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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9849, 2021 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223110

ABSTRACT

Several studies have examined the transmission dynamics of the novel COVID-19 disease in different parts of the world. Some have reported relationships with various environmental variables, suggesting that spread of the disease is enhanced in colder and drier climates. However, evidence is still scarce and mostly limited to a few countries, particularly from Asia. We examined the potential role of multiple environmental variables in COVID-19 infection rate [measured as mean relative infection rate = (number of infected inhabitants per week / total population) × 100.000) from February 23 to August 16, 2020 across 360 cities of Chile. Chile has a large climatic gradient (≈ 40º of latitude, ≈ 4000 m of altitude and 5 climatic zones, from desert to tundra), but all cities share their social behaviour patterns and regulations. Our results indicated that COVID-19 transmission in Chile was mostly related to three main climatic factors (minimum temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity). Transmission was greater in colder and drier cities and when atmospheric pressure was lower. The results of this study support some previous findings about the main climatic determinants of COVID-19 transmission, which may be useful for decision-making and management of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Environment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seasons , Altitude , Atmospheric Pressure , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Chile/epidemiology , Humans , Humidity , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Temperature , Tundra
2.
Neurosci Lett ; 748: 135694, 2021 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188917

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 often complain of smell and taste disorders (STD). STD emerge early in the course of the disease, seem to be more common in SARS-CoV-2 infection than in other upper respiratory tract infections, and could in some cases persist for long after resolution of respiratory symptoms. Current evidence suggests that STD probably result from a loss of function of olfactory sensory neurons and taste buds, mainly caused by infection, inflammation, and subsequent dysfunction of supporting non-neuronal cells in the mucosa. However, the possible occurrence of other mechanisms leading to chemosensory dysfunction has also been hypothesized, and contrasting data have been reported regarding the direct infection of sensory neurons by SARS-CoV-2. In this mini-review, we summarize the currently available literature on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and outcomes of STD in COVID-19 and discuss possible future directions of research on this topic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Taste Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mouth Mucosa/immunology , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Olfactory Mucosa/immunology , Olfactory Mucosa/pathology , Olfactory Receptor Neurons/immunology , Olfactory Receptor Neurons/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Smell/physiology , Taste/physiology , Taste Buds/immunology , Taste Buds/pathology , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology
3.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(33): 3502-3525, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115351

ABSTRACT

The pandemic, well-known as COVID-19, has been caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and it has distinct characteristics from other coronavirus-related epidemics. This pandemic has been ravaging the whole world for more than a year now, and no drugs or vaccines have been found to eliminate this virus from the infected people effectively; only physical measures like social distancing, hand washing and face-mask wearing have been taken to reduce its spread and very recently Veklury (remdesivir) has been permitted by the USFDA to manage the critical patients. This disease can be asymptomatic, but when it is symptomatic, it presents with respiratory problems and cold- or flu-like symptoms, which can be diagnosed with a chest CT and confirmed with RT-PCR tests. In this review, the taxonomy and structure of SARS-CoV-2 and history, transmission, epidemiology, pathology, clinical features and impacts of the COVID-19 have been discussed. A summary of possible drug targets, attempted physical and chemical measures, as well as vaccine candidates, has also been provided. How this coronavirus is different from other coronaviruses, the obstacles in managing this disease and the possibility of a second wave have also been reviewed. This review represents a wide range of information regarding COVID-19 and intends to be used as a comprehensive overview in this regard.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Health Secur ; 19(2): 195-208, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926569

