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1.
ERJ Open Res ; 9(2)2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325798

RESUMO

Introduction: SELF-BREATHE is a complex, transdiagnostic, supportive, digital breathlessness intervention co-developed with patients. SELF-BREATHE seeks to build capacity and resilience within health services by improving the lives of people with chronic breathlessness using nonpharmacological, self-management approaches. This study aimed to determine whether SELF-BREATHE is feasible to deliver and acceptable to patients living with chronic breathlessness. Methods: A parallel, two-arm, single-blind, single-centre, randomised controlled, mixed-methods feasibility trial with participants allocated to 1) intervention group (SELF-BREATHE) or 2) control group (usual National Health Service (NHS) care). The setting was a large multisite NHS foundation trust in south-east London, UK. The participants were patients living with chronic breathlessness due to advanced malignant or nonmalignant disease(s). Participants were randomly allocated (1:1) to an online, self-guided, breathlessness supportive intervention (SELF-BREATHE) and usual care or usual care alone, over 6 weeks. The a priori progression criteria were ≥30% of eligible patients given an information sheet consented to participate; ≥60% of participants logged on and accessed SELF-BREATHE within 2 weeks; and ≥70% of patients reported the methodology and intervention as acceptable. Results: Between January 2021 and January 2022, 52 (47%) out of 110 eligible patients consented and were randomised. Of those randomised to SELF-BREATHE, 19 (73%) out of 26 logged on and used SELF-BREATHE for a mean±sd (range) 9±8 (1-33) times over 6 weeks. 36 (70%) of the 52 randomised participants completed and returned the end-of-study postal questionnaires. SELF-BREATHE users reported it to be acceptable. Post-intervention qualitative interviews demonstrated that SELF-BREATHE was acceptable and valued by users, improving breathlessness during daily life and at points of breathlessness crisis. Conclusion: These data support the feasibility of moving to a fully powered, randomised controlled efficacy trial with minor modifications to minimise missing data (i.e. multiple methods of data collection: face-to-face, telephone, video assessment and by post).

2.
Palliat Med ; 37(7): 1034-1039, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number and proportion of home deaths in the UK increased during the Covid-19 pandemic. It is not known whether these changes were experienced disproportionately by people from different socioeconomic groups. AIM: To examine the association between home death and socioeconomic position during the Covid-19 pandemic, and how this changed between 2019 and 2020. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using population-based individual-level mortality data. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: All registered deaths in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The proportion of home deaths between 28th March and 31st December 2020 was compared with the same period in 2019. We used Poisson regression models to evaluate the association between decedent's area-based level of deprivation and risk of home death, as well as the interaction between deprivation and year of death, for each nation separately. RESULTS: Between the 28th March and 31st December 2020, 409,718 deaths were recorded in England, 46,372 in Scotland, 26,410 in Wales and 13,404 in Northern Ireland. All four nations showed an increase in the adjusted proportion of home deaths between 2019 and 2020, ranging from 21 to 28%. This increase was lowest for people living in the most deprived areas in all nations, with evidence of a deprivation gradient in England. CONCLUSIONS: The Covid-19 pandemic exacerbated a previously described socioeconomic inequality in place of death in the UK. Further research to understand the reasons for this change and if this inequality has been sustained is needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pandemias , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , País de Gales/epidemiologia
3.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 21(1): 29, 2023 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient-centred measures to capture symptoms and concerns have rarely been reported in severe COVID. We adapted and tested the measurement properties of the proxy version of the Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale-IPOS-COV for severe COVID using psychometric approach. METHODS: We consulted experts and followed consensus-based standards for the selection of health status measurement instruments and United States Food and Drug Administration guidance for adaptation and analysis. Exploratory Factor Analysis and clinical perspective informed subscales. We tested the internal consistency reliability, calculated item total correlations, examined re-test reliability in stable patients, and also evaluated inter-rater reproducibility. We examined convergent and divergent validity of IPOS-COV with the Australia-modified Karnofsky Performance Scale and evaluated known-groups validity. Ability to detect change was examined. RESULTS: In the adaptation phase, 6 new items were added, 7 items were removed from the original measure. The recall period was revised to be the last 12-24 h to capture fast deterioration in COVID. General format and response options of the original Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale were preserved. Data from 572 patients with COVID from across England and Wales seen by palliative care services were included. Four subscales were supported by the 4-factor solution explaining 53.5% of total variance. Breathlessness-Agitation and Gastro-intestinal subscales demonstrated good reliability with high to moderate (a = 0.70 and a = 0.67) internal consistency, and item-total correlations (0.62-0.21). All except the Flu subscale discriminated well between patients with differing disease severity. Inter-rater reliability was fair with ICC of 0.40 (0.3-0.5, 95% CI, n = 324). Correlations between the subscales and AKPS as predicted were weak (r = 0.13-0.26) but significant (p < 0.01). Breathlessness-Agitation and Drowsiness-Delirium subscales demonstrated good divergent validity. Patients with low oxygen saturation had higher mean Breathlessness-Agitation scores (M = 5.3) than those with normal levels (M = 3.4), t = 6.4 (186), p < 0.001. Change in Drowsiness-Delirium subscale correctly classified patients who died. CONCLUSIONS: IPOS-COV is the first patient-centred measure adapted for severe COVID to support timely management. Future studies could further evaluate its responsiveness and clinical utility with clinimetric approaches.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Delírio , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Qualidade de Vida , Cuidados Paliativos , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1058736, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252887

