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1.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199463

RESUMO

IntroductionSARS-CoV-2 has ravaged the world and undergone multiple mutations during the course of the COVID-19 pandemic. On 7 April 2022, an epidemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (BA.2) variant broke out in Guangzhou, China, one of the largest transportation and logistical hubs of the country. MethodsTo fast curtained the Omicron epidemic, based on the routine surveillance on the risk population of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we identify key places of the epidemic and implement enhanced control measures against Omicron. ResultsTransmission characteristics of the Omicron variant were analyzed for 273 confirmed cases, and key places involved in this epidemic were fully presented. The median incubation time and the generation time were 3 days, and the reproduction number Rt was sharply increased with a peak of 4.20 within 2 days. We tried an all-out effort to tackle the epidemic in key places, and the proportion of confirmed cases increased from 61.17% at Stage 2 to 88.89% at Stage 4. Through delimited risk area management, 99 cases were found, and the cases were isolated in advance for 2.61 +/- 2.76 days in a lockdown zone, 0.44 +/- 1.08 days in a controlled zone, and 0.27 +/- 0.62 days in a precautionary zone. People assigned with yellow code accounted for 30.32% (84/277) of confirmed COVID-19 cases, and 83.33% of them were detected positive over 3 days since code assignment. For the districts outside the epicenter, the implementation duration of NPIs was much shorter compared with the Delta epidemic last year. ConclusionBy blocking out transmission risks and adjusting measures to local epidemic conditions through the all-out effort to tackle the epidemic in key places, by delimiting risk area management, and by conducting health code management of the at-risk population, the Omicron epidemic could be contained quickly.

2.
Frontiers in Psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199435

RESUMO

BackgroundSchizophrenia is considered one of the major risk factors for mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Early antiviral treatment is important to decrease the risk of mortality. Currently, Paxlovid (nirmatrelvir-ritonavir) has been widely used in SARS-CoV-2 patients with risk factors. However, drug-drug interactions with anti-psychotics are prominent and complicated. Case presentationWe report a clozapine-treated patient with SARS-CoV-2 infection who developed neutropenia after coadministration with Paxlovid. In this case, clozapine was used for over 15 years, without neutropenia development. However, severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count = 523/mu l) developed 3 days after the coadministration of Paxlovid 2 doses per day, valproic acid 1,000 mg per day and clozapine 100 mg per day. The development of neutropenia may be attributed to the complicated interaction among Paxlovid, SARS-CoV-2 infection, valproic acid, fluvoxamine and clozapine. ConclusionsNeutropenia is a rare but life-threatening event if a concomitant infection occurs. The risk may increase during SARS-CoV-2 infection and the coadministration of clozapine and Paxlovid. Although the exact causes of neutropenia in this patient are not fully clear, the white blood cell count and absolute neutrophil count should be closely monitored during the administration of Paxlovid in clozapine-treated patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

3.
Frontiers in Psychology ; 13, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199202

RESUMO

COVID-19, as a crucial public health crisis, has affected our lives in nearly every aspect. Besides its major health threats, COVID-19 brings severe secondary impacts, one of which is the rise of social stigma. Although numerous studies have examined the antecedents and outcomes of COVID-19-related stigma, we still lack a systematic understanding of who is being stigmatized during the COVID-19 pandemic, what exacerbates COVID-19-related stigma, and what impacts COVID-19-related stigma has on victims. Therefore, this review aims to provide a systematic overview of COVID-19-related stigma. With 93 papers conducted with 126,371 individuals in more than 150 countries and territories spanning five continents, we identify three targets that have received the most research: Chinese/Asian people, (suspected) patients and survivors, and healthcare workers. Furthermore, we find that for each stigma target, characteristics of the stigmatized, stigmatizer, and context contribute to COVID-19-related stigma and that this stigma negatively influences victims' health and non-health outcomes. We call for future research to provide a more integrative, balanced, and rigorous picture of COVID-19-related stigma via conducting research on neglected topics (e.g., contextual factors that contribute to stigma toward HCWs) and stigma interventions and using a longitudinal design. In practice, we urge governments and institutions (e.g., ministries of public health, hospitals) to pay close attention to stigma issues and to promote safe and inclusive societies.

