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Ann Intern Med ; 173(2): 100-109, 2020 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994454

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The evolving outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is requiring social distancing and other measures to protect public health. However, messaging has been inconsistent and unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine COVID-19 awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and related behaviors among U.S. adults who are more vulnerable to complications of infection because of age and comorbid conditions. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey linked to 3 active clinical trials and 1 cohort study. SETTING: 5 academic internal medicine practices and 2 federally qualified health centers. PATIENTS: 630 adults aged 23 to 88 years living with 1 or more chronic conditions. MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to COVID-19. RESULTS: A fourth (24.6%) of participants were "very worried" about getting the coronavirus. Nearly a third could not correctly identify symptoms (28.3%) or ways to prevent infection (30.2%). One in 4 adults (24.6%) believed that they were "not at all likely" to get the virus, and 21.9% reported that COVID-19 had little or no effect on their daily routine. One in 10 respondents was very confident that the federal government could prevent a nationwide outbreak. In multivariable analyses, participants who were black, were living below the poverty level, and had low health literacy were more likely to be less worried about COVID-19, to not believe that they would become infected, and to feel less prepared for an outbreak. Those with low health literacy had greater confidence in the federal government response. LIMITATION: Cross-sectional study of adults with underlying health conditions in 1 city during the initial week of the COVID-19 U.S. outbreak. CONCLUSION: Many adults with comorbid conditions lacked critical knowledge about COVID-19 and, despite concern, were not changing routines or plans. Noted disparities suggest that greater public health efforts may be needed to mobilize the most vulnerable communities. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Vulnerable Populations , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
6.
J Health Soc Sci ; 5(2): 231-240, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1989939

ABSTRACT

Recent media articles have suggested that women-led countries are doing better in terms of their responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. We examine an ensemble of public health metrics to assess the control of COVID-19 epidemic in women-versus men-led countries worldwide based on data available up to June 3. The median of the distribution of median time-varying effective reproduction number for women- and men-led countries were 0.89 and 1.14 respectively with the 95% two-sample bootstrap-based confidence interval for the difference (women - men) being [-0.34, 0.02]. In terms of scale of testing, the median percentage of population tested were 3.28% (women), 1.59% (men) [95% CI: (-1.29%, 3.60%)] with test positive rates of 2.69% (women) and 4.94% (men) respectively. It appears that though statistically not significant, countries led by women have an edge over countries led by men in terms of public health metrics for controlling the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic worldwide.

7.
Am J Med Case Rep ; 8(8): 225-228, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1989681

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic that started in China in December 2019 and carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality. To-date (4-22-2020) it affected over 2.6 million people and resulted in nearly 200,000 death worldwide mainly due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2). Among the major underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms in COVID 19 is hypercoagulability, leading to increased risk for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism that contribute to increased morbidity and mortality. In this report, we present the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with COVID-19 pneumonia, and was found to have a thrombus in transit by routine point of care ultrasound (POCUS). While computer tomography (CT) angiography is the test of choice, the utilization of point of care ultrasound (POCUS) has gained traction as an adjunctive means of surveillance for the development of VTE in patients with COVID-19. In this report, we discuss the clinical utility of POCUS in diagnosing thrombus in transit in COVID 19 populations.

8.
Am J Med Case Rep ; 8(7): 192-196, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1989680

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic that started in the Wuhan province of China in December 2019. It is associated with increased morbidity and mortality mainly due to severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-Cov-2). Cardiac manifestations related to COVID-19 include demand ischemia, fulminant myocarditis, myocardial infarction and arrhythmias. In this report, we present a case of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in a 68-year-old man with COVID-19 who initially presented with chest pain and shortness of breath. Patient's STEMI was managed with pharmaco-invasive strategy with tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). He then developed acute hypoxic respiratory failure that was managed in the intensive care unit (ICU), together with multi-organ failure from which the patient died 2 days after presentation. Although the pathophysiologic mechanisms of STEMI in COVID-19 patients has not been clearly established, we hypothesize that interrelated pathogenetic factors, that we highlight in this report, can play a role in the development of STEMI, including plaque rupture secondary to systemic inflammation, increased pro-coagulants, endothelial dysfunction, impaired fibrinolysis and impaired oxygen utilization leading to demand/supply mismatch and myocardial ischemia.

