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1.
Bmb Reports ; 55(9):465-471, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2217389

RESUMO

Understanding and monitoring virus-mediated infections has gained importance since the global outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Studies of high-throughput omics-based immune profiling of COVID-19 patients can help manage the current pandemic and future virus-mediated pandemics. Although COVID-19 is being studied since past 2 years, detailed mechanisms of the initial induction of dynamic immune responses or the molecular mechanisms that characterize disease progression remains unclear. This study involved comprehensively collected biospecimens and longitudinal multi-omics data of 300 COVID-19 patients and 120 healthy controls, including whole genome sequencing (WGS), single-cell RNA sequencing combined with T cell receptor (TCR) and B cell receptor (BCR) sequencing (scRNA(+scTCR/BCR)-seq), bulk BCR and TCR sequencing (bulk TCR/BCR-seq), and cytokine profiling. Clinical data were also collected from hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and HLA typing, laboratory characteristics, and COVID-19 viral genome sequencing were performed during the initial diagnosis. The entire set of biospecimens and multi-omics data generated in this project can be accessed by researchers from the National Biobank of Korea with prior approval. This distribution of large-scale multi-omics data of COVID-19 patients can facilitate the understanding of biological crosstalk involved in COVID-19 infection and contribute to the development of potential methodo- logies for its diagnosis and treatment. [BMB Reports 2022;55(9): 465-472]

2.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 10(1), 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2212869

RESUMO

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine effectiveness (VE) studies are increasingly reporting relative VE (rVE) comparing a primary series plus booster doses with a primary series only. Interpretation of rVE differs from traditional studies measuring absolute VE (aVE) of a vaccine regimen against an unvaccinated referent group. We estimated aVE and rVE against COVID-19 hospitalization in primary-series plus first-booster recipients of COVID-19 vaccines. Methods: Booster-eligible immunocompetent adults hospitalized at 21 medical centers in the United States during December 25, 2021–April 4, 2022 were included. In a test-negative design, logistic regression with case status as the outcome and completion of primary vaccine series or primary series plus 1 booster dose as the predictors, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate aVE and rVE. Results: A total of 2060 patients were analyzed, including 1104 COVID-19 cases and 956 controls. Relative VE against COVID-19 hospitalization in boosted mRNA vaccine recipients versus primary series only was 66% (95% confidence interval [CI], 55%–74%);aVE was 81% (95% CI, 75%–86%) for boosted versus 46% (95% CI, 30%–58%) for primary. For boosted Janssen vaccine recipients versus primary series, rVE was 49% (95% CI, −9% to 76%);aVE was 62% (95% CI, 33%–79%) for boosted versus 36% (95% CI, −4% to 60%) for primary. Conclusions: Vaccine booster doses increased protection against COVID-19 hospitalization compared with a primary series. Comparing rVE measures across studies can lead to flawed interpretations of the added value of a new vaccination regimen, whereas difference in aVE, when available, may be a more useful metric.

3.
MMWR - Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report ; 71(5152):1625-1630, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204208

RESUMO

Monovalent COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, designed against the ancestral strain of SARS-CoV-2, successfully reduced COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality in the United States and globally (1,2). However, vaccine effectiveness (VE) against COVID-19-associated hospitalization has declined over time, likely related to a combination of factors, including waning immunity and, with the emergence of the Omicron variant and its sublineages, immune evasion (3). To address these factors, on September 1, 2022, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended a bivalent COVID-19 mRNA booster (bivalent booster) dose, developed against the spike protein from ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and Omicron BA.4/BA.5 sublineages, for persons who had completed at least a primary COVID-19 vaccination series (with or without monovalent booster doses) >=2 months earlier (4). Data on the effectiveness of a bivalent booster dose against COVID-19 hospitalization in the United States are lacking, including among older adults, who are at highest risk for severe COVID-19-associated illness. During September 8-November 30, 2022, the Investigating Respiratory Viruses in the Acutely Ill (IVY) Network assessed effectiveness of a bivalent booster dose received after >=2 doses of monovalent mRNA vaccine against COVID-19-associated hospitalization among immunocompetent adults aged >=65 years. When compared with unvaccinated persons, VE of a bivalent booster dose received >=7 days before illness onset (median = 29 days) against COVID-19-associated hospitalization was 84%. Compared with persons who received >=2 monovalent-only mRNA vaccine doses, relative VE of a bivalent booster dose was 73%. These early findings show that a bivalent booster dose provided strong protection against COVID-19-associated hospitalization in older adults and additional protection among persons with previous monovalent-only mRNA vaccination. All eligible persons, especially adults aged >=65 years, should receive a bivalent booster dose to maximize protection against COVID-19 hospitalization this winter season. Additional strategies to prevent respiratory illness, such as masking in indoor public spaces, should also be considered, especially in areas where COVID-19 community levels are high (4,5).

