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1.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(8): 2603-2613, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skeletal and neurological symptoms. Behavioral symptoms with cognitive impairment may mimic the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and other early-onset dementias. Our patients were analyzed and the literature was reviewed to delineate neurological and neuroimaging findings suggestive of NHD. METHOD: Fourteen patients carrying a pathogenic mutation in the TREM2 gene were found in our database. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological data were retrieved and analyzed. RESULTS: The presenting clinical picture was behavioral changes with cognitive decline resembling bvFTD in all patients. The mean age was 37.1 ± 4.97 years and the mean duration of the disease was 8.9 ± 3.51 years. Only two patients had typical bone cysts. Seven patients had bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia in computed tomography of the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed severe atrophy of the corpus callosum, enlargement of the ventricles, atrophy of the caudate nuclei and periventricular white matter changes in all patients. Symmetrical global atrophy of the brain mainly affecting frontoparietal and lateral temporal regions were observed in all cases, and 13 patients had atrophy of the hippocampus. Cerebrospinal fluid examination of 10 patients showed elevated protein levels in six and the presence of oligoclonal bands in four patients. CONCLUSION: A combination of white matter changes, enlarged ventricles, atrophy of the caudate nuclei and thinning of the corpus callosum in magnetic resonance imaging strongly suggests NHD in patients with FTD syndrome. Molecular genetic analysis should be performed in suspected cases, and families should receive genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Frontotemporal Dementia , Lipodystrophy , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Osteochondrodysplasias , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis , Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Frontotemporal Dementia/diagnostic imaging , Frontotemporal Dementia/genetics , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging
2.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(5): 403-409, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak of the temporal bone is an emerging clinical entity for which prompt and accurate diagnosis is difficult given the subtle signs and symptoms that patients present with. This study sought to describe the key temporal bone abnormalities in patients with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of adult patients with biochemically confirmed spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak. Demographics and radiological features identified on computed tomography imaging of the temporal bones and/or magnetic resonance imaging were analysed. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak were identified. Fifty-four patients (88.5 per cent) underwent both temporal bone computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Despite imaging revealing bilateral defects in over 75 per cent of the cohort, only two patients presented with bilateral spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Anterior tegmen mastoideum defects were most common, with an average size of 2.5 mm (range, 1-10 mm). CONCLUSION: Temporal bone computed tomography is sensitive for the identification of defects when suspicion exists. In the setting of an opacified middle ear and/or mastoid, close examination of the skull base is crucial given that this fluid is potentially cerebrospinal fluid.


Subject(s)
Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak/diagnostic imaging , Temporal Bone/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak/etiology , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak/therapy , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
3.
ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec ; 83(6): 387-394, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262429

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There are limited treatment options for postinfectious olfactory dysfunction (PIOD). Olfactory training has recently been used in clinical practice, but no medical treatment is widely accepted. Although there is weak evidence for their value, some physicians use oral corticosteroids as first-line treatment. The aim of this study was to compare combined oral methylprednisolone and olfactory training with olfactory training alone in the management of PIOD. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 131 patients with PIOD over a 2-year period before the COVID-19 pandemic. Seventy-eight patients who were treated with oral methylprednisolone and olfactory training (group A) were compared with 53 patients who were treated with olfactory training only (group B). Olfactory function was evaluated with "Sniffin' Sticks" at baseline and 2, 8, and 16 weeks after initial assessment. Patients who improved after steroid treatment underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the paranasal sinuses, skin prick tests, lung spirometry, and sputum eosinophil assessment. RESULTS: Oral steroids improved 19.23% of patients (n = 15) of group A. History, clinical evaluation, imaging, and laboratory tests identified an inflammatory background in half of them (n = 8). The remaining 7 had no findings of nasal inflammation, and all had a short history of olfactory dysfunction. Both groups significantly improved in olfactory testing results at the end of the olfactory training scheme without significant difference between them. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of improved patients after oral methylprednisolone was relatively low to suggest it as first-line treatment. Half of the improved patients had an underlying upper airway inflammatory condition not related to the infection that caused the acute loss of olfactory function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/drug therapy , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids
4.
J Pers Med ; 11(6)2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244055