4.
Open Medicine ; 17(1):1965-1972, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2197365

RESUMO

Considerable attention has been focused on the clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but it is also important for clinicians to differentiate it from influenza virus infections. In the present study, the rate of coexisting disease was lower in the severe COVID-19 group than in the influenza A group (p = 0.003). Radiologically, severe COVID-19 patients had fewer instances of pleural effusion (p < 0.001). Clinically, severe COVID-19 patients had relatively better disease severity scores, less secondary bacterial infections, shorter times to beginning absorption on computed tomography, but longer durations of viral shedding from the time of admission (p < 0.05). Although the more severe influenza A patients required noninvasive respiratory support, these two groups ultimately yielded comparable mortalities. Based on the multiple logistic regression analysis, severe COVID-19 infection was associated with a lower risk of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome [odds ratio (OR) 1.016, 95% [confidence interval (CI)] 1.001-1.032, p = 0.041] and a better pneumonia severity index (OR 0.945, 95% [CI] 0.905-0.986, p = 0.009);however, these patients exhibited longer durations of viral shedding (OR 1.192, 95% [CI] 1.047-1.357, p = 0.008) than patients with severe influenza A infection. In conclusion, the conditions of severe influenza A patients appeared to be more critical than that of severe COVID-19 patients. However, relatively lower mortalities of these two severe cases are expected in the context of sufficient medical supplies.

5.
PLoS Pathogens ; 18(12):e1011065, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197183

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has made it clear that combating coronavirus outbreaks benefits from a combination of vaccines and therapeutics. A promising drug target common to all coronaviruses-including SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2-is the papain-like protease (PLpro). PLpro cleaves part of the viral replicase polyproteins into non-structural protein subunits, which are essential to the viral replication cycle. Additionally, PLpro can cleave both ubiquitin and the ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 from host cell substrates as a mechanism to evade innate immune responses during infection. These roles make PLpro an attractive antiviral drug target. Here we demonstrate that ubiquitin variants (UbVs) can be selected from a phage-displayed library and used to specifically and potently block SARS-CoV-2 PLpro activity. A crystal structure of SARS-CoV-2 PLpro in complex with a representative UbV reveals a dimeric UbV bound to PLpro at a site distal to the catalytic site. Yet, the UbV inhibits the essential cleavage activities of the protease in vitro and in cells, and it reduces viral replication in cell culture by almost five orders of magnitude.

6.
PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource] ; 17(12):e0279347, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk compensation, or matching behavior to a perceived level of acceptable risk, can blunt the effectiveness of public health interventions. One area of possible risk compensation during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is antibody testing. While antibody tests are imperfect measures of immunity, results may influence risk perception and individual preventive actions. We conducted a randomized control trial to assess whether receiving antibody test results changed SARS-CoV-2 protective behaviors.

7.
PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource] ; 17(12):e0279340, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197087

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between social factors and COVID-19 protective behaviors and two outcomes: depressive and perceived stress symptoms.

9.
IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging ; : 1-1, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2192108

RESUMO

Current computer-aided diagnosis system with deep learning method plays an important role in the field of medical imaging. The collaborative diagnosis of diseases by multiple medical institutions has become a popular trend. However, large scale annotations put heavy burdens on medical experts. Furthermore, the centralized learning system has defects in privacy protection and model generalization. To meet these challenges, we propose two federated active learning methods for multicenter collaborative diagnosis of diseases: the Labeling Efficient Federated Active Learning (LEFAL) and the Training Efficient Federated Active Learning (TEFAL). The proposed LEFAL applies a task-agnostic hybrid sampling strategy considering data uncertainty and diversity simultaneously to improve data efficiency. The proposed TEFAL evaluates the client informativeness with a discriminator to improve client efficiency. On the Hyper-Kvasir dataset for gastrointestinal disease diagnosis, with only 65% of labeled data, the LEFAL achieves 95% performance on the segmentation task with whole labeled data. Moreover, on the CC-CCII dataset for COVID-19 diagnosis, with only 50 iterations, the accuracy and F1-score of TEFAL are 0.90 and 0.95, respectively on the classification task. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed federated active learning methods outperform state-of-the-art methods on segmentation and classification tasks for multicenter collaborative disease diagnosis. Copyright IEEE

10.
Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies ; 12(4):1-32, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2191344

