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1.
Orbit ; 41(4): 498-501, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967728

ABSTRACT

A 34-year-old man presented with an 8-day history of swelling and ptosis affecting the right upper eyelid. An MRI scan showed right superior rectus enlargement. Histology of an incisional biopsy of the muscle demonstrated metastatic choriocarcinoma to the orbit, positive for pan-cytokeratins, beta-HCG and GATA3. Possible primary sites included testis. An ultrasound of the testes identified bilateral testicular masses, highly suspicious for primary testicular malignancy. A CT scan of the chest, abdomen and pelvis identified disseminated metastatic disease conferring a poor prognostic germ cell tumour. The overall interpretation was of disseminated testicular choriocarcinoma and the patient is currently undergoing intensive chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Choriocarcinoma , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Testicular Neoplasms , Adult , Choriocarcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Choriocarcinoma/drug therapy , Eyelids/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Pregnancy , Testicular Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Testicular Neoplasms/drug therapy , Testicular Neoplasms/pathology
2.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3443-3447, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: COVID-19 affects the brain in various ways, amongst which delirium is worrying. An assessment was made of whether a specific, long-lasting, COVID-19-related brain injury develops in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients after life-saving re-oxygenation. METHODS: Ten COVID+ patients (COVID+) with unusual delirium associated with neuroimaging suggestive of diffuse brain injury and seven controls with non-COVID encephalopathy were studied. The assessment took place when the intractable delirium started at weaning off ventilation support. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed followed by standard cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses and assessment of CSF erythropoietin concentrations (as a marker for the assessment of tissue repair), and of non-targeted CSF metabolomics using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Patients were similar as regards severity scores, but COVID+ were hospitalized longer (25 [11.75; 25] vs. 9 [4.5; 12.5] days, p = 0.03). On admission, but not at MRI and lumbar puncture performance, COVID+ were more hypoxic (p = 0.002). On MRI, there were leptomeningeal enhancement and diffuse white matter haemorrhages only in COVID+. In the latter, CSF erythropoietin concentration was lower (1.73 [1.6; 2.06] vs. 3.04 [2.9; 3.91] mIU/ml, p = 0.01), and CSF metabolomics indicated (a) increased compounds such as foodborne molecules (sesquiterpenes), molecules from industrialized beverages and micro-pollutants (diethanolamine); and (b) decreased molecules such as incomplete breakdown products of protein catabolism and foodborne molecules (glabridin). At 3-month discharge, fatigue, anxiety and depression as well as MRI lesions persisted in COVID+. CONCLUSIONS: Some COVID+ are at risk of a specific delirium. Imperfect brain repair after re-oxygenation and lifestyle factors might influence long-lasting brain injuries in a context of foodborne micro-pollutants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delirium , Environmental Pollutants , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Critical Care , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As of 8 April 2021, a total of 2.9 million people have died with or from the coronavirus infection causing COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019). On 29 January 2021, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) approved a COVID-19 vaccine developed by Oxford University and AstraZeneca (AZD1222, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, COVID-19 vaccine AstraZeneca, Vaxzevria, Covishield). While the vaccine prevents severe course of and death from COVID-19, the observation of pulmonary, abdominal, and intracranial venous thromboembolic events has raised concerns. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical manifestations and the concerning management of patients with cranial venous sinus thrombosis following first exposure to the "COVID-19 vaccine AstraZeneca". METHODS: Patient files, laboratory findings, and diagnostic imaging results, and endovascular interventions of three concerning patients were evaluated in retrospect. RESULTS: Three women with intracranial venous sinus thrombosis after their first vaccination with "COVID-19 vaccine AstraZeneca" were encountered. Patient #1 was 22 years old and developed headaches four days after the vaccination. On day 7, she experienced a generalized epileptic seizure. Patient #2 was 46 years old. She presented with severe headaches, hemianopia to the right, and mild aphasia 13 days after the vaccination. MRI showed a left occipital intracerebral hemorrhage. Patient #3 was 36 years old and presented 17 days after the vaccination with acute somnolence and right-hand hemiparesis. The three patients were diagnosed with extensive venous sinus thrombosis. They were managed by heparinization and endovascular recanalization of their venous sinuses. They shared similar findings: elevated levels of D-dimers, platelet factor 4 antiplatelet antibodies, corona spike protein antibodies, combined with thrombocytopenia. Under treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin, platelet counts normalized within several days. CONCLUSION: Early observations insinuate that the exposure to the "COVID-19 vaccine AstraZeneca" might trigger the expression of antiplatelet antibodies, resulting in a condition with thrombocytopenia and venous thrombotic events (e.g., intracranial venous sinus thrombosis). These patients' treatment should address the thrombo-embolic manifestations, the coagulation disorder, and the underlying immunological phenomena.