4.
EMBO Reports ; : e55286, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204063

RESUMO

An increasing amount of evidence emphasizes the role of metabolic reprogramming in immune cells to fight infections. However, little is known about the regulation of metabolite transporters that facilitate and support metabolic demands. In this study, we found that the expression of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 3 (ENT3, encoded by solute carrier family 29 member 3, Slc29a3) is part of the innate immune response, which is rapidly upregulated upon pathogen invasion. The transcription of Slc29a3 is directly regulated by type I interferon-induced signaling, demonstrating that this metabolite transporter is an interferon-stimulated gene (ISG). Suprisingly, we unveil that several viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, require ENT3 to facilitate their entry into the cytoplasm. The removal or suppression of Slc29a3 expression is sufficient to significantly decrease viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Our study reveals that ENT3 is a pro-viral ISG co-opted by some viruses to gain a survival advantage.

5.
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science ; 43(12):5522-5533, 2022.
Artigo em Chinês | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2203843

RESUMO

During the CIVID-19 pandemic, water samples were collected from 26 sampling points in 18 typical drinking water sources in Wuhan, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) methods were used to measure the concentrations of 31 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the water samples. The pollution characteristics of PPCPs were analyzed and their ecological and health risks were assessed. The results showed that a total of 23 PPCPs were detected in the 26 sampling points. Among them, five types of PPCPs were detected with a detection rate of 100%, with total concentrations ranging from 102.44 ng•L -1 to 745.78 ng•L -1, and the average concentration was 206.87 ng•L -1. The highest concentrations were in salicylic acid (SA) and doxycycline (DIC), ranging from 28.24 to 534.24 ng•L -1 and 28.72 to 416.6 ng•L -1, respectively. According to the spatial distribution of PPCPs, the concentration of antibiotics in the Hanjiang River was higher than that in the Yangtze River, whereas the concentration of other types of PPCPs in the Yangtze River was higher than that in the Hanjiang River. The ecological risk assessment results showed that the toxic risk in algae was higher than those in invertebrates and fish. The risks of salicylic acid (SA), doxycycline (DIC), lincomycin (LIN), and chlortetracycline (CTE) to algae were at a high level, and the ecological risk of PPCPs in the Hanjiang River was generally higher than that in the Yangtze River. The health risk assessment results showed that the risk to adults and children by drinking water ranged from 1.14 × 10 -4 to 0.136 and from 1.04 × 10 -4 to 0.821, respectively. The health risk to children was higher than that to adults, although their levels were low. Compared with the concentrations of PPCPs in drinking water sources of Wuhan in recent years, under the CIVID-19 pandemic, the pollution status of PPCPs in the Yangtze River was at a medium level, whereas it was at a high level in the Hanjiang River. © 2022 Science Press. All rights reserved.

6.
Front Immunol ; 13:1076724, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2198914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-density granulocytes (LDGs) are a distinct subset of neutrophils whose increased abundance is associated with the severity of COVID-19. However, the long-term effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on LDG levels and phenotypic alteration remain unexplored. METHODS: Using participants naïve to SARS-CoV-2 (NP), infected with SARS-CoV-2 with no residual symptoms (NRS), and infected with SARS-CoV-2 with chronic pulmonary symptoms (PPASC), we compared LDG levels and their phenotype by measuring the expression of markers for activation, maturation, and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation using flow cytometry. RESULTS: The number of LDGs was elevated in PPASC compared to NP. Individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 (NRS and PPASC) demonstrated increased CD10(+) and CD16(hi) subset counts of LDGs compared to NP group. Further characterization of LDGs demonstrated that LDGs from COVID-19 convalescents (PPASC and NRS) displayed increased markers of NET forming ability and aggregation with platelets compared to LDGs from NP, but no differences were observed between PPASC and NRS. CONCLUSIONS: Our data from a small cohort study demonstrates that mature neutrophils with a heightened activation phenotype remain in circulation long after initial SARS-CoV-2 infection. Persistent elevation of markers for neutrophil activation and NET formation on LDGs, as well as an enhanced proclivity for platelet-neutrophil aggregation (PNA) formation in COVID-19 convalescent individuals may be associated with PPASC prognosis and development.

