 42(Suppl 1): 89-97, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A dysregulated immune response is considered one of the major factors leading to severe COVID-19. Previously described mechanisms include the development of a cytokine storm, missing immunoglobulin class switch, antibody-mediated enhancement, and aberrant antigen presentation. OBJECTIVES: To understand the heterogeneity of immune response in COVID-19, a thorough investigation of histomorphological patterns in regional lymph nodes was performed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lymph nodes from the cervical, mediastinal, and hilar regions were extracted from autopsies of patients with lethal COVID-19 (n = 20). Histomorphological characteristics, SARS-CoV­2 qRT-PCR, and gene expression profiling on common genes involved in immunologic response were analyzed. RESULTS: Lymph nodes displayed moderate to severe capillary stasis and edema, an increased presence of extrafollicular plasmablasts, mild to moderate plasmacytosis, a dominant population of CD8+ T­cells, and CD11c/CD68+ histiocytosis with hemophagocytic activity. Out of 20 cases, 18 presented with hypoplastic or missing germinal centers with a decrease of follicular dendritic cells and follicular T­helper cells. A positive viral load was detected by qRT-PCR in 14 of 20 cases, yet immunohistochemistry for SARS-CoV-2 N-antigen revealed positivity in sinus histiocytes of only one case. Gene expression analysis revealed an increased expression of STAT1, CD163, granzyme B, CD8A, MZB1, and PAK1, as well as CXCL9. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings imply a dysregulated immune response in lethal COVID-19. The absence/hypoplasia of germinal centers and increased presence of plasmablasts implies a transient B­cell response, implying an impaired development of long-term immunity against SARS-CoV­2 in such occasions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Lung , Lymph Nodes , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 39(3): 676-687, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1970080

ABSTRACT

Systemic autoimmune diseases (SAD) are a heterogeneous group of diseases with a common aetiopathogenic basis affecting all ages characterised by a systemic phenotypic expression with a wide range of severity and outcomes that often require immunosuppressive therapies, leaving patients at high risk of infection. Knowledge of the impact of COVID-19 in patients with SAD is limited because most are included in studies carried out in patients with autoimmune and rheumatic diseases (mainly inflammatory arthritis). Most studies supported an increased risk of SARS-Cov-2 infection in patients with AD and SAD. Although case-control studies reported no significant differences in the rate of poor outcomes between patients with and without AD, large population-based studies analysing baseline risk factors reported a 2-3 times higher rate of poor outcomes in patients with AD, especially in those with SAD. Individual risk factors associated with poor outcomes included gender male, older age, and underlying comorbidities and therapies (glucocorticoids, sulfasalazine, immunosuppressants and rituximab). Patients with SAD had less favourable COVID-19 outcomes than those with inflammatory arthritis, possibly due to a differentiated underlying therapeutic approach (glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants and B-cell depleting agents for most SAD, anti-cytokine therapies and JAK inhibitors for inflammatory arthritis). Despite the limited evidence, most studies suggest that patients with SAD have an increased risk of a worse evolution of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including a greater risk of hospitalisation/ICU admission and worse survival rates and, therefore, should be considered a high-risk group for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Aged , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Mycoses ; 2020 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a complication of respiratory bacterial and viral infections such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). PATIENTS/METHODS: In University Hospital La Paz (Madrid, Spain), we reviewed the clinical and demographic characteristics of 10 patients with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) PCR and Aspergillus spp. isolate in respiratory samples. We also recovered results of galactomannan tests in serum and/or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples. RESULTS: Eight male and two female from 51 to 76 years were recovered. They had reported risk factors to develop IPA (haematological malignancies, immunosuppression, diabetes, obesity, intensive care unit stay, among others). Azole susceptible Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated in nine patients and Aspergillus nidulans was isolated in one patient. Only one case was classified as probable aspergillosis, seven cases as putative aspergillosis, and two cases were not classifiable. Eight patients received antifungal treatment. Seven patients died (70%), two are still inpatient due to nosocomial infections and one was discharged referred to another institution. CONCLUSIONS: This clinical entity has high mortality, and therefore, it should be performed surveillance with early galactomannan tests and cultures in respiratory samples in order to improve the outcome of the patients with this condition.