9.
Am J Med Case Rep ; 8(10): 350-357, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1989679

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pandemic that started in Wuhan city, Hubei province in China in December 2019 and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is characterized by a heightened inflammatory and prothrombotic state that are known to cause various cardiovascular manifestations such as thromboembolism, acute coronary syndrome and stroke. We here present a 72-year-old woman with multiple cardiovascular risk factors and COVI 19 pneumonia who presented with acute ischemic stroke. She was also noted to have ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) on the electrocardiogram however the imaging and clinical presentation was consistent with apical takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We here discuss the various pathophysiologic mechanisms by which COVID-19 can result in acute stroke. The patient likely developed takotsubo cardiomyopathy because of stroke and acute COVID-19 induced sympathetic stimulation and catecholamine surge. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of apical variant of takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a COVID-19 report.

10.
Am J Med Case Rep ; 8(10): 337-340, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1989678

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) is currently a public health emergency and has been listed by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a pandemic. It has commonly been associated with pulmonary manifestations and there is a growing body of evidence of multisystem involvement of the virus. As evidenced by various case reports and cohort studies, COVID-19-associated coagulopathy has been a common manifestation amongst the critically ill and has been associated with increased mortality. The presence of venous thromboembolic events in patients who are critically ill due to COVID-19 has prompted the adoption of anticoagulation regimens aimed at preventing thromboembolic phenomena. Coagulation abnormalities have also been implicated in the progression and the severity of COVID-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). There is strong evidence that D-dimer levels help predict which patients are at risk of thromboembolic events, progression to ARDS, DIC, immune dysregulation and mortality. We will review the utility of D-dimer as screening tool and in the risk stratification of COVID-19 patients prone to developing thromboembolic events, DIC, immune dysregulation and death. To date, the studies that have been published show the presence of elevated D-dimer levels in both the adult and pediatric populations and the measured level correlates with disease severity. Studies have also shown the relative increase of D-dimer levels in non-survivors compared to survivors. The elevation of D-dimer levels has shown to guide clinical decision making, namely the initiation of therapeutic anticoagulation and mortality benefit in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia compared to severe non COVID-19 pneumonia. Although the current body of literature suggested the use of D-dimer as a risk stratification tool and as a test to augment clinical judgement regarding the initiation of anticoagulation, randomized control trials are needed to fully understand the relationship between COVID-19 infection and the efficacy of D-dimer assays in clinical decision making.

12.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(5): 784, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1382164
13.
Minerva Med ; 113(4): 695-706, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975625