ABSTRACT

From the beginning of SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic, it was clear that respiratory symptoms are often accompanied with neurological symptoms. Neurological manifestations can occur even after mild forms of respiratory disease, and neurological symptoms are very often associated with worsening of the patient's condition. The aim of this study was to show abnormal brain neuroimaging findings evaluated by MRI in patients after SARS-CoV-2 infection and neurological symptoms. Methods: Sixteen patients after mild forms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, twenty-three patients after moderate forms of SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as sixteen healthy participants in the control group underwent MRI 3T brain scan. All subjects in the SARS-CoV-2 group had small, punctuate, strategically located and newly formed hyperintense lesions on T2 and FLAIR sequences. New lesions were formed more often in the bilateral frontal subcortical and bilateral periventricular, correlated with the severity of the clinical picture. These changes indicate an example of silent cerebrovascular disease related to SARS-CoV-2 and once again emphasize the neurotropism of the virus.

5.
Neurol Sci ; 42(10): 4293-4296, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226223

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Sars-CoV-2 is a single-strained RNA virus belonging to Coronaviridae's family. In pediatric age, the majority of patients is asymptomatic; however, several neurological manifestations associated with Sars-CoV-2 infection have been detected in a percentage of cases ranging from 17.3 to 36.4%. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) has been recently included among the potential complications of Sars-Cov2 infection. The available data regarding pediatric patient show only one case. CASE REPORT: We present a case regarding a 6-year-old patient suffering from Fisher-Evans syndrome who was given sirolimus and thalidomide therapy. After 10 days since the first positive nasopharyngeal swab for Sars-CoV-2, in which he had no symptoms, he presented an episode of generalized tonic-clonic seizure with spontaneous resolution. The patient underwent MRI which showed the typical picture of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. His clinical course was favorable, with a good response to cortisone therapy and a progressive improvement of the neuroradiological and electroencephalographic picture. CONCLUSIONS: According to our knowledge, this is the second case of an acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following SARS-CoV-2 infection in a pediatric patient, characterized by monosymptomatic onset, in which the immunosuppressive therapy practiced for the Fisher-Evans syndrome has probably contributed to a favorable evolution of ADEM, in contrast to other case described in the literature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune , Child , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/diagnostic imaging , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/drug therapy , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/etiology , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia
6.
Epilepsy Res ; 174: 106650, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Post COVID-19 seizures are relatively rare. The aim of the present study was to estimate the frequency of acute symptomatic seizures among patients with COVID-19 and to discuss possible pathophysiological mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Out of 439 cases with COVID-19 that were admitted to Assiut and Aswan University hospitals during the period from 1 June to 10 August 2020, 19 patients (4.3 %) presented with acute symptomatic seizures. Each patient underwent computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and conventional electroencephalography (EEG). Laboratory investigations included: blood gases, complete blood picture, serum D-Dimer, Ferritin, C-reactive protein, renal and liver functions, and coagulation profile. RESULTS: Of the 19 patients, 3 had new onset seizures without underlying pathology (0.68 % out of the total 439 patients); 2 others (0.46 %) had previously diagnosed controlled epilepsy with breakthrough seizures. The majority of cases (14 patients, 3.19 %) had primary pathology that could explain the occurrence of seizures: 5 suffered a post COVID-19 stroke (3 ischemic and 2 hemorrhagic stroke); 6 patients had COVID-related encephalitis; 2 patients were old ischemic stroke patients; 1 patient had a brain tumor and developed seizures post COVID-19. CONCLUSION: acute symptomatic seizure is not a rare complication of post COVID-19 infection. Both new onset seizures and seizures secondary to primary brain insult (post COVID encephalitis or recent stroke) were observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Encephalitis, Viral/epidemiology , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Seizures/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Egypt/epidemiology , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
J Neurovirol ; 27(3): 507-509, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193170