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses OC43, 229E, NL63, and HKU1 are endemic human respiratory coronaviruses that typically cause mild to moderate upper respiratory infections, similar to the common cold. They also may cause simple and complicated lower respiratory infections, otitis media, asthma exacerbations, gastroenteritis, and a few systemic complications. These viruses are usually seasonal (with winter dominance) and affect nearly all age groups. The seasonal and annual variation in virus prevalence has implications for understanding the concept of acquired immunity and its persistence or diminution. Coronaviruses generally have outbreak potential in susceptible populations of any age, particularly in patients with comorbidities, who tend to have increased clinical disease. These 4 coronaviruses are often found in the context of what appears to be coinfection with other pathogens, but especially other viruses. If coronaviruses are not specifically tested for, the sole detection of a viral copathogen would suggest the pathogen is the causative agent, when a coronavirus may be culpable, or both. The detection of these viruses in circumstances where respiratory viruses are generally sought in clinical samples is, therefore, justified. These pathogens can be chronically shed from the respiratory tract, which is more likely to occur among immunocompromised and complicated patients. These viruses share the potential for genetic drift. The genome is among the largest of RNA viruses, and the capability of these viruses to further change is likely underestimated. Given the potential disease among humans, it is justified to search for effective antiviral chemotherapy for these viruses and to consider uses in niche situations should effective therapy be defined. Whereas SARS-CoV-2 may follow the epidemiological pattern of SARS-CoV and extinguish slowly over time, there is yet concern that SARS-CoV-2 may establish itself as an endemic human respiratory coronavirus similar to OC43, 2299E, NL63, and HKU1. Until sufficient data are acquired to better understand the potential of SARS-CoV-2, continued work on antiviral therapy and vaccination is imperative.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endemic Diseases , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Genetic Drift , Humans , Prevalence , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Seasons
5.
Hormones (Athens) ; 20(1): 219-221, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-648840

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is an inflammatory thyroid disorder of viral origin, generally preceded by an upper respiratory tract infection. Since the disorder is self-limiting, it is frequently underdiagnosed. However, the disease should not be overlooked since the associated thyrotoxicosis may worsen the clinical course of concomitant disorders (e.g., respiratory distress) and long-term sequelae, such as autoimmune hypothyroidism, have been reported. METHODS: Here we describe a woman who developed SAT with thyrotoxicosis after SARS-COV-2 infection. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) symptoms were mild and the patient was managed with no specific treatment and recovered rapidly. RESULTS: Six weeks after the onset of the upper respiratory tract infection, the patient developed pain and tenderness in the anterior cervical region, fatigue, tremors, and palpitations. Physical examination revealed mild tremors of the extremities, a diffuse and painful goiter, and enlarged and tender cervical and submandibular lymph nodes. At biochemical evaluation, TSH was suppressed, FT3 and FT4 were high, and serum thyroglobulin was markedly increased (188 pg/mL; n.v. 0-40). Thyroid scintigraphy showed markedly reduced 99mTc-perthecnetate uptake in the gland. All findings were consistent with SAT, and treatment with oral prednisone (25 mg/day as the starting dose, gradually tapered) was started. Under the corticosteroid therapy, there was progressive resolution of symptoms and signs, and, within 4 weeks, all thyroid functional tests and inflammatory indexes normalized. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should be aware of thyroid manifestations potentially associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroiditis, Subacute/complications , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Thyroiditis, Subacute/drug therapy
6.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 224: 113418, 2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-3088

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ambient PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤1 µm) is an important contribution of PM2.5 mass. However, little is known worldwide regarding the PM1-associated health effects due to a wide lack of ground-based PM1 measurements from air monitoring stations. METHODS: We collected daily records of hospital admission for respiratory diseases and station-based measurements of air pollution and weather conditions in Shenzhen, China, 2015-2016. Time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression models were adopted to estimate hospitalization risks associated with short-term exposures to PM1 and PM2.5. RESULTS: PM1 and PM2.5 showed significant adverse effects on respiratory disease hospitalizations, while no evident associations with PM1-2.5 were identified. Admission risks for total respiratory diseases were 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 1.14) and 1.06 (1.02 to 1.10), corresponding to per 10 µg/m3 rise in exposure to PM1 and PM2.5 at lag 0-2 days, respectively. Both PM1 and PM2.5 were strongly associated with increased admission for pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, but exhibited no effects on asthma and upper respiratory tract infection. Largely comparable risk estimates were observed between male and female patients. Groups aged 0-14 years and 45-74 years were significantly affected by PM1- and PM2.5-associated risks. PM-hospitalization associations exhibited a clear seasonal pattern, with significantly larger risks in cold season than those in warm season among some subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that PM1 rather than PM1-2.5 contributed to PM2.5-induced risks of hospitalization for respiratory diseases and effects of PM1 and PM2.5 mainly occurred in cold season.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Air Pollutants , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cross-Over Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Particulate Matter , Pneumonia , Seasons , Young Adult
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