4.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(8): 2603-2613, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skeletal and neurological symptoms. Behavioral symptoms with cognitive impairment may mimic the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and other early-onset dementias. Our patients were analyzed and the literature was reviewed to delineate neurological and neuroimaging findings suggestive of NHD. METHOD: Fourteen patients carrying a pathogenic mutation in the TREM2 gene were found in our database. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological data were retrieved and analyzed. RESULTS: The presenting clinical picture was behavioral changes with cognitive decline resembling bvFTD in all patients. The mean age was 37.1 ± 4.97 years and the mean duration of the disease was 8.9 ± 3.51 years. Only two patients had typical bone cysts. Seven patients had bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia in computed tomography of the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed severe atrophy of the corpus callosum, enlargement of the ventricles, atrophy of the caudate nuclei and periventricular white matter changes in all patients. Symmetrical global atrophy of the brain mainly affecting frontoparietal and lateral temporal regions were observed in all cases, and 13 patients had atrophy of the hippocampus. Cerebrospinal fluid examination of 10 patients showed elevated protein levels in six and the presence of oligoclonal bands in four patients. CONCLUSION: A combination of white matter changes, enlarged ventricles, atrophy of the caudate nuclei and thinning of the corpus callosum in magnetic resonance imaging strongly suggests NHD in patients with FTD syndrome. Molecular genetic analysis should be performed in suspected cases, and families should receive genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Frontotemporal Dementia , Lipodystrophy , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Osteochondrodysplasias , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis , Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Frontotemporal Dementia/diagnostic imaging , Frontotemporal Dementia/genetics , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging
5.
World J Surg Oncol ; 18(1): 264, 2020 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455977

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of patients with colorectal cancer develop colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). CRLM that become undetectable by imaging after chemotherapy are called disappearing liver metastases (DLM). But a DLM is not necessarily equal to cure. An increasing incidence of patients with DLM provides surgeons with a difficult dilemma: to resect or to not resect the original sites of DLM? The aim of this review was to investigate to what extent a DLM equates a complete response (CR) and to compare outcomes. METHODS: This review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines and registered in Prospero (registration number CRD42017070441). Literature search was made in the PubMed and Embase databases. During the process of writing, PubMed was repeatedly searched and reference lists of included studies were screened for additional studies of interest for this review. Results were independently screened by two authors with the Covidence platform. Studies eligible for inclusion were those reporting outcomes of DLM in adult patients undergoing surgery following chemotherapy. RESULTS: Fifteen studies were included with a total of 2955 patients with CRLM. They had 4742 CRLM altogether. Post-chemotherapy, patients presented with 1561 DLM. Patients with one or more DLM ranged from 7 to 48% (median 19%). Median DLM per patient was 3.4 (range 0.4-5.6). Patients were predominantly evaluated by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) before and after chemotherapy, with some exceptions and with addition of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in some studies. Intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS) was universally performed in all but two studies. If a DLM remained undetectable by IOUS, this DLM represented a CR in 24-96% (median 77.5%). Further, if a DLM on preoperative CE-CT remained undetectable by additional workup with MRI and CE-IOUS, this DLM was equal to a CR in 75-94% (median 89%). Patients with resected DLM had a longer disease-free survival compared to patients with DLM left in situ but statistically significant differences in overall survival could not be found. CONCLUSION: Combination of CE-CT, MRI, and IOUS showed promising results in accurately identifying DLM with CR. This suggests that leaving DLM in situ could be an alternative to surgical resection when a DLM remains undetectable by MRI and IOUS.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Liver Neoplasms , Adult , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Contrast Media , Hepatectomy , Humans , Intraoperative Care , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prognosis
6.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 5(2): ytaa521, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the first documented outbreak of a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome inducing Coronavirus in China at the end of 2019 the virus has spread to all continents, leading the WHO to declare a pandemic in March 2020. While this virus primarily targets the alveoli in the lungs, multiple authors have described an increased rate of thrombo-embolic events in affected patients. We present this case of a myocardial infarction with no obstructive coronary atherosclerosis in an otherwise healthy 48-year-old patient. CASE SUMMARY: A 48-year-old female, presenting with chest pain radiating to her left shoulder with no cardiovascular risk factors other than genetic predisposition, was screened for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and tested positive. Although computed tomography angiography excluded obstructive coronary heart disease, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed an acute myocardial infarction with no obstructive coronary arteries of the inferior wall. The patient was treated with dual anti-platelet therapy, an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor and a statin, and assigned to a cardiac rehabilitation program. CONCLUSION: We report a serious thrombo-embolic event during an oligosymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in a healthy, young patient. While these two diseases may have occurred simultaneously, by chance, it is possible that the pro-thrombotic effects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection facilitated the infarction. This case further demonstrates the significant cardiovascular morbidity potentially caused by SARS-CoV-2.