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) represents respiratory symptoms as the most common clinical manifestations. Similar to some other viral infections, it can cause severe neurological damages. Here, we describe a 40-year-old man case who initially was admitted to a major hospital with presenting 7 days with weak flu-like symptoms (cough) and fever then presented neurology signs for 3 days. Physical examination and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral vasculopathy. Molecular testing was performed on nasopharyngeal swab by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) which was positive for SARS-CoV-2. The patient received supportive cares and was treated with routine antiplatelet therapy. He was improved and discharged 10 days after admission with no symptoms. Our findings report a 40-year-old man with flu-like symptoms that indicate cerebral vasculopathy that was discharged with no symptoms. Therefore, physicians should be monitor patients with worsening or progressive central nervous system results. The pathobiology of this virus is still incompletely known; therefore, extensive studies are needed to reveal the effect of COVID-19 on the nervous system.


Subject(s)
Arteritis/virology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/complications , Adult , Humans , Iran , Male , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 636637, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186835

ABSTRACT

Objective: Obesity is a risk factor for SARS-COV2 infection and is often associated with hepatic steatosis. The aim of this study was to determine if pre-existing hepatic steatosis affects the risk of infection and severity for COVID-19. Design: Prospective cohort study (UK Biobank). Univariate and stepwise multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed on liver phenotypic biomarkers to determine if these variables increased risk of testing positive and being hospitalized for COVID-19; then compared to previously described risk factors associated with COVID-19, including age, ethnicity, gender, obesity, socio-economic status. Setting: UK biobank study. Participants: 502,506 participants (healthy at baseline) in the UK Biobank, of whom 41,791 underwent MRI (aged 50-83) for assessment of liver fat, liver fibro-inflammatory disease, and liver iron. Positive COVID-19 test was determined from UK testing data, starting in March 2020 and censored in January 2021. Primary and Secondary Outcome Measures: Liver fat measured as proton density fat fraction (PDFF%) MRI and body mass index (BMI, Kg/m2) to assess prior to February 2020 using MRI of the liver to assess hepatic steatosis. Results: Within the imaged cohort (n = 41, 791), 4,458 had been tested and 1,043 (2.49% of the imaged population) tested positive for COVID-19. Individuals with fatty liver (≥10%) were at increased risk of testing positive (OR: 1.35, p = 0.007) and those participants with obesity and fatty liver, were at increased risk of hospitalization with a positive test result by 5.14 times (p = 0.0006). Conclusions: UK Biobank data revealed obese individuals with fatty liver disease were at increased risk of infection and hospitalization for COVID-19. Public policy measures and personalized medicine should be considered in order to protect these high-risk individuals.

9.
World J Pediatr ; 17(3): 253-262, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1176425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging disease. The consequences of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in infants remain unknown. Therefore, this study aims to investigate whether neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 have adverse brain development. METHODS: This multicenter observational study was conducted at two designated maternal and children's hospitals in Hubei Province, mainland China from February 1, 2020 to May 15, 2020. Neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 were enrolled. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and volumes of grey and white matters, and physical growth parameters were observed at 44 weeks corrected gestational age. RESULTS: Of 72 neonates born to mothers with COVID-19, 8 (11%) were diagnosed with COVID-19, 8 (11%) were critically ill, and no deaths were reported. Among the eight neonates that underwent brain MRI at corrected gestational age of 44 weeks, five neonates were diagnosed with COVID-19. Among these five neonates, three presented abnormal MRI findings including abnormal signal in white matter and delayed myelination in newborn 2, delayed myelination and brain dysplasia in newborn 3, and abnormal signal in the bilateral periventricular in newborn 5. The other three neonates without COVID-19 presented no significantly changes of brain MRI findings and the volumes of grey matter and white matter compared to those of healthy newborns at the equivalent age (P > 0.05). Physical growth parameters for weight, length, and head circumference at gestational age of 44 weeks were all above the 3rd percentile for all neonates. CONCLUSIONS: Some of the neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 had abnormal brain MRI findings but these neonates did not appear to have poor physical growth. These findings may provide the information on the follow-up schedule on the neonates exposed to SARS-CoV-2, but further study is required to evaluate the association between the abnormal MRI findings and the exposure to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Brain/abnormalities , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Clin Neurosci ; 88: 108-112, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174389