RESUMO

Learning outcomes: This case provides detailed information about digital technologies and business practices that may help offline retailers catch up with the trend of new retail. After studying the case and working on the assignment questions, students will be able to:▪ Understand new features of smart cash registers, including facial-recognition payment, purchase-sales-inventory management, customer profile and store management, which all are important for the long-term development of the retail business in the age of "new retail”.▪ Identify opportunities, practices and impacts of digital technologies, such as big data and artificial intelligence, on contemporary retail businesses.▪ Identify problems of traditional retail and suggest solutions by applying the concepts and tools learned above.▪ Apply digital marketing approaches and tools (e.g., social media, livestreaming and online word-of-mouth) to design marketing campaigns;students should include basic elements such as the 6Ms for effective marketing communications (market, mission, message, media, money and measure). Case overview/synopsis: This case describes difficult situations facing Leo Shoudong Pan, the founder and CEO of Yun Dong Jia Technologies Co Ltd (YDJ), in marketing communications. With a motto of "Making it easy to open stores anywhere”, YDJ develops and sells smart cash registers, which provide a self-developed operating system and cloud computing services. Pan targets small and micro retailers, who are technology laggards when digital transitions had swept the world. His goal is to build a network of 100,000 pieces of smart cash registers across China, but he has only sold 8,000 pieces since he founded YDJ in 2016. He must make a breakthrough in the business. To drive leads and sales, he feels the urgency of conducting effective marketing communications with target customers and enhance their understanding on the value that YDJ creates for them. Monetary incentives are tangible but not yet fully demonstrated YDJ's value. With the traditional retail approach, brick-and-mortar stores, especially those small-scaled ones, are not able to meet the market change;instead, they must adopt digital techniques to catch up with the trend of new retail, which is necessary for a long-term business development rather than just a temporary measure during the Covid-19 pandemic. Pan must craft more compelling messages. What customer value should be chosen as incentives to motivate the target market? How to conduct effective marketing communications correspondingly? Complexity academic level: Senior undergraduate;Postgraduate;MBA;EMBA. Supplementary materials: Teaching notes are available for educators only. Subject code: CSS 8: Marketing. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

11.
Cardiology Discovery ; 2(2):69-76, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190856

RESUMO

Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exists as a pandemic. Mortality during hospitalization is multifactorial, and there is urgent need for a risk stratification model to predict in-hospital death among COVID-19 patients. Here we aimed to construct a risk score system for early identification of COVID-19 patients at high probability of dying during in-hospital treatment.

12.
Critical Care Medicine ; 51(1 Supplement):554, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2190671

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is a wide range in the reported incidence of pneumothorax (PTX) and pneumomediastinum (PMN) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). PTX alone and PTX/PMN combined has also been associated with higher mortality in patients with COVID-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), however, current data regarding outcomes or predictors of PTX and PMN in COVID-19 ARDS is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine if the incidence of PTX/PMN in a large cohort with COVID-19 related respiratory failure was associated with mortality. Further, we looked to determine which clinical factors or ventilator management strategies may have impacted mortality in underserved patient population with PTX. METHOD(S): We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a single center COVID-19 intensive care unit of an urban tertiary safety net hospital including all adult patients admitted with COVID-19 associated ARDS requiring mechanical ventilation between March 2020 and January 2021. Following identification of a cohort with radiographic evidence of PTX and/or PMN, demographics, ventilator data, radiographic data, position, information regarding chest tube and sedation management and outcome data were obtained from the electronic medical record. RESULT(S): Among 502 patients admitted to the ICU with COVID-19 related ARDS, PTX was identified in 103/ 502 (20.5%), predominantly affecting Hispanic (88%) and male (66%) patients. Thirty-four patients had PMN (18.7%) alone. Of patients with documented PTX, 60 (50.8%) had preceding or co-morbid PMN. PTX with/without PMN was associated with increased mortality (OR 2.19, p=0.0027) even after adjustment for ventilator days. There was no significant association between PMN alone and mortality (OR 0.82, p=0.60). Conservative management without tube thoracostomy was rarely possible (18.4% of PTX). Time to development of PTX was not associated with mortality, but PTX was associated with longer survival times (HR 2.10;p< 0.001). CONCLUSION(S): There is a high incidence of PTX/PMN in critically ill patients with COVID-19. PTX, but not PMN alone, is associated with higher mortality in ICU patients.

