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1.
QJM ; 114(11): 780-788, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612643

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In vitro studies have shown the efficacy of Ivermectin (IV) to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 viral replication, but questions remained as to in-vivo applications. We set out to explore the efficacy and safety of Ivermectin in persons infected with COVID19. METHODS: We conducted a translational proof of concept randomized, double blind placebo controlled, dose response and parallel group study of IV efficacy in RT-polymerase chain reaction proven COVID 19 positive patients. Sixty-two patients were randomized to three treatment groups. (A) IV 6 mg regime, (B) IV 12 mg regime (given Q84 h for 2 weeks) (C, control) Lopinavir/Ritonavir. All groups plus standard of Care. RESULTS: The Days to COVID negativity (DTN) was significantly and dose dependently reduced by IV (P = 0.0066). The DTN for Control were, = 9.1+/-5.2, for A 6.0 +/- 2.9 and for B 4.6 +/-3.2. Two way repeated measures ANOVA of ranked COVID 19 +/- scores at 0, 84, 168 and252h showed a significant IV treatment effect (P = 0.035) and time effect (P < 0.0001). IV also tended to increase SPO2% compared to controls, P = 0.073, 95% CI-0.39 to 2.59 and increased platelet count compared to C (P = 0.037) 95%CI 5.55-162.55 × 103/ml. The platelet count increase was inversely correlated to DTN (r = -0.52, P = 0.005). No SAE was reported. CONCLUSIONS: 12mg IV regime given twice a week may have superior efficacy over 6mg IV given twice a week, and certainly over the non IV arm of the study. IV should be considered for use in clinical management of SARS-COV2, and may find applications in prophylaxis in high risk areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ivermectin , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Nigeria , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
2.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 666348, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259361

ABSTRACT

Ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) are used extensively as parasiticides in veterinary medicine. Based on in vitro data, IVM has recently been proposed for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 infection, a condition for which obesity is a major risk factor. In patients, IVM dosage is based on total body weight and there are no recommendations to adjust dosage in obese patients. The objective of this study was to establish, in a canine model, the influence of obesity on the clearance and steady-state volume of distribution of IVM, MOX, and a third analog, eprinomectin (EPR). An experimental model of obesity in dogs was based on a high calorie diet. IVM, MOX, and EPR were administered intravenously, in combination, to a single group of dogs in two circumstances, during a control period and when body weight had been increased by 50%. In obese dogs, clearance, expressed in absolute values (L/day), was not modified for MOX but was reduced for IVM and EPR, compared to the initial control state. However, when scaled by body weight (L/day/kg), plasma clearance was reduced by 55, 42, and 63%, for IVM, MOX and EPR, respectively. In contrast, the steady-state volume of distribution was markedly increased, in absolute values (L), by obesity. For IVM and MOX, this obese dog model suggests that the maintenance doses in the obese subject should be based on lean body weight rather than total weight. On the other hand, the loading dose, when required, should be based on the total body weight of the obese subject.

3.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-12, 2021 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216501

ABSTRACT

The novel corona virus (Covid-19) has become a great challenge worldwide since 2019, as no drug has been reported yet. Different clinical trials are still under way. Among them is Ivermectin (IVM), an FDA approved drug which was recently reported as a successful candidate to reduce SARS-CoV-2 viral load by inhibiting Importin-α1 (IMP-α1) protein which subsequently affects nuclear transport of viral proteins but its basic binding mode and inhibitory mechanism is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to explore the inhibitory mechanism and binding mode of IVM with IMP-α1 via different computational methods. Initially, comparative docking of IVM was performed against two different binding sites (Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS) major and minor sites) of IMP-α1 to predict the probable binding mode of IVM. Then, classical MD simulation was performed (IVM/NLS-Major site and IVM/NLS-Minor site), to predict its comparative stability dynamics and probable inhibitory mechanism. The stability dynamics and biophysical analysis of both sites highlighted the stable binding of IVM within NLS-Minor site by establishing and maintaining more hydrophobic contacts with crucial residues, required for IMP-α1 inhibition which were not observed in NLS-major site. Altogether, these results recommended the worth of IVM as a possible drug to limit the SARS-CoV-2 viral load and consequently reduces its progression.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

4.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-9, 2021 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180369

ABSTRACT

Ivermectin (IVM) is an FDA-approved drug that has shown antiviral activity against a wide variety of viruses in recent years. IVM inhibits the formation of the importin-α/ß1 heterodimeric complex responsible for the translocation and replication of various viral species proteins. Also, IVM hampers SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro; however, the molecular mechanism through which IVM inhibits SARS-CoV-2 is not well understood. Previous studies have explored the molecular mechanism through which IVM inhibits importin-α and several potential targets associated with COVID-19 by using docking approaches and MD simulations to corroborate the docked complexes. This study explores the energetic and structural properties through which IVM inhibits importin-α and five targets associated with COVID-19 by using docking and MD simulations combined with the molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (MMGBSA) approach. Energetic and structural analysis showed that the main protease 3CLpro reached the most favorable affinity, followed by importin-α and Nsp9, which shared a similar relationship. Therefore, in vitro activity of IVM can be explained by acting as an inhibitor of importin-α, dimeric 3CLpro, and Nsp9, but mainly over dimeric 3CLpro.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