7.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(5): 403-409, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak of the temporal bone is an emerging clinical entity for which prompt and accurate diagnosis is difficult given the subtle signs and symptoms that patients present with. This study sought to describe the key temporal bone abnormalities in patients with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of adult patients with biochemically confirmed spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak. Demographics and radiological features identified on computed tomography imaging of the temporal bones and/or magnetic resonance imaging were analysed. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak were identified. Fifty-four patients (88.5 per cent) underwent both temporal bone computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Despite imaging revealing bilateral defects in over 75 per cent of the cohort, only two patients presented with bilateral spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Anterior tegmen mastoideum defects were most common, with an average size of 2.5 mm (range, 1-10 mm). CONCLUSION: Temporal bone computed tomography is sensitive for the identification of defects when suspicion exists. In the setting of an opacified middle ear and/or mastoid, close examination of the skull base is crucial given that this fluid is potentially cerebrospinal fluid.


Subject(s)
Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak/diagnostic imaging , Temporal Bone/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak/etiology , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak/therapy , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
8.
ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec ; 83(6): 387-394, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262429

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There are limited treatment options for postinfectious olfactory dysfunction (PIOD). Olfactory training has recently been used in clinical practice, but no medical treatment is widely accepted. Although there is weak evidence for their value, some physicians use oral corticosteroids as first-line treatment. The aim of this study was to compare combined oral methylprednisolone and olfactory training with olfactory training alone in the management of PIOD. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 131 patients with PIOD over a 2-year period before the COVID-19 pandemic. Seventy-eight patients who were treated with oral methylprednisolone and olfactory training (group A) were compared with 53 patients who were treated with olfactory training only (group B). Olfactory function was evaluated with "Sniffin' Sticks" at baseline and 2, 8, and 16 weeks after initial assessment. Patients who improved after steroid treatment underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the paranasal sinuses, skin prick tests, lung spirometry, and sputum eosinophil assessment. RESULTS: Oral steroids improved 19.23% of patients (n = 15) of group A. History, clinical evaluation, imaging, and laboratory tests identified an inflammatory background in half of them (n = 8). The remaining 7 had no findings of nasal inflammation, and all had a short history of olfactory dysfunction. Both groups significantly improved in olfactory testing results at the end of the olfactory training scheme without significant difference between them. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of improved patients after oral methylprednisolone was relatively low to suggest it as first-line treatment. Half of the improved patients had an underlying upper airway inflammatory condition not related to the infection that caused the acute loss of olfactory function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/drug therapy , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids
9.
J Neurovirol ; 27(4): 656-661, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260618