ABSTRACT

The novel human coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been associated with vascular and thrombotic complications, some of which may result from endothelial dysfunction, including the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). We report a case series of 8 patients with COVID-19 and PRES diagnosed at two academic medical centers between March and July of 2020. The clinical, laboratory and radiographic data, treatment, and short-term outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. The mean age was 57.9 ± 12 years, and 50% were women. Four patients had previous vascular comorbidities. All the patients suffered from severe pneumonia, requiring intensive care unit admission. Five patients were not hypertensive at presentation (all SBP < 127 mmHg). Neurologic symptoms included seizures in 7 patients; impaired consciousness in 5 patients; focal neurological signs in 3 patients; and visual disturbances in 1 patient. All patients underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging which indicated asymmetric T2 prolongation or diffusion changes (50%), extensive fronto-parieto-occipital involvement (25%), vascular irregularities (12.5%) and intracranial hemorrhage (25%). Four patients were treated with tocilizumab. Three patients were discharged without neurologic disability, 2 patients had persistent focal neurologic deficits and 2 expired. One patient's prognosis remains guarded. Together, these data support the relationship between PRES and endothelial dysfunction associated with severe COVID-19. In patients with severe COVID-19, PRES can be triggered by uncontrolled hypertension, or occur independently in the setting of systemic illness and certain medications. Like other infectious processes, critically ill patients with COVID-19 may be at greater risk of PRES because of impaired vasoreactivity or the use of novel agents like Tocilizumab.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/etiology , Adult , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Comorbidity , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Seizures/etiology , Vision Disorders/etiology
11.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 29(4): 669-670, 2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165118

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The authors present a case of unilateral orbital myositis of new onset following COVID-19 without a severe course.Methods: The patient had been received topical treatment with a preliminary diagnosis of conjunctivitis but no recovery had been noticed. The history revealed that the ocular signs had started 1 week after the COVID-19.Results: The examination revealed sectoral hyperemia of the temporal region in the bulbar conjunctiva together with marked limitation of right inward gaze. MRI of the orbits demonstrated diffuse fusiform enhancing enlargement of the right lateral rectus and superior rectus. The results of the laboratory tests and examination findings were normal. Systemic corticosteroids were started for the orbital myositis.Conclusions: Although conjunctivitis is the more common ocular disease following COVID-19, the possibility of orbital myositis should be considered in cases with resistance to topical treatment and/or gaze limitation. The possible role of orbital myositis as a trigger for COVID-19 could be explained with an immune-mediated mechanism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , Oculomotor Muscles/diagnostic imaging , Orbit/diagnostic imaging , Orbital Myositis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Viral/etiology , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Oculomotor Muscles/virology , Orbital Myositis/diagnosis , Orbital Myositis/virology , Pandemics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Germs ; 11(1): 111-115, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159528

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Several publications described neurological manifestations caused by SARS-CoV-2. Immune-mediated neurological damages caused by COVID-19 are increasingly recognized. CASE REPORT: A young male presented in March 2020 with a new-onset seizure. Later, he started to experience a severe headache. During the second admission in May, the MRI of the brain showed left frontal lesion. Nasal PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was negative, but the serology was positive, raising the suspicion of immune-mediated encephalitis. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulin G with two oligoclonal bands were also seen. The patient received IV immunoglobulin and showed improvement in headache. Follow-up MRIs of the brain revealed complete resolution of the lesion. DISCUSSION: Neurological complications from COVID-19 have been increasingly recognized. The proposed pathophysiology is either direct damage of neurological tissues, or indirectly through immune-mediated mechanisms. The timeline of the patient's presentation with seizure, as well as the lesion on the brain MRI with complete resolution after the IV immunoglobulin, strongly suggest that the patient had immune-mediated encephalitis after exposure to SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Several cases of encephalitis caused by SARS-CoV-2 have been reported. Immune-mediated encephalitis as probable pathophysiology is described here.