5.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 170(5): 649-653, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159147

ABSTRACT

Ivermectin (IVM) belongs to the class of macrocyclic lactones, which is used as an antiparasitic agent. At present, the researchers focus on possibility to use IVM in treatment of certain forms of cancer and viral diseases such as COVID-19. The mechanisms of IVM action are not clear. It is assumed that IVM affects chloride channels and increases cytoplasmic concentration of chloride. This study examines the effect of IVM on chloride currents induced by glycine (IGly). Experiments were carried out on isolated pyramidal neurons of the rat hippocampus with whole-cell patch clamp. A short-term (600 msec) application of IVM in a concentration of 10 µM induced a slow inward current, which persisted after washing the neurons. The low concentrations (0.1-1000 nM) of IVM did not induce any novel current, but it rapidly and reversibly reduced the peak amplitude and accelerated desensitization of IGly in a dose-dependent manner. The threshold concentrations of IVM sufficient to reduce peak amplitude of IGly and to accelerate desensitization of IGly were 100 nM and 0.1 nM, respectively. The study revealed a high sensitivity of neuronal glycine receptors to IVM.


Subject(s)
Chloride Channels/drug effects , Glycine/pharmacology , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Pyramidal Cells/drug effects , Action Potentials/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Chloride Channels/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Hippocampus/cytology , Hippocampus/metabolism , Ion Channel Gating/drug effects , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Pyramidal Cells/physiology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, Glycine/drug effects , Receptors, Glycine/metabolism
6.
EPMA J ; 11(2): 289-309, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086691

ABSTRACT

RELEVANCE: Ivermectin, as an old anti-parasite drug, can suppress almost completely the growth of various human cancers, including ovarian cancer (OC). However, its anticancer mechanism remained to be further studied at the molecular levels. Ivermectin-related molecule-panel changes will serve a useful tool for its personalized drug therapy and prognostic assessment in OCs. PURPOSE: To explore the functional significance of ivermectin-mediated lncRNA-EIF4A3-mRNA axes in OCs and ivermectin-related molecule-panel for its personalized drug therapy monitoring. METHODS: Based on our previous study, a total of 16 lncRNA expression patterns were analyzed using qRT-PCR before and after ivermectin-treated different OC cell lines (TOV-21G and A2780). Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics was used to analyze the protein expressions of EIF4A3 and EIF4A3-binding mRNAs in ovarian cancer cells treated with and without ivermectin. A total of 411 OC patients from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database with the selected lncRNA expressions and the corresponding clinical data were included. Lasso regression was constructed to examine the relationship between lncRNA signature and OC survival risk. The overall survival analysis between high-risk and low-risk groups used the Kaplan-Meier method. Heatmap showed the correlation between risk groups and clinical characteristics. The univariate and multivariate models were established with Cox regression. RESULTS: SILAC-based quantitative proteomics found the protein expression levels of EIF4A3 and 116 EIF4A3-binding mRNAs were inhibited by ivermectin in OC cells. Among the analyzed 16 lncRNAs (HCG15, KIF9-AS1, PDCD4-AS1, ZNF674-AS1, ZNRF3-AS1, SOS1-IT1, LINC00565, SNHG3, PLCH1-AS1, WWTR1-AS1, LINC00517, AL109767.1, STARD13-IT1, LBX2-AS1, LEMD1-AS1, and HOXC-AS3), only 7 lncRNAs (HCG15, KIF9-AS1, PDCD4-AS1, ZNF674-AS1, ZNRF3-AS1, SOS1-IT1, and LINC00565) were obtained for further lasso regression when combined with the results of drug testing and overall survival analysis. Lasso regression identified the prognostic model of ivermectin-related three-lncRNA signature (ZNRF3-AS1, SOS1-IT1, and LINC00565). The high-risk and low-risk groups based on the prognostic model were significantly related to overall survival and clinicopathologic characteristics (survival status, lymphatic invasion, cancer status, and clinical stage) in OC patients and remained independent risk factors according to multivariate COX analysis (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Those findings provided the potential targeted lncRNA-EIF4A3-mRNA pathways of ivermectin in OC, and constructed the effective prognostic model, which benefits discovery of novel mechanism of ivermectin to suppress ovarian cancer cells, and the ivermectin-related molecule-panel changes benefit for its personalized drug therapy and prognostic assessment towards its predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine (PPPM) in OCs.