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) commonly results in a respiratory illness in symptomatic patients; however, those critically ill can develop a leukoencephalopathy. We describe two patients who had novel subacute MRI findings in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) leukoencephalopathy, which we hypothesize could implicate a potent small-vessel vasculitis, ischemic demyelination and the presence of prolonged ischemia. Recent evidence of the direct neuroinvasiness of SARS-CoV-2 leading to ischemia and vascular damage supports this hypothesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Demyelinating Diseases/pathology , Leukoencephalopathies/pathology , Leukoencephalopathies/virology , Vasculitis, Central Nervous System/pathology , Demyelinating Diseases/virology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasculitis, Central Nervous System/virology
10.
J Pers Med ; 11(6)2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244055

ABSTRACT

From the beginning of SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic, it was clear that respiratory symptoms are often accompanied with neurological symptoms. Neurological manifestations can occur even after mild forms of respiratory disease, and neurological symptoms are very often associated with worsening of the patient's condition. The aim of this study was to show abnormal brain neuroimaging findings evaluated by MRI in patients after SARS-CoV-2 infection and neurological symptoms. Methods: Sixteen patients after mild forms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, twenty-three patients after moderate forms of SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as sixteen healthy participants in the control group underwent MRI 3T brain scan. All subjects in the SARS-CoV-2 group had small, punctuate, strategically located and newly formed hyperintense lesions on T2 and FLAIR sequences. New lesions were formed more often in the bilateral frontal subcortical and bilateral periventricular, correlated with the severity of the clinical picture. These changes indicate an example of silent cerebrovascular disease related to SARS-CoV-2 and once again emphasize the neurotropism of the virus.

11.
Cureus ; 13(5): e15018, 2021 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239165

ABSTRACT

We present the case of a nine-month-old male child with three days of fever, irritability, left focal seizure, and febrile focal status epilepticus. He had no history of previous comorbidities. A lumbar puncture was performed, which showed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocytosis; protein and glucose were normal, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) panel for 14 pathogens in CSF was negative. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) qualitative and quantitative tests were positive for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) upon arrival. An MRI performed one week after the initial onset showed findings suggestive of acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE). The patient required mechanical ventilation. However, his symptoms did not improve and follow-up imaging two weeks later showed progression of the disease with hemorrhagic changes. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of ANE associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-​2) infection in a pediatric patient.

12.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 5(5): ytab143, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) with features resembling Kawasaki disease has been reported in association with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). CASE SUMMARY: We report the rare case of a 22 months old boy with a history of operated simple transposition of the great arteries (TGA), who developed features of MIS-C likely to be associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection and involving the coronary arteries. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac catheterization showed long-distance ectasia of both coronary arteries after their origins and an origin stenosis of the right coronary artery with a perfusion defect. The patient was treated with oral anticoagulation together with antiplatelet therapy and remains under careful monitoring. DISCUSSION: This rare case demonstrates that also patients with TGA after the arterial switch operation (ASO) can develop coronary artery dilatation in association with MIS-C. The most interesting finding in this patient was that the origins of the reimplanted coronary arteries were not dilated. We speculate that scar tissue formation in the area of coronary artery transfer after ASO has prevented proximal coronary artery dilation.

13.
J Cardiol Cases ; 24(5): 203-205, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230593

ABSTRACT

There is growing evidence of the potential for cardiac involvement in patients who have been infected with COVID-19. In this case study, we present a patient with no history of cardiovascular disease, who was hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia and subsequently recovered. Despite normal serum troponin levels and left ventricular structure and function, multi-parametric cardiac magnetic resonance imaging revealed a classic myocarditis-like pattern of injury approximately 6 months after his convalescence. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of late myocardial injury/inflammation in patients with recovered COVID-19, even in the absence of elevated troponin levels and/or left ventricular dysfunction. .