RESUMO

Introduction: Little consideration has been given to how the provision of palliative and end-of-life care in care homes was affected by COVID-19. The aims of this study were to: (i) investigate the response of UK care homes in meeting the rapidly increasing need for palliative and end-of-life care during the COVID-19 pandemic and (ii) propose policy recommendations for strengthening the provision of palliative and end-of-life care within care homes. Materials and methods: A mixed methods observational study was conducted, which incorporated (i) an online cross-sectional survey of UK care homes and (ii) qualitative interviews with care home practitioners. Participants for the survey were recruited between April and September 2021. Survey participants indicating availability to participate in an interview were recruited using a purposive sampling approach between June and October 2021. Data were integrated through analytic triangulation in which we sought areas of convergence, divergence, and complementarity. Results: There were 107 responses to the survey and 27 interviews. We found that (i) relationship-centered care is crucial to high-quality palliative and end-of-life care within care homes, but this was disrupted during the pandemic. (ii) Care homes' ability to maintain high-quality relationship-centered care required key "pillars" being in place: integration with external healthcare systems, digital inclusion, and a supported workforce. Inequities within the care home sector meant that in some services these pillars were compromised, and relationship-centered care suffered. (iii) The provision of relationship-centered care was undermined by care home staff feeling that their efforts and expertise in delivering palliative and end-of-life care often went unrecognized/undervalued. Conclusion: Relationship-centered care is a key component of high-quality palliative and end-of-life care in care homes, but this was disrupted during the COVID-19 pandemic. We identify key policy priorities to equip care homes with the resources, capacity, and expertise needed to deliver palliative and end-of-life care: (i) integration within health and social care systems, (ii) digital inclusivity, (iii) workforce development, (iv) support for care home managers, and (v) addressing (dis)parities of esteem. These policy recommendations inform, extend, and align with policies and initiatives within the UK and internationally.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Assistência Terminal , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Transversais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Assistência Terminal/métodos , Reino Unido
5.
ERJ Open Res ; 8(3)2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278066

RESUMO

Introduction: The burden of chronic breathlessness on individuals, family, society and health systems is significant and set to increase exponentially with an ageing population with complex multimorbidity, yet there is a lack of services. This has been further amplified by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Online breathlessness interventions have been proposed to fill this gap, but need development and evaluation based on patient preferences and choices. This study aimed to explore the preferences and choices of patients regarding the content of an online self-guided chronic breathlessness supportive intervention (SELF-BREATHE). Methods: Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with adults living with advanced malignant and nonmalignant disease and chronic breathlessness (July to November 2020). Interviews were analysed using conventional and summative content analysis. Results: 25 patients with advanced disease and chronic breathlessness (COPD n=13, lung cancer n=8, interstitial lung disease n=3, bronchiectasis n=1; 17 male; median (range) age 70 (47-86) years; median (range) Medical Research Council dyspnoea score 3 (2-5)) were interviewed. Individuals highlighted strong preferences for focused education, methods to increase self-motivation and engagement, interventions targeting breathing and physical function, software capability to personalise the content of SELF-BREATHE to make it more meaningful to the user, and aesthetically designed content using various communication methods including written, video and audio content. Furthermore, they identified the need to address motivation as a key potential determinant of the success of SELF-BREATHE. Conclusion: Our findings provide an essential foundation for future digital intervention development (SELF-BREATHE) and scaled research.