13.
Radiol Case Rep ; 16(6): 1539-1542, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155610

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is associated with thrombosis formation in various vessels, including those in the abdomen. In this case report, we present a COVID-19 infected patient who had developed abdominal discomfort. The patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging, which showed signs of thrombosis formation in the superior mesenteric vein (SMV). After conservative treatment failed, the patient was considered for vascular intervention. The SMV clot underwent thrombolysis via the infusion of reteplase (dose 6 mg stat, followed by 1 mg every hour) through a 5F perfusion Cather (Cragg-McNamara, 20 cm). Control venography showed near-complete recanalization. The patient was discharged with oral anticoagulants. Our case report is one of the first incidents of successful vascular intervention in SMV thrombosis in the setting of COVID-19.

14.
Clin Radiol ; 76(5): 391.e33-391.e41, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131209

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the lung function of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients using oxygen-enhanced (OE) ultrashort echo time (UTE) MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-nine patients with COVID-19 were included in the study. The OE-MRI was based on a respiratory-gated three-dimensional (3D) radial UTE sequence. For each patient, the percent signal enhancement (PSE) map was calculated using the expression PSE = (S100% - S21%)/S21%, where S21% and S100% are signals acquired during room air and 100% oxygen inhalation, respectively. Agreement of lesion detectability between UTE-MRI and computed tomography (CT) was performed using the kappa test. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate the difference in the mean PSE between mild-type COVID-19 and common-type COVID-19. Spearman's test was used to assess the relationship between lesion mean PSE and lesion size. Furthermore, the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate the difference in region of interest (ROI) mean PSE between normal pulmonary parenchyma and lesions. The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to test the difference in the mean PSE between different lesion types. RESULTS: CT and UTE-MRI reached good agreement in lesion detectability. Ventilation measures in mild-type patients (5.3 ± 5.5%) were significantly different from those in common-type patients (3 ± 3.9%). Besides, there was no significant correlation between lesion mean PSE and lesion size. The mean PSE of COVID-19 lesions (3.2 ± 4.9%) was significantly lower than that of the pulmonary parenchyma (5.4 ± 3.9%). No significant difference was found among different lesion types. CONCLUSION: OE-UTE-MRI could serve as a promising method for the assessment of lung function or treatment management of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Pulmonary Ventilation , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e211489, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130417

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is evidence of central nervous system impairments associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, including encephalopathy. Multimodal monitoring of patients with COVID-19 may delineate the specific features of COVID-19-related encephalopathy and guide clinical management. Objectives: To investigate clinical, biological, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in association with electroencephalographic (EEG) features for patients with COVID-19, and to better refine the features of COVID-19-related encephalopathy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study conducted in Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France, enrolled 78 hospitalized adults who received a diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov2) and underwent EEG between March 30 and June 11, 2020. Exposures: Detection of SARS-CoV-2 from a nasopharyngeal specimen using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay or, in the case of associated pneumonia, on a computed tomography scan of the chest. Main Outcomes and Measures: Data on the clinical and paraclinical features of the 78 patients with COVID-19 were retrieved from electronic patient records. Results: Of 644 patients who were hospitalized for COVID-19, 78 (57 men [73%]; mean [SD] age, 61 [12] years) underwent EEG. The main indications for EEG were delirium, seizure-like events, and delayed awakening in the intensive care unit after stopping treatment with sedatives. Sixty-nine patients showed pathologic EEG findings, including metabolic-toxic encephalopathy features, frontal abnormalities, periodic discharges, and epileptic activities. Of 57 patients who underwent brain MRI, 41 showed abnormalities, including perfusion abnormalities, acute ischemic lesions, multiple microhemorrhages, and white matter-enhancing lesions. Fifty-five patients showed biological abnormalities, including dysnatremia, kidney failure, and liver dysfunction, the same day as the EEG. The results of cerebrospinal fluid analysis were negative for SARS-Cov-2 for all tested patients. Nine patients who had no identifiable cause of brain injury outside COVID-19 were further isolated; their brain injury was defined as COVID-19-related encephalopathy. They represented 1% (9 of 644) of patients with COVID-19 requiring hospitalization. Six of these 9 patients had movement disorders, 7 had frontal syndrome, 4 had brainstem impairment, 4 had periodic EEG discharges, and 3 had MRI white matter-enhancing lesions. Conclusions and Relevance: The results from this cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 suggest there are clinical, EEG, and MRI patterns that could delineate specific COVID-19-related encephalopathy and guide treatment strategy.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Electroencephalography , Electronic Health Records , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged
16.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 216(4): 1046-1047, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088880