7.
Natural Product Communications ; 17(12), 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2194567

RESUMO

Objective: To identify the potential biological mechanisms by which Rhodiola crenulata (RC) treats cytokine storm (CS) using network pharmacology, molecular docking, and experimental verification. Method(s): The ingredients and targets of RC were collected from the Organchem database. CS-related genes were collected using the GeneCards and OMIM databases. Cytoscape 3.7.2 software was used to construct the RC-CS network diagram. These data were inputted into the STRING database to construct a protein-protein interaction network. we performed gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis using DAVID and R software. Molecular docking of the active ingredient and pathway-related targets was carried out using AutoDock Vina and PyMOL, and then a CS model was established in rats induced by lipopolysaccharide for in vivo experimental verification. Result(s): The network pharmacology results showed that kaempferol was the most important active component of RC in the treatment of CS, and IL6 and STAT3 were identified as key targets. Molecular docking results showed that RC active components kaempferol had a good binding ability to IL6/STAT3. At the same time, compared with the model group, different doses of kaempferol could down-regulate the expression of inflammatory factors (P <.05), and protect against systemic inflammatory response multiple organ damage. Conclusion(s): This study preliminarily revealed that RC can prevent and treat CS by regulating the expression of inflammatory factors, inhibiting the systemic inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide, and providing a theoretical basis for the study of its pharmacodynamic material basis and mechanism of action. Copyright © The Author(s) 2022.

8.
Indoor and Built Environment ; 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2194549

RESUMO

Air distribution system could critically affect SARS-CoV-2 transmission in indoor space;therefore, this study aims at demonstrating numerical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 migration with varied air distribution system configurations. Seven cases were investigated regarding three major aspects: how fast suspended particles can be removed from the ventilated space or changed into deposited particles;how much particles are attached to various object surfaces which leads to an infection by touching fomite. All cases were analyzed through computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Both different shapes (round or linear diffusers) and installation locations (ceiling or floor) of inlet and outlet diffusers were investigated. Results showed that different air distribution system would lead to different dispersion profiles of infectious particles and different deposition pattern of particles on interior surfaces. With the same air flow rate, linear-diffuser would perform better for CO2 extraction while requiring less time to remove or collide the same magnitude of suspended droplets compared to round-diffuser. However, how quickly removed or suspended droplets collide is not proportional to how less the number of total particles are remained. Two additional cases with double sized space possessing best ventilation configuration were also examined to explore potential application of the best-ventilated configuration to various spatial expansion cases.

9.
Risk Anal ; 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2193204

RESUMO

The economic impacts of pandemics can be enormous. However, lockdown and human mobility restrictions are effective policies for containing the spread of the disease. This study proposes a framework for assessing the economic impact of varying degrees of movement restrictions and examines the effectiveness of this framework in a case study examining COVID-19 control measures in Japan. First, mobile network operators data and total employment statistics on a 500-meter grid scale are used to determine the status of mobility restrictions and impacts on consumption in 30 industrial sectors. Next, the economic impacts are assessed using a spatial computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, proven to yield valuable insights into the total economic impacts of natural disasters. In sectors that implement telework and e-commerce-wholesale/retail, finance/insurance, and communication sectors-estimates of production and GDP are obtained that are close to the actual figures. The current case study is limited to Japan, but similar analysis can be conducted by using the CGE model for each country and open mobility data. Thus, the framework has potential to serve as an effective tool for assessing trade-offs between infection risks and economic impacts to inform policy-making by combining with findings from epidemiology.

10.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(Supplement 2):S929, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2190050