13.
Innov Aging ; 6(Suppl 1):314-5, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2188897

RESUMO

Singapore was one of the first countries affected by COVID-19. Measures to contain the spread of COVID-19 include raising the Disease Outbreak Response System Condition (DORSCON) risk assessment to Orange and instituting a movement control order, termed as the Circuit Breaker. These measures have caused significant disruption in primary care and chronic disease management. As the first point of contact in testing suspected cases, primary care providers shifted their focus from non-COVID-19 services. Using an interrupted time series analysis, we examine the associations of DORSON Orange and Circuit Breaker on acute and chronic primary care visits among older adults aged above 50. We found significant reductions in both acute and chronic primary care visits immediately following DORSCON Orange and Circuit Breaker. DORSCON Orange was associated with a drop of 231 mean acute and chronic daily visits (95% CI -356 to -106). Circuit Breaker was associated with a further drop of 268 mean daily visits (95% CI -426 to -111). These reductions were also observed for acute and chronic visits separately. Routine chronic care appointments were deferred or cancelled to reduce the risk of transmission as patients with underlying medical conditions were at higher risk of developing severe complications. Delayed access to primary care can have profound health implications, especially for older adults. Ensuring accessibility to primary care is a key priority in maintaining population health. Understanding the impact of COVID-19 tightening measures on older adults' primary care utilisation will be useful for future public health planning.

14.
Cogent Social Sciences ; 8(1), 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2187855

RESUMO

Vaccine tourism is a new type of medical tourism that allows tourists to travel internationally to receive the vaccine occultation while they are traveling. There are strong possibilities that vaccine tourism will grow in popularity due to recent COVID-19 vaccine discrepancy between rich and poor countries and uncertainty of the current and future variation in diseases. Vaccine tourism can play important role to revive the stagnant tourism industry resulted from COVID-19 pandemic and serve as possible alternative type of tourism package for the future. This study aims to investigate factors that influence potential tourists to adopt vaccine tourism. Two hundred and fifty-four questionnaires were collected through tourism social media sites in Thailand. PLS-SEM was conducted to examine the causal relationships. The findings show that innovative and informative users are more likely to adopt vaccine tourism. The study confirms the need to consider personal attitudes when studying behavioral intentions. Furthermore, it highlights opportunities for the tourism industry to further promote the new type of medical tourism to the innovative and informative tourists.

15.
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment ; 36(1):838-847, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2187353

RESUMO

Confronting the global spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), simple, fast and specific non-laboratory SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic tests are urgently required. However, the current nucleic acid assays generally rely on the diagnostic laboratory, trained staff and specialized equipment for execution and analysis, presenting clear limitations in the field detection. Here, we describe a portable and reliable immobilization-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) device which is mobile, without the requirement of any complicated instrument and appropriate for high-throughput testing. This device was constructed by utilizing the interaction between a carboxyl-tagged primer and an amino-tagged substrate, and capable of catching the target sequence in SARS-CoV-2 produced via the immobilization-based LAMP. In this study, the immobilization conditions and immobilized primer structure were explored and optimized. With this proposed device, the analysis result can be obtained rapidly in 30 min with excellent specificity, even if the template is extracted from a complex sample containing pharyngeal swab or human blood. In addition, the device can be applied to detect the nucleic acid of SARS-CoV-2 and various other pathogens, showing attractive potential for rapid and high-throughput detection at airports, railway stations, cold-chain transportations, community hospitals and so on. Therefore, we believe that the immobilization-based LAMP device is an advanced approach to developing a portable, specific, low-cost and high-throughput diagnostic platform.

16.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America ; 120(4):e2202820120, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2186688

RESUMO

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) and NL63 (HCoV-NL63) are endemic causes of upper respiratory infections such as the "common cold" but may occasionally cause severe lower respiratory tract disease in the elderly and immunocompromised patients. There are no approved antiviral drugs or vaccines for these common cold coronaviruses (CCCoV). The recent emergence of COVID-19 and the possible cross-reactive antibody and T cell responses between these CCCoV and SARS-CoV-2 emphasize the need to develop experimental animal models for CCCoV. Mice are an ideal experimental animal model for such studies, but are resistant to HCoV-229E and HCoV-NL63 infections. Here, we generated 229E and NL63 mouse models by exogenous delivery of their receptors, human hAPN and hACE2 using replication-deficient adenoviruses (Ad5-hAPN and Ad5-hACE2), respectively. Ad5-hAPN- and Ad5-hACE2-sensitized IFNAR-/- and STAT1-/- mice developed pneumonia characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration with virus clearance occurring 7 d post infection. Ad5-hAPN- and Ad5-hACE2-sensitized mice generated virus-specific T cells and neutralizing antibodies after 229E or NL63 infection, respectively. Remdesivir and a vaccine candidate targeting spike protein of 229E and NL63 accelerated viral clearance of virus in these mice. 229E- and NL63-infected mice were partially protected from SARS-CoV-2 infection, likely mediated by cross-reactive T cell responses. Ad5-hAPN- and Ad5-hACE2-transduced mice are useful for studying pathogenesis and immune responses induced by HCoV-229E and HCoV-NL63 infections and for validation of broadly protective vaccines, antibodies, and therapeutics against human respiratory coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2.