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease characterized by systemic inflammation, which might enhance baseline thrombotic risk, especially in hospitalized patients. Little is, however, known about predictors of thrombotic complications in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We prospectively followed up 180 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Demographics, clinical and laboratory features at presentation and past medical history were tested as predictors of the first thrombotic complication through multivariate Cox regression analysis and a categorical score generated based on the results. RESULTS: Sixty-four thromboses were recorded in 54 patients, of whom seven with thrombosis on admission and 47 with thrombosis during hospitalization. Patients with thrombosis were mainly Caucasian and diabetic, had marked baseline signs of inflammation and organ damage, lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio, higher D-dimer levels and history of major hemorrhages. The latter three variables were independently associated to thrombotic complications and concurred to a 0-5 score, which accounted for 80% of the total sample variability. Patients with three or more points of the newly generated score were at higher risk for thrombotic complications (HR=4.9, P<0.001). Patients with thrombotic complications were more likely to be admitted to intensive care and/or to die (HR=1.9, P=0.036). Five of 180 patients were diagnosed with disseminated intravascular coagulation and three of them died. Eleven minor and no major bleeding events were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk for thrombosis and might be stratified on admission based on lower Pao2/FiO2 ratio, higher D-dimer levels and history of major hemorrhages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thromboembolism , Thrombosis , Algorithms , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hemorrhage , Humans , Inflammation , Preliminary Data , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology
14.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120 Suppl 1: S77-S85, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: A synthesis design and multistate analysis is required for assessing the clinical efficacy of antiviral therapy on dynamics of multistate disease progression and in reducing the mortality and enhancing the recovery of patients with COVID-19. A case study on remdesivir was illustrated for the clinical application of such a novel design and analysis. METHODS: A Bayesian synthesis design was applied to integrating the empirical evidence on the one-arm compassion study and the two-arm ACTT-1 trial for COVID-19 patients treated with remdesivir. A multistate model was developed to model the dynamics of hospitalized COVID-19 patients from three transient states of low, medium-, and high-risk until the two outcomes of recovery and death. The outcome measures for clinical efficacy comprised high-risk state, death, and discharge. RESULTS: The efficacy of remdesivir in reducing the risk of death and enhancing the odds of recovery were estimated as 31% (95% CI, 18-44%) and 10% (95% CI, 1-18%), respectively. Remdesivir therapy for patients with low-risk state showed the efficacy in reducing subsequent progression to high-risk state and death by 26% (relative rate (RR), 0.74; 95% CI, 0.55-0.93) and 62% (RR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.29-0.48), respectively. Less but still statistically significant efficacy in mortality reduction was noted for the medium- and high-risk patients. Remdesivir treated patients had a significantly shorter period of hospitalization (9.9 days) compared with standard care group (12.9 days). CONCLUSION: The clinical efficacy of remdesvir therapy in reducing mortality and accelerating discharge has been proved by the Bayesian synthesis design and multistate analysis.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
15.
Can J Ophthalmol ; 57(4): 236-241, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972162

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate vascular changes in the early period after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and at 6-month follow-up. METHODS: This study included 50 eyes of 25 patients who had been hospitalized for polymerase chain reaction-positive COVID-19 infection and 50 eyes of 25 healthy individuals. All subjects underwent optical coherence tomography angiography using a 6 × 6 macular protocol in the early period after hospital discharge and 6 months later. Foveal vessel density (VD) and parafoveal VD values were measured from 4 quadrants (superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal) of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and the deep capillary plexus (DCP). The choriocapillaris (CC) flow area and the foveal avascular zone area also were measured. The OCTA measurements of the patient group were compared both between time points and with the control group at each time point. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients showed lower VD values than control subjects in all parafoveal quadrants of both the SCP (superior, p = 0.01; inferior, p = 0.048; nasal, p = 0.003; temporal, p = 0.048) and the DCP (superior, p = 0.001; inferior, p = 0.011; nasal, p = 0.012; temporal, p = 0.018) at the initial checkup and in all parafoveal quadrants of the SCP (superior, p = 0.0001; inferior, p = 0.007; nasal, p = 0.001; temporal, p = 0.017) and in 2 of the parafoveal quadrants of the DCP (superior, p = 0.003; inferior, p = 0.016) at 6-month follow-up. CC flow area values were significantly lower at the 6-month follow-up than at the initial examination (p = 0.044). CONCLUSION: It is important to perform appropriate follow-up for COVID-19 patients because retinal vascular flow changes may persist in the long term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Retinal Vessels , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Fovea Centralis/blood supply , Humans , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
17.
Pathologe ; 42(Suppl 1): 89-97, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A dysregulated immune response is considered one of the major factors leading to severe COVID-19. Previously described mechanisms include the development of a cytokine storm, missing immunoglobulin class switch, antibody-mediated enhancement, and aberrant antigen presentation. OBJECTIVES: To understand the heterogeneity of immune response in COVID-19, a thorough investigation of histomorphological patterns in regional lymph nodes was performed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lymph nodes from the cervical, mediastinal, and hilar regions were extracted from autopsies of patients with lethal COVID-19 (n = 20). Histomorphological characteristics, SARS-CoV­2 qRT-PCR, and gene expression profiling on common genes involved in immunologic response were analyzed. RESULTS: Lymph nodes displayed moderate to severe capillary stasis and edema, an increased presence of extrafollicular plasmablasts, mild to moderate plasmacytosis, a dominant population of CD8+ T­cells, and CD11c/CD68+ histiocytosis with hemophagocytic activity. Out of 20 cases, 18 presented with hypoplastic or missing germinal centers with a decrease of follicular dendritic cells and follicular T­helper cells. A positive viral load was detected by qRT-PCR in 14 of 20 cases, yet immunohistochemistry for SARS-CoV-2 N-antigen revealed positivity in sinus histiocytes of only one case. Gene expression analysis revealed an increased expression of STAT1, CD163, granzyme B, CD8A, MZB1, and PAK1, as well as CXCL9. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings imply a dysregulated immune response in lethal COVID-19. The absence/hypoplasia of germinal centers and increased presence of plasmablasts implies a transient B­cell response, implying an impaired development of long-term immunity against SARS-CoV­2 in such occasions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Lung , Lymph Nodes , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 39(3): 676-687, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1970080