ABSTRACT

Among 2820 inpatients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19), 59 (2.1%) underwent brain MRI. Of them, six (10.2%) had MRI findings suspicious for COVID-19-related disseminated leukoencephalopathy (CRDL), which is characterized by extensive confluent or multifocal white matter lesions (with characteristics and locations atypical for other causes), microhemorrhages, diffusion restriction, and enhancement. CRDL is an uncommon but important differential consideration in patients with neurologic manifestations of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Leukoencephalopathies/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Leukoencephalopathies/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
17.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 14(1): e012220, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1035201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury, defined by elevated troponin levels, is associated with adverse outcome in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The frequency of cardiac injury remains highly uncertain and confounded in current publications; myocarditis is one of several mechanisms that have been proposed. METHODS: We prospectively assessed patients with myocardial injury hospitalized for COVID-19 using transthoracic echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and endomyocardial biopsy. RESULTS: Eighteen patients with COVID-19 and myocardial injury were included in this study. Echocardiography revealed normal to mildly reduced left ventricular ejection fraction of 52.5% (46.5%-60.5%) but moderately to severely reduced left ventricular global longitudinal strain of -11.2% (-7.6% to -15.1%). Cardiac magnetic resonance showed any myocardial tissue injury defined by elevated T1, extracellular volume, or late gadolinium enhancement with a nonischemic pattern in 16 patients (83.3%). Seven patients (38.9%) demonstrated myocardial edema in addition to tissue injury fulfilling the Lake-Louise criteria for myocarditis. Combining cardiac magnetic resonance with speckle tracking echocardiography demonstrated functional or morphological cardiac changes in 100% of investigated patients. Endomyocardial biopsy was conducted in 5 patients and revealed enhanced macrophage numbers in all 5 patients in addition to lymphocytic myocarditis in 1 patient. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in any biopsy by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Finally, follow-up measurements of left ventricular global longitudinal strain revealed significant improvement after a median of 52.0 days (-11.2% [-9.2% to -14.7%] versus -15.6% [-12.5% to -19.6%] at follow-up; P=0.041). CONCLUSIONS: In this small cohort of COVID-19 patients with elevated troponin levels, myocardial injury was evidenced by reduced echocardiographic left ventricular strain, myocarditis patterns on cardiac magnetic resonance, and enhanced macrophage numbers but not predominantly lymphocytic myocarditis in endomyocardial biopsies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Aged , Biopsy , COVID-19/blood , Cohort Studies , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Germany , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin/blood
18.
J Neurol Sci ; 421: 117308, 2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033825