14.
Neurol Sci ; 42(10): 4293-4296, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226223

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Sars-CoV-2 is a single-strained RNA virus belonging to Coronaviridae's family. In pediatric age, the majority of patients is asymptomatic; however, several neurological manifestations associated with Sars-CoV-2 infection have been detected in a percentage of cases ranging from 17.3 to 36.4%. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) has been recently included among the potential complications of Sars-Cov2 infection. The available data regarding pediatric patient show only one case. CASE REPORT: We present a case regarding a 6-year-old patient suffering from Fisher-Evans syndrome who was given sirolimus and thalidomide therapy. After 10 days since the first positive nasopharyngeal swab for Sars-CoV-2, in which he had no symptoms, he presented an episode of generalized tonic-clonic seizure with spontaneous resolution. The patient underwent MRI which showed the typical picture of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. His clinical course was favorable, with a good response to cortisone therapy and a progressive improvement of the neuroradiological and electroencephalographic picture. CONCLUSIONS: According to our knowledge, this is the second case of an acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following SARS-CoV-2 infection in a pediatric patient, characterized by monosymptomatic onset, in which the immunosuppressive therapy practiced for the Fisher-Evans syndrome has probably contributed to a favorable evolution of ADEM, in contrast to other case described in the literature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune , Child , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/diagnostic imaging , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/drug therapy , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/etiology , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia
15.
Epilepsy Res ; 174: 106650, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Post COVID-19 seizures are relatively rare. The aim of the present study was to estimate the frequency of acute symptomatic seizures among patients with COVID-19 and to discuss possible pathophysiological mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Out of 439 cases with COVID-19 that were admitted to Assiut and Aswan University hospitals during the period from 1 June to 10 August 2020, 19 patients (4.3 %) presented with acute symptomatic seizures. Each patient underwent computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and conventional electroencephalography (EEG). Laboratory investigations included: blood gases, complete blood picture, serum D-Dimer, Ferritin, C-reactive protein, renal and liver functions, and coagulation profile. RESULTS: Of the 19 patients, 3 had new onset seizures without underlying pathology (0.68 % out of the total 439 patients); 2 others (0.46 %) had previously diagnosed controlled epilepsy with breakthrough seizures. The majority of cases (14 patients, 3.19 %) had primary pathology that could explain the occurrence of seizures: 5 suffered a post COVID-19 stroke (3 ischemic and 2 hemorrhagic stroke); 6 patients had COVID-related encephalitis; 2 patients were old ischemic stroke patients; 1 patient had a brain tumor and developed seizures post COVID-19. CONCLUSION: acute symptomatic seizure is not a rare complication of post COVID-19 infection. Both new onset seizures and seizures secondary to primary brain insult (post COVID encephalitis or recent stroke) were observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Encephalitis, Viral/epidemiology , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Seizures/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Egypt/epidemiology , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(4)2021 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206018

ABSTRACT

A middle-aged woman with diabetes presented with left-sided facial pain, complete ptosis and fever of short duration. On presentation, she had hyperglycaemia without ketosis. There was total ophthalmoplegia of the left eye with a visual acuity of 6/36. She incidentally tested positive for COVID-19. CT paranasal sinus and MRI brain revealed left-sided pansinusitis with acute infarct in the left parieto-occipital region without angioinvasion. An emergency functional endoscopic sinus procedure was done, which confirmed mucormycosis on histopathological examination. After 1 week of conventional amphotericin B and antibiotics, repeat CT brain showed improvement in mucosal thickening and sinusitis. This case is a rare presentation of mucormycosis associated with rapid progression to orbital apex syndrome with brain infarction in a patient with non-ketotic diabetes and COVID-19. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent further end-organ damage. It is also interesting that there was no angioinvasion and transient periarterial inflammation was attributed to brain infarction.