ABSTRACT

Systemic autoimmune diseases (SAD) are a heterogeneous group of diseases with a common aetiopathogenic basis affecting all ages characterised by a systemic phenotypic expression with a wide range of severity and outcomes that often require immunosuppressive therapies, leaving patients at high risk of infection. Knowledge of the impact of COVID-19 in patients with SAD is limited because most are included in studies carried out in patients with autoimmune and rheumatic diseases (mainly inflammatory arthritis). Most studies supported an increased risk of SARS-Cov-2 infection in patients with AD and SAD. Although case-control studies reported no significant differences in the rate of poor outcomes between patients with and without AD, large population-based studies analysing baseline risk factors reported a 2-3 times higher rate of poor outcomes in patients with AD, especially in those with SAD. Individual risk factors associated with poor outcomes included gender male, older age, and underlying comorbidities and therapies (glucocorticoids, sulfasalazine, immunosuppressants and rituximab). Patients with SAD had less favourable COVID-19 outcomes than those with inflammatory arthritis, possibly due to a differentiated underlying therapeutic approach (glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants and B-cell depleting agents for most SAD, anti-cytokine therapies and JAK inhibitors for inflammatory arthritis). Despite the limited evidence, most studies suggest that patients with SAD have an increased risk of a worse evolution of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including a greater risk of hospitalisation/ICU admission and worse survival rates and, therefore, should be considered a high-risk group for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Aged , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Mycoses ; 2020 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a complication of respiratory bacterial and viral infections such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). PATIENTS/METHODS: In University Hospital La Paz (Madrid, Spain), we reviewed the clinical and demographic characteristics of 10 patients with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) PCR and Aspergillus spp. isolate in respiratory samples. We also recovered results of galactomannan tests in serum and/or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples. RESULTS: Eight male and two female from 51 to 76 years were recovered. They had reported risk factors to develop IPA (haematological malignancies, immunosuppression, diabetes, obesity, intensive care unit stay, among others). Azole susceptible Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated in nine patients and Aspergillus nidulans was isolated in one patient. Only one case was classified as probable aspergillosis, seven cases as putative aspergillosis, and two cases were not classifiable. Eight patients received antifungal treatment. Seven patients died (70%), two are still inpatient due to nosocomial infections and one was discharged referred to another institution. CONCLUSIONS: This clinical entity has high mortality, and therefore, it should be performed surveillance with early galactomannan tests and cultures in respiratory samples in order to improve the outcome of the patients with this condition.

20.
Anaesthesist ; 70(Suppl 1): 19-29, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1958962

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019 a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread around the world resulting in an acute respiratory illness pandemic. The immense challenges for clinicians and hospitals as well as the strain on many healthcare systems has been unprecedented.The majority of patients present with mild symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, 5-8% become critically ill and require intensive care treatment. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure with severe dyspnea and an increased respiratory rate (>30/min) usually leads to intensive care unit (ICU) admission. At this point bilateral pulmonary infiltrates are typically seen. Patients often develop a severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).So far, remdesivir and dexamethasone have shown clinical effectiveness in severe COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. The main goal of supportive treatment is to ascertain adequate oxygenation. Invasive mechanical ventilation and repeated prone positioning are key elements in treating severely hypoxemic COVID-19 patients.Strict adherence to basic infection control measures (including hand hygiene) and correct use of personal protection equipment (PPE) are essential in the care of patients. Procedures that lead to formation of aerosols should be carried out with utmost precaution and preparation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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