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the incidence, distribution, and histopathologic correlates of microvascular brain lesions in patients with severe COVID-19. Sixteen consecutive patients admitted to the intensive care unit with severe COVID-19 undergoing brain MRI for evaluation of coma or neurologic deficits were retrospectively identified. Eleven patients had punctate susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) lesions in the subcortical and deep white matter, eight patients had >10 SWI lesions, and four patients had lesions involving the corpus callosum. The distribution of SWI lesions was similar to that seen in patients with hypoxic respiratory failure, sepsis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Brain autopsy in one patient revealed that SWI lesions corresponded to widespread microvascular injury, characterized by perivascular and parenchymal petechial hemorrhages and microscopic ischemic lesions. Collectively, these radiologic and histopathologic findings add to growing evidence that patients with severe COVID-19 are at risk for multifocal microvascular hemorrhagic and ischemic lesions in the subcortical and deep white matter.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Microvessels/diagnostic imaging , Severity of Illness Index , Brain/blood supply , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain Injuries/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Microvessels/injuries , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
19.
Cureus ; 12(12): e12115, 2020 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013549

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. The most common clinical findings related to COVID-19 are fever and cough, with the proportion of patients developing interstitial pneumonia. Other symptoms include dyspnea, expectoration, headache, anosmia, ageusia, myalgia and malaise. To date, the diagnostic criteria for COVID-19 include nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the thorax showing signs of interstitial pneumonia are important in the management of respiratory disease and in the evaluation of lung involvement. In the literature, there are few cases of COVID-19 pneumonia diagnosis made using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In our report, we describe a case of accidental detection of findings related to interstitial pneumonia in a patient who underwent abdominal MRI for other clinical reasons. A 71-year-old woman was referred to our department for an MRI scan of the abdomen as her oncological follow-up. She was asymptomatic at the time of the examination and had passed the triage carried out on all the patients prior to diagnostic tests during the COVID-19 pandemic. The images acquired in the upper abdomen showed the presence of areas of altered signal intensity involving asymmetrically both pulmonary lower lobes, with a patchy appearance and a preferential peripheral subpleural distribution. We considered these features as highly suspicious for COVID-19 pneumonia. The nasopharyngeal swab later confirmed the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. There are limited reports about MRI features of COVID-19 pneumonia, considering that high-resolution chest CT is the imaging technique of choice to diagnose pneumonia. Nevertheless, this clinical case confirmed that it is possible to detect MRI signs suggestive of COVID-19 pneumonia. The imaging features described could help in the evaluation of the lung parenchyma to assess the presence of signs suggestive of COVID-19 pneumonia, especially in asymptomatic patients during the pandemic phase of the disease.

20.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 42(3): 429-434, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to decreases in neuroimaging volume. Our aim was to quantify the change in acute or subacute ischemic strokes detected on CT or MR imaging during the pandemic using natural language processing of radiology reports. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 32,555 radiology reports from brain CTs and MRIs from a comprehensive stroke center, performed from March 1 to April 30 each year from 2017 to 2020, involving 20,414 unique patients. To detect acute or subacute ischemic stroke in free-text reports, we trained a random forest natural language processing classifier using 1987 randomly sampled radiology reports with manual annotation. Natural language processing classifier generalizability was evaluated using 1974 imaging reports from an external dataset. RESULTS: The natural language processing classifier achieved a 5-fold cross-validation classification accuracy of 0.97 and an F1 score of 0.74, with a slight underestimation (-5%) of actual numbers of acute or subacute ischemic strokes in cross-validation. Importantly, cross-validation performance stratified by year was similar. Applying the classifier to the complete study cohort, we found an estimated 24% decrease in patients with acute or subacute ischemic strokes reported on CT or MR imaging from March to April 2020 compared with the average from those months in 2017-2019. Among patients with stroke-related order indications, the estimated proportion who underwent neuroimaging with acute or subacute ischemic stroke detection significantly increased from 16% during 2017-2019 to 21% in 2020 (P = .01). The natural language processing classifier performed worse on external data. CONCLUSIONS: Acute or subacute ischemic stroke cases detected by neuroimaging decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, though a higher proportion of studies ordered for stroke were positive for acute or subacute ischemic strokes. Natural language processing approaches can help automatically track acute or subacute ischemic stroke numbers for epidemiologic studies, though local classifier training is important due to radiologist reporting style differences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Natural Language Processing , Neuroimaging/methods , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , Radiology/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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