7.
QJM ; 114(11): 780-788, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087809

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In vitro studies have shown the efficacy of Ivermectin (IV) to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 viral replication, but questions remained as to in-vivo applications. We set out to explore the efficacy and safety of Ivermectin in persons infected with COVID19. METHODS: We conducted a translational proof of concept randomized, double blind placebo controlled, dose response and parallel group study of IV efficacy in RT-polymerase chain reaction proven COVID 19 positive patients. Sixty-two patients were randomized to three treatment groups. (A) IV 6 mg regime, (B) IV 12 mg regime (given Q84 h for 2 weeks) (C, control) Lopinavir/Ritonavir. All groups plus standard of Care. RESULTS: The Days to COVID negativity (DTN) was significantly and dose dependently reduced by IV (P = 0.0066). The DTN for Control were, = 9.1+/-5.2, for A 6.0 +/- 2.9 and for B 4.6 +/-3.2. Two way repeated measures ANOVA of ranked COVID 19 +/- scores at 0, 84, 168 and252h showed a significant IV treatment effect (P = 0.035) and time effect (P < 0.0001). IV also tended to increase SPO2% compared to controls, P = 0.073, 95% CI-0.39 to 2.59 and increased platelet count compared to C (P = 0.037) 95%CI 5.55-162.55 × 103/ml. The platelet count increase was inversely correlated to DTN (r = -0.52, P = 0.005). No SAE was reported. CONCLUSIONS: 12mg IV regime given twice a week may have superior efficacy over 6mg IV given twice a week, and certainly over the non IV arm of the study. IV should be considered for use in clinical management of SARS-COV2, and may find applications in prophylaxis in high risk areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ivermectin , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Nigeria , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 103: 214-216, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065175

ABSTRACT

Ivermectin, a US Food and Drug Administration-approved anti-parasitic agent, was found to inhibit severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication in vitro. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to determine the rapidity of viral clearance and safety of ivermectin among adult SARS-CoV-2 patients. The trial included 72 hospitalized patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh, who were assigned to one of three groups: oral ivermectin alone (12 mg once daily for 5 days), oral ivermectin in combination with doxycycline (12 mg ivermectin single dose and 200 mg doxycycline on day 1, followed by 100 mg every 12 h for the next 4 days), and a placebo control group. Clinical symptoms of fever, cough, and sore throat were comparable among the three groups. Virological clearance was earlier in the 5-day ivermectin treatment arm when compared to the placebo group (9.7 days vs 12.7 days; p = 0.02), but this was not the case for the ivermectin + doxycycline arm (11.5 days; p = 0.27). There were no severe adverse drug events recorded in the study. A 5-day course of ivermectin was found to be safe and effective in treating adult patients with mild COVID-19. Larger trials will be needed to confirm these preliminary findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Ivermectin/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged
9.
ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci ; 3(6): 1371-1380, 2020 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983811

ABSTRACT

There is urgent therapeutic need for COVID-19, a disease for which there are currently no widely effective approved treatments and the emergency use authorized drugs do not result in significant and widespread patient improvement. The food and drug administration-approved drug ivermectin has long been shown to be both antihelmintic agent and a potent inhibitor of viruses such as Yellow Fever Virus. In this study, we highlight the potential of ivermectin packaged in an orally administrable nanoparticle that could serve as a vehicle to deliver a more potent therapeutic antiviral dose and demonstrate its efficacy to decrease expression of viral spike protein and its receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), both of which are keys to lowering disease transmission rates. We also report that the targeted nanoparticle delivered ivermectin is able to inhibit the nuclear transport activities mediated through proteins such as importin α/ß1 heterodimer as a possible mechanism of action. This study sheds light on ivermectin-loaded, orally administrable, biodegradable nanoparticles to be a potential treatment option for the novel coronavirus through a multilevel inhibition. As both ACE2 targeting and the presence of spike protein are features shared among this class of virus, this platform technology has the potential to serve as a therapeutic tool not only for COVID-19 but for other coronavirus strains as well.

10.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 40(3): 1299-1315, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-792462

ABSTRACT

Most recently, the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been recognized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) while this virus shares substantial similarity with SARS-CoV. So far, no definitive vaccine or drug has been developed to cure Covid-19 disease, since many important aspects about Covid-19 such as pathogenesis and proliferation pathways are still unclear. It was proven that human ACE2 is the main receptor for the entry of Covid-19 into lower respiratory tract epithelial cells through interaction with SARS-CoV-2 S protein. Based on this observation, it is expected that the virus infection can be inhibited if protein-protein interaction is prevented. In this study, using structure-based virtual screening of FDA databases, several lead drugs were discovered based on the ACE2-binding pocket of SARS-CoV-2 S protein. Then, binding affinity, binding modes, critical interactions, and pharmaceutical properties of the lead drugs were evaluated. Among the previously approved drugs, Diammonium Glycyrrhizinate, Digitoxin, Ivermectin, Rapamycin, Rifaximin, and Amphotericin B represented the most desirable features, and can be possible candidates for Covid-19 therapies. Furthermore, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was accomplished for three S protein/drug complexes with the highest binding affinity and best conformation and binding free energies were also computed with the Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM/PBSA) method. Results demonstrated the stable binding of these compounds to the S protein; however, in order to confirm the curative effect of these drugs, clinical trials must be done.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
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