RESUMO

Background. Severe COVID-19 infection is characterized by a dysregulated hyperinflammatory state that contributes to morbidity and mortality. Immunomodulatory therapy has been shown to improve outcomes. We investigated if the TNF-alpha inhibitor, infliximab (IFX), provides additional benefit over standard of care. Methods. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of IFX (single infusion of 5 mg/kg) compared to standard of care (including remdesivir and dexamethasone) in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia. The primary outcome was time to recovery by day 29. Key secondary endpoints included 14-day clinical status and 28-day mortality. Results. A total of 1033 patients received study agent (517 assigned to IFX, 516 to common placebo), constituting the analyzed modified intention-to-treat cohort. Mean age 54.8 years, 60.3% were male, 48.6% Hispanic/Latino and 14% Black. Randomization was balanced for severity of illness and comorbidities. Participants randomized to IFX did not show a statistically significant difference in the primary endpoint with a recovery rate ratio of 1.13 (95% CI 0.99-1.27, p=0.0631) compared to placebo. The median (IQR) time to recovery was 8 days (7, 9) for IFX and 9 days (8, 10) for placebo. Patients assigned to IFX were more likely to have an improved clinical status at day 14 (OR 1.32;95% CI 1.05, 1.66). The 28-day mortality was 10.1% in the IFX arm and 14.5% in the placebo (OR 0.59 (95% CI 0.39, 0.90)), with a 40.7% lower odds of dying in patients receiving IFX. The improvement in mortality was demonstrated in patients requiring low- or high-flow O2 at baseline but not in those requiring mechanical ventilation or ECMO. Subgroup analysis identified the strongest effect in those with baseline CRP >75mg/ml. There was no imbalances in serious adverse events. Secondary infections were similar between groups (IFX 18.0%, placebo 16.5%). Conclusion. Although single-dose IV IFX did not demonstrate statistically significant improvement in time to recovery, it was associated with improvement in clinical status at day 14 and showed a substantial reduction in 28 day mortality compared to standard of care.

11.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(Supplement 2):S928-S929, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2190049

RESUMO

Background. Severe COVID-19 infection is characterized by a dysregulated hyperinflammatory state that contributes to morbidity and mortality. Immunomodulatory therapy has been shown to improve outcomes. We investigated if abatacept, CTLA-4-Ig, a selective costimulation modulator, provides additional benefit when added to standard of care. Methods. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating abatacept (given as a single infusion of 10mg/kg, to a maximum of 1000 mg) compared to standard of care (including remdesivir and dexamethasone) in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia. The primary outcome was median time to recovery by day 29. Key secondary endpoints included 28-day mortality. Results. A total of 1019 patients received an infusion (509 assigned to abatacept and 510 to placebo), constituting the analyzed modified intention-to-treat cohort. The mean age 54.9 years (SD 14.65), 60.5% were male, 44.2% Hispanic or Latino and 13.7% black. Patients were evenly matched in terms of severity of illness, and comorbidities. Participants randomized to abatacept did not show a statistically significant difference in the primary endpoint with a recovery rate ratio of 1.135 (95% CI 0.996-1.294, p=0.057) compared to placebo. The median (IQR) time to recovery was 9 days (8, 10) for both groups. The 28-day mortality in the abatacept arm was 11.0% and in control arm 15.0% (OR 0.62 (95% CI 0.41, 0.94)), with a 37.8% lower odds of dying in patients receiving abatacept. The improvement in mortality was demonstrated for patients requiring low or high flow O2 at baseline but was not seen in patients who required mechanical ventilation or ECMO at time of randomization. Subgroup analysis identified the strongest effect in those with baseline CRP >75mg/L, age >65 and diabetics. Safety data demonstrated slightly lower risk of adverse events. Rates of secondary infections were similar (abatacept 16.1% and placebo 14.3%). Conclusion. Although single-dose IV abatacept did not demonstrate statistically significant improvement in time to recovery, it did show a substantial reduction in 28-day mortality compared to standard of care.

12.
Journal of Business & Economic Statistics ; 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2186987

RESUMO

In testing hypotheses pertaining to Lorenz dominance (LD), researchers have examined second- and third-order stochastic dominance using empirical Lorenz processes and integrated stochastic processes with the aid of bootstrap analysis. Among these topics, analysis of third-order stochastic dominance (TSD) based on the notion of risk aversion has been examined using crossing (generalized) Lorenz curves. These facts motivated the present study to characterize distribution pairs displaying the TSD without second-order (generalized Lorenz) dominance. It further motivated the development of likelihood ratio (LR) goodness-of-fit tests for examining the respective hypotheses of the LD, crossing (generalized) Lorenz curves, and TSD through approximate Chi-squared distributions. The proposed LR tests were assessed using simulated distributions, and applied to examine the COVID-19 regional death counts of bivariate samples collected by the World Health Organization between March 2020 and February 2021.

13.
Journal of Virus Eradication ; 8(4):100308, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2181183

RESUMO

Background: A community COVID-19 outbreak caused by the B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 variant occurred in Taiwan in May 2021. High-risk populations such as people living with HIV (PLWH) were recommended to receive two doses of COVID-19 vaccines. While SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have demonstrated promising results in general population, real-world information on the serological responses remains limited among PLWH.

