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3.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 17(1): 193-213, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053102

ABSTRACT

Currently, there are no specific and efficient vaccines or drugs for COVID-19, particularly in severe cases. A wide range of variations in the clinical symptoms of different patients attributed to genomic differences. Therefore, personalized treatments seem to play a critical role in improving these symptoms and even similar conditions. Prompted by the uncertainties in the area of COVID-19 therapies, we reviewed the published papers and concepts to gather and provide useful information to clinicians and researchers interested in personalized medicine and cell-based therapy. One novel aspect of this study focuses on the potential application of personalized medicine in treating severe cases of COVID-19. However, it is theoretical, as any real-world examples of the use of genuinely personalized medicine have not existed yet. Nevertheless, we know that stem cells, especially MSCs, have immune-modulatory effects and can be stored for future personalized medicine applications. This theory has been conjugated with some evidence that we review in the present study. Besides, we discuss the importance of personalized medicine and its possible aspects in COVID-19 treatment, then review the cell-based therapy studies for COVID-19 with a particular focus on stem cell-based therapies as a primary personalized tool medicine. However, the idea of cell-based therapy has not been accepted by several scientific communities due to some concerns of lack of satisfactory clinical studies; still, the MSCs and their clinical outcomes have been revealed the safety and potency of this therapeutic approach in several diseases, especially in the immune-mediated inflammatory diseases and some incurable diseases. Promising outcomes have resulted in that clinical studies are going to continue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
JACC Basic Transl Sci ; 5(5): 543-544, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023615
5.
Int J Genomics ; 2020: 6901217, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889953

ABSTRACT

Objective: To systematically explore genetic polymorphisms associated with the clinical outcomes in SARS-CoV infection in humans. Methods: This comprehensive literature search comprised available English papers published in PubMed/Medline and SCOPUS databases following the PRISMA-P guidelines and PICO/AXIS criteria. Results: Twenty-nine polymorphisms located in 21 genes were identified as associated with SARS-CoV susceptibility/resistance, disease severity, and clinical outcomes predominantly in Asian populations. Thus, genes implicated in key pathophysiological processes such as the mechanisms related to the entry of the virus into the cell and the antiviral immune/inflammatory responses were identified. Conclusions: Although caution must be taken, the results of this systematic review suggest that multiple genetic polymorphisms are associated with SARS-CoV infection features by affecting virus pathogenesis and host immune response, which could have important applications for the study and understanding of genetics in SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 and for personalized translational clinical practice depending on the population studied and associated environments.

6.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(4): 2959-2975, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-777472

ABSTRACT

Viruses such as human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) represent a great burden to human health worldwide. FDA-approved anti-parasite drug ivermectin is also an antibacterial, antiviral, and anticancer agent, which offers more potentiality to improve global public health, and it can effectively inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. This study sought to identify ivermectin-related virus infection pathway alterations in human ovarian cancer cells. Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) quantitative proteomics was used to analyze human ovarian cancer cells TOV-21G treated with and without ivermectin (20 µmol/L) for 24 h, which identified 4447 ivermectin-related proteins in ovarian cancer cells. Pathway network analysis revealed four statistically significant antiviral pathways, including HCMV, HPV, EBV, and HIV1 infection pathways. Interestingly, compared with the reported 284 SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19-related genes from GencLip3, we identified 52 SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19-related protein alterations when treated with and without ivermectin. Protein-protein network (PPI) was constructed based on the interactions between 284 SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19-related genes and between 52 SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19-related proteins regulated by ivermectin. Molecular complex detection analysis of PPI network identified three hub modules, including cytokines and growth factor family, MAP kinase and G-protein family, and HLA class proteins. Gene Ontology analysis revealed 10 statistically significant cellular components, 13 molecular functions, and 11 biological processes. These findings demonstrate the broad-spectrum antiviral property of ivermectin benefiting for COVID-19 treatment in the context of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine in virus-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Proteomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2147, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-776207

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the cause of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has ravaged the world, with over 22 million total cases and over 770,000 deaths worldwide as of August 18, 2020. While the elderly are most severely affected, implicating an age bias, a striking factor in the demographics of this deadly disease is the gender bias, with higher numbers of cases, greater disease severity, and higher death rates among men than women across the lifespan. While pre-existing comorbidities and social, behavioral, and lifestyle factors contribute to this bias, biological factors underlying the host immune response may be crucial contributors. Women mount stronger immune responses to infections and vaccinations and outlive men. Sex-based biological factors underlying the immune response are therefore important determinants of susceptibility to infections, disease outcomes, and mortality. Despite this, gender is a profoundly understudied and often overlooked variable in research related to the immune response and infectious diseases, and it is largely ignored in drug and vaccine clinical trials. Understanding these factors will not only help better understand the pathogenesis of COVID-19, but it will also guide the design of effective therapies and vaccine strategies for gender-based personalized medicine. This review focuses on sex-based differences in genes, sex hormones, and the microbiome underlying the host immune response and their relevance to infections with a focus on coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Male , Microbiota/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
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