17.
2nd International Conference on New Energy Technology and Industrial Development, NETID 2021 ; 292, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2186203

RESUMO

COVID-19 was first reported in Wuhan city of Hubei Province of China in December 2019, becoming a pandemic declared by the world health organization. This article is a review of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). It typically informs the genome structure of the SARS-CoV-2 and its pathogenic mechanisms, concludes a series of non-pharmaceutical control methods, and focuses on several testing measures. The inventions of the disease treatments remain an important challenge to all medical institutions while a series ofmedications have been brought to the public. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences.

18.
Npj Vaccines ; 7(1):165, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185873

RESUMO

Adolescents and children play an important role in SARS-CoV-2 transmission and epidemiology. MVC-COV1901 is a subunit SARS-CoV-2 vaccine based on stabilized spike protein adjuvanted with CpG 1018 and aluminum hydroxide that has received emergency use approval (EUA) for adults in Taiwan. In this study, we have investigated the safety and immunogenicity of two doses of MVC-COV1901 in adolescents. Healthy adolescents from the age of 12-17 years were randomly assigned to receive two intramuscular doses of either MVC-COV1901 or placebo at 28 days apart. Adverse events were mostly mild and were similar in MVC-COV1901 and placebo groups, with the most commonly reported adverse events being pain/tenderness and malaise/fatigue. All immunogenicity endpoints in the adolescent group were non-inferior to the endpoints seen in the young adult and placebo groups. The results here advocate the use of MVC-COV1901 in adolescents in the ongoing efforts to control the pandemic.ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT04951388.

19.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2180786

RESUMO

Background/Purpose: Precise detection of respiratory pathogens by molecular method potentially may shorten the time to diagnose and reduce unnecessary antibiotic use. Methods: Medical records of hospitalized children from January 2020 to June 2021 with acute respiratory illness who received a FilmArray RP for respiratory pathogens were reviewed and compared with data from diagnosis-matched patients without receiving the test. Results: In total, 283 patients and 150 diagnosis-matched controls were included. Single pathogen was detected in 84.3% (193/229) of the patients. The most common pathogen was human rhinovirus/enterovirus (31.6 %, 84/266), followed by respiratory syncytial virus (18.8%, 50/266) and adenovirus (15%, 40/266). Although antimicrobial days of therapy (DOT) was significantly longer in FilmArray group than the control [7.1 ± 4.9 days vs 5.7 ± 2.7 days, P = 0.002], the former showed a higher intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate (3.9% vs 0%;P = 0.010). All ICU admissions were in FilmArray RP-positive group. There was no difference in antimicrobial DOT between FilmArray RP-positive and the negative groups, in all admissions, even after excluding ICU admissions. Antimicrobial DOT was shorter in the positive than negative group in patients with lower respiratory tract infections without admission to ICU [median (IQR): 6 (4-9) days vs 9 (4-12) days, P = 0.047]. Conclusions: Shorter antimicrobial DOTs were identified in children with lower respiratory tract infection admitted to general pediatric ward and with an identifiable respiratory pathogen, indicating a role of the multiplex PCR in reducing antimicrobial use for children with respiratory tract infection.

20.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2179544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study explored the outcomes and predictors of early viral clearance among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This study recruited consecutive patients from March 1, 2020 to July 31, 2021. Early viral clearance was defined as having a duration from symptom onset to successive detection of SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction cycle threshold (Ct) value of ≥30 within 10 days. RESULTS: Among the 239 enrolled patients, 54.4% (130 patients) had early viral clearance. A multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that dexamethasone use and Day-1 Ct values were independent factors associated with late viral clearance. Patients with mild-moderate severity and who received dexamethasone therapy had a longer time to viral clearance than those who did not receive dexamethasone (17.2±1.8 days vs. 12.3±1.1 days, P=0.018). Patients with severe-critical severity had a similar duration from symptom onset to Ct value ≥30 regardless of dexamethasone therapy (18.3±0.9 days vs. 16.7±4.7 days, P= 0.626). CONCLUSION: The study revealed that dexamethasone therapy and Ct values are independent predictors of late viral clearance. Patients with severe disease course due to older age, increased number of comorbidities, and worse clinical outcomes experienced delayed viral clearance.

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