13.
Anaesthesist ; 70(Suppl 1): 19-29, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1958962

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019 a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread around the world resulting in an acute respiratory illness pandemic. The immense challenges for clinicians and hospitals as well as the strain on many healthcare systems has been unprecedented.The majority of patients present with mild symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, 5-8% become critically ill and require intensive care treatment. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure with severe dyspnea and an increased respiratory rate (>30/min) usually leads to intensive care unit (ICU) admission. At this point bilateral pulmonary infiltrates are typically seen. Patients often develop a severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).So far, remdesivir and dexamethasone have shown clinical effectiveness in severe COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. The main goal of supportive treatment is to ascertain adequate oxygenation. Invasive mechanical ventilation and repeated prone positioning are key elements in treating severely hypoxemic COVID-19 patients.Strict adherence to basic infection control measures (including hand hygiene) and correct use of personal protection equipment (PPE) are essential in the care of patients. Procedures that lead to formation of aerosols should be carried out with utmost precaution and preparation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Minerva Med ; 113(3): 558-568, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955308

ABSTRACT

Since COVID-19 spread all over the world becoming a pandemic illness, researchers have better characterized route of virus transmissibility and clinical signs and symptoms of the disease. Since viral transmission occurs through the droplets emitted during coughing or sneezing, the lungs are primarily affected. However, SARS-CoV-2 can affect several human organs due to high expressions of ACE2 receptor which is the main viral target, and the virus may affect not only higher and lower respiratory tracts, but also heart, kidney, gastro enteric tract, liver, pancreas, nervous system and skin. This review focuses on extra pulmonary involvement underlying atypical presentation of COVID-19. There is a great body of evidence concerning several human organ abnormalities associated to the SARS-CoV-2, enough to consider COVID-19 as a multisystemic and polyhedral disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Front Psychol ; 11: 572153, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933780

ABSTRACT

Alongside concern about the physical health impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis, public health officials have also raised concerns about the potential for massive mental health impact. This has led many to wonder, how are individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and especially those with contamination fears, doing in the era of COVID-19? We present data from eight patients in our residential treatment program for OCD who were admitted prior to any COVID-19 restrictions and continued in treatment at the facility during the pandemic. Much like the general population, our patients varied in the ways they were impacted by COVID-19, yet the majority experienced improvements in OCD symptoms despite the context. This is not to downplay the many ways in which our patients were personally affected by COVID-19. Rather our patients' relatively resilient responses mirror our program's treatment model, which emphasizes exposure and response prevention (ERP) within the complementary framework of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The intention of this article is to challenge the notion that by definition this population will fare worse than the general public or that ERP cannot proceed effectively during this time. In contrast, we underscore that effective OCD treatment can and should continue in the era of COVID-19.

16.
Front Psychol ; 11: 567419, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933769

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has seen people in many countries asked to radically modify their way of life in compliance with sweeping safety measures. During the current crisis, technology is turning out to be key, in that it allows practitioners to deliver psychological services to people who would otherwise be unreachable. However, professionals cannot solely rely on their traditional modes of practice, in that different methods are required to bring to light the needs of those affected by the emergency. People are being overwhelmed by a cascade of unusual and unexpected events that are putting a strain on their everyday routines and usual meaning-making systems; ongoing challenges to their employment and financial status will likely divert personal resources away from psychological well-being. We therefore argue that psychologists should also consider the needs of the general population. Among those who may require help-aside from the main targets of psychological intervention, such as healthcare personnel and COVID-19 patients and their relatives-specific attention should be paid to those who are not at the center of the crisis. We suggest that this large segment of potential users may benefit from a non-medical approach focused on the promotion of meaning-making processes. Indeed, the disruptive nature of the current situation hinders sense-making and threatens to undermine psychological balance and well-being, at an individual as well as at a societal level. The present article proposes a methodological perspective based on the reconstruction of meaning-making processes (sense of coherence, predictability, metaphors, narratives). Specifically, psychological interventions should promote personal and collective resources with a view to: "normalizing" current distressful experiences (i.e., acknowledging that such reactions are normal in light of the present situation); widening the observational field, taking relational contexts into account, and promoting an understanding of distressful experiences as coping strategies; fostering meaning-making/reconstruction processes through the use of appropriate metaphors and narratives; promoting a sense of coherence. We present two clinical vignettes to illustrate how these principles might be applied in practice. In conclusion, the exceptional psychological challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic require practitioners to adopt a broad and flexible perspective on clinical intervention.

18.
Psychosom Med ; 83(4): 368-372, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931979

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Infectious diseases can cause psychological changes in patients. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and related risk factors for anxiety and depression in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on patients with COVID-19 admitted to the Sino-French New City branch of Wuhan Tongji Hospital from January to February 2020. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and Depression Scales were used to evaluate the prevalence of anxiety and depression. Demographic, clinical, and sociological data were also collected. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors of anxiety and depression in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: In the current study, 183 patients were enrolled (mean age = 53 ± 9 years; 41.1% women). The prevalences of anxiety and depression were 56.3% and 39.3%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that older age, female sex, being divorced or widowed, COVID-19 disease duration, renal disease, and depression were identified as independent risk factors for anxiety in patients with COVID-19. Factors that were associated with depression were female sex, being widowed, COVID-19 disease duration, and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a high prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with COVID-19 at the peak of the epidemic in Wuhan, China. The identification of demographic, clinical, and social factors may help identify health care professionals to provide psychological care as part of treatment for patients with COVID-19 and other life-threatening infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/complications , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Risk Factors
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