Subject(s)
Blepharoptosis/complications , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Ophthalmoplegia/complications , Orbital Diseases/complications , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/complications , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Orbital Diseases/etiology , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
17.
Surg Neurol Int ; 12: 166, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the aftermath of COVID-19 outbreak, there is a strong need to find strategies to monitor SARSCoV-2 transmission. While the application of screening techniques plays a major role to this end, there is evidence challenging the real significance of seroconversion. We reported a case of COVID-19 reactivation associated with a neurosurgical operation with early neuropsychiatric involvement presumably promoted by olfactory and gustatory impairment in the first infection. CASE DESCRIPTIO: A 57-year-old man was referred for a 2-month history of progressive development of imbalance, dizziness, and vomiting. Magnetic resonance imaging showed two bilateral hemispheric cerebellar lesions. In line with our triage protocol, the patient underwent a nasopharyngeal swab for RNA of SARS-CoV-2 detection, which resulted positive. Of note, the patient had reported in the previous month hyposmia and hypogeusia. After a period of 14 days, three new swabs were performed with negative results, leading the way to surgery. In the early post-operative period, the patient manifested acute onset of psychotic symptoms with hyperactive delirium, followed by fever and acute respiratory failure. A chest computed tomography revealed a specific pattern of ground-glass opacities in the lower lobes bilaterally, suggesting a viral pneumonia. Serological tests demonstrated the seroconversion and a new nasopharyngeal swab confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSION: Our report highlights the importance of comprehensive screening assessments in sensitive cases highly susceptible to COVID-19 recurrence.

18.
J Neurovirol ; 27(3): 507-509, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193170

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) represents respiratory symptoms as the most common clinical manifestations. Similar to some other viral infections, it can cause severe neurological damages. Here, we describe a 40-year-old man case who initially was admitted to a major hospital with presenting 7 days with weak flu-like symptoms (cough) and fever then presented neurology signs for 3 days. Physical examination and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral vasculopathy. Molecular testing was performed on nasopharyngeal swab by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) which was positive for SARS-CoV-2. The patient received supportive cares and was treated with routine antiplatelet therapy. He was improved and discharged 10 days after admission with no symptoms. Our findings report a 40-year-old man with flu-like symptoms that indicate cerebral vasculopathy that was discharged with no symptoms. Therefore, physicians should be monitor patients with worsening or progressive central nervous system results. The pathobiology of this virus is still incompletely known; therefore, extensive studies are needed to reveal the effect of COVID-19 on the nervous system.


Subject(s)
Arteritis/virology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/complications , Adult , Humans , Iran , Male , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(6): 1037-1044, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188090

ABSTRACT

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) recently reported in a minority of children affected by SARS-CoV-2, mimics Kawasaki disease (KD), a medium vessel vasculitis of unknown cause. In contrast to acute COVID-19 infection, which is usually mild in children, 68% of patients with MIS-C will need intensive care unit. Myocarditis and coronary artery ectasia/aneurysm are included between the main cardiovascular complications in MIS-C. Therefore, close clinical assessment is need it both at diagnosis and during follow-up. Echocardiography is the cornerstone modality for myocardial function and coronary artery evaluation in the acute phase. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) detects diffuse myocardial inflammation including oedema/fibrosis, myocardial perfusion and coronary arteries anatomy during the convalescence and in adolescents, where echocardiography may provide inadequate images. Brain involvement in MIS-C is less frequent compared to cardiovascular disease. However, it is not unusual and should be monitored by clinical evaluation and brain magnetic resonance (MRI), as we still do not know its effect in brain development. Brain MRI in MIS-C shows T2-hyperintense lesions associated with restricted diffusion and bilateral thalamic lesions. To conclude, MIS-C is a multisystem disease affecting many vital organs, such as heart and brain. Clinical awareness, application of innovative, high technology imaging modalities and advanced treatment protocols including supportive and anti-inflammatory medication will help physicians to prevent the dreadful complications of MIS-C.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnosis , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronary Angiography , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology
20.
Glob Health Med ; 3(2): 60-61, 2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184129

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a threat worldwide over a year after the outbreak. Recently, several studies have reported that elevated serum troponin, which reflects myocardial injury, has a significant impact on worsening cardiovascular disease and the death of patients with COVID-19. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiography revealed abnormal myocardial findings in patients with COVID-19 who have recovered, as exemplified by a slight elevation of high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT). This editorial will discuss the impacts of SARS-CoV-2 on the heart of Japanese patients during infection and recovery and future perspectives.

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