14.
Infection ; 17:17, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2175262

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immunocompromised patients have a potentially increased risk for progression to severe COVID-19 and prolonged replication of SARS-CoV-2. This post hoc analysis examined outcomes among immunocompromised participants in the MOVe-OUT trial.

15.
Neuroimaging Clinics of North America ; 33(1):57-68, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2131970

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted many lives globally. Neurologic manifestations have been observed among individuals at various stages and severity of the disease, the most common being stroke. Prompt identification of these neurologic diagnoses can affect patient management and prognosis. This article discusses the acute neuroradiological features typical of COVID-19, including cerebrovascular disease, intracerebral hemorrhage, leukoencephalopathy, and sensory neuropathies.

17.
2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Demonstrations (Naacl-Hlt 2021) ; : 66-77, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068449

RESUMO

To combat COVID-19, both clinicians and scientists need to digest vast amounts of relevant biomedical knowledge in scientific literature to understand the disease mechanism and related biological functions. We have developed a novel and comprehensive knowledge discovery framework, COVID-KG to extract fine-grained multimedia knowledge elements (entities and their visual chemical structures, relations and events) from scientific literature. We then exploit the constructed multimedia knowledge graphs (KGs) for question answering and report generation, using drug repurposing as a case study. Our framework also provides detailed contextual sentences, subfigures, and knowledge subgraphs as evidence. All of the data, KGs, reports(1), resources, and shared services are publicly available(2).

18.
Journal of Urology ; 207(5):E221-E221, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2067867
19.
129th ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Excellence Through Diversity, ASEE 2022 ; 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2044917

RESUMO

This paper presents exemplary cases of learning entrepreneurial mindset from an institution that provides faculty, graduate students, and undergraduate students separate theory-driven trainings in entrepreneurship and subsequent opportunities to practice experiential learning of entrepreneurship together. A sequence of project-based learning courses in engineering brings together faculty and students to work in multi-disciplinary teams. Students gain experience solving practical, open-ended engineering problems and developing professional skills throughout their studies. Opportunity identification, feasibility analysis, product development, professional communication, leadership, and teamwork are emphasized. Both faculty mentors and students build foundations in the entrepreneurial mindset via training certificates and funding programs offered by the institution through a dedicated center in innovation and entrepreneurship. By leveraging support from these programs, student-initiated ventures become viable. Research project-based courses, accessible laboratories, and trained faculty provide an enabling environment for students to accelerate their entrepreneurial experiences. Herein, a snapshot of three concurrent student-initiated ventures into food engineering is captured via case reports. The student leaders of these ventures offer different approaches to ideation and venture initiation, especially representing three successive cohorts of students - a third-year, a fourth-year, and a newly graduated engineering student. Their backgrounds and visions vary, and the changing world, including last year's COVID-19 pandemic and research lab shutdown, impacts them in different ways. Yet, these students share a drive to innovate and make the most of available opportunities. The perspectives of these students on the engineering entrepreneurship education they receive through this institution will help to develop future projects and entrepreneurship programs. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2022

20.
39th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction, ISARC 2022 ; 2022-July:483-490, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2012245

RESUMO

After the COVID-19 outbreak, a new concept of building maintenance (BM) systems is needed because current approaches highly rely on physical contact between workers, engineers, and managers. It imposes health and safety risks as increasing concerns about infections and spreads. This adds burdens to take unavoidable close contact and health risks to building owners, occupants, workforce, and society at large. In this respect, a new BM system was developed that enables reliable virtual communication and reduces BM response times by filling gaps between users and building managers. The proposed system is based on a concept of a cyber-physical system (CPS) using augmented reality (AR) and building information modeling (BIM) to promote non-contact building management. In this system, AR plays an important role in inspecting and visualizing defects in the real world, and the detected defect information is stored and managed by cloud-based BIM in cyberspace. This paper focuses on data visualization and management in the CPS-based non-contact building management system. A cloud-based database and mobile application are developed for data management purposes. In addition, this paper presents BIM data exchange and visualization in AR applications. Target image-based localization and tracking in BIM are also tested. The test results showed that the model alignment and localization accuracy are reliable for building maintenance works. Using the new BM mechanism, we expect that the related workers, building owners, and occupants will experience a reliable building maintenance process based on CPS-based information exchange from both users and facility managers while maintaining social distance. © 2022 International Association on Automation and Robotics in Construction.

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