7.
BMC Palliat Care ; 21(1): 176, 2022 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Independent charitably funded hospices have been an important element of the UK healthcare response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Hospices usually have different funding streams, procurement processes, and governance arrangements compared to NHS provision, which may affect their experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study is to understand the challenges faced by charitably funded hospices during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Eligible Organisations providing specialist palliative or hospice care completed the online CovPall survey (2020) which explored their response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Eligible organisations were then purposively selected to participate in interviews as part of qualitative case studies (2020-21) to understand challenges in more depth. Free-text responses from the survey were analysed using content analysis and were categorised accordingly. These categorisations were used a priori for a reflexive thematic analysis of interview data. RESULTS: 143 UK independent charitably funded hospices completed the online CovPall survey. Five hospices subsequently participated in qualitative case studies (n = 24 staff interviews). Key themes include: vulnerabilities of funding; infection control during patient care; and bereavement support provision. Interviewees discussed the fragility of income due to fundraising events stopping; the difficulties of providing care to COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients within relatively small organisations; and challenges with maintaining the quality of bereavement services. CONCLUSION: Some unique care and provision challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic were highlighted by charitably funded hospices. Funding core services charitably and independently may affect their ability to respond to pandemics, or scenarios where resources are unexpectedly insufficient.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Hospitais para Doentes Terminais , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Pandemias
8.
BMJ Support Palliat Care ; 12(4): 439-447, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032545

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe multinational prescribing practices by palliative care services for symptom management in patients dying with COVID-19 and the perceived effectiveness of medicines. METHODS: We surveyed specialist palliative care services, contacted via relevant organisations between April and July 2020. Descriptive statistics for categorical variables were expressed as counts and percentages. Content analysis explored free text responses about symptom management in COVID-19. Medicines were classified using British National Formulary categories. Perceptions on effectiveness of medicines were grouped into five categories; effective, some, limited or unclear effectiveness, no effect. RESULTS: 458 services responded; 277 UK, 85 rest of Europe, 95 rest of the world, 1 missing country. 358 services had managed patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19. 289 services had protocols for symptom management in COVID-19. Services tended to prescribe medicines for symptom control comparable to medicines used in people without COVID-19; mainly opioids and benzodiazepines for breathlessness, benzodiazepines and antipsychotics for agitation, opioids and cough linctus for cough, paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for fever, and opioids and paracetamol for pain. Medicines were considered to be mostly effective but varied by patient's condition, route of administration and dose. CONCLUSIONS: Services were largely consistent in prescribing for symptom management in people dying with COVID-19. Medicines used prior to COVID-19 were mostly considered effective in controlling common symptoms.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cuidados Paliativos , Humanos , Acetaminofen , Tosse , Benzodiazepinas
9.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 64(4): 377-390, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907348

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Evidence of symptom control outcomes in severe COVID is scant. OBJECTIVES: To determine changes in symptoms among people severely ill or dying with COVID supported by palliative care, and associations with treatments and survival. METHODS: Multicentre cohort study of people with COVID across England and Wales supported by palliative care services, during the pandemic in 2020 and 2021. We analysed clinical, demographic and survival data, symptom severity at baseline (referral to palliative care, first COVID assessment) and at three follow-up assessments using the Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale - COVID version. RESULTS: We included 572 patients from 25 services, mostly hospital support teams; 496 (87%) were newly referred to palliative care with COVID, 75 (13%) were already supported by palliative care when they contracted COVID. At baseline, patients had a mean of 2.4 co-morbidities, mean age 77 years, a mean of five symptoms, and were often bedfast or semiconscious. The most prevalent symptoms were: breathlessness, weakness/lack of energy, drowsiness, anxiety, agitation, confusion/delirium, and pain. Median time in palliative care was 46 hours; 77% of patients died. During palliative care, breathlessness, agitation, anxiety, delirium, cough, fever, pain, sore/dry mouth and nausea improved; drowsiness became worse. Common treatments were low dose morphine and midazolam. Having moderate to severe breathlessness, agitation and multimorbidity were associated with shorter survival. CONCLUSION: Symptoms of COVID quickly improved during palliative care. Breathlessness, agitation and multimorbidity could be used as triggers for timelier referral, and symptom guidance for wider specialities should build on treatments identified in this study.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Delírio , Idoso , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Dispneia , Humanos , Midazolam , Morfina , Dor , Cuidados Paliativos
10.
ERJ Open Res ; 8(1)2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701916

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The burden of chronic breathlessness on individuals, family, society and health systems is significant, and set to increase exponentially with population ageing, complex multimorbidity and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related disability. Breathlessness support services are effective; however, reach and access are limited. Delivering online breathlessness interventions may build capacity and resilience within health systems to tackle chronic breathlessness through supported self-management. The aim of this study was to explore accessibility and willingness of patients with chronic breathlessness to use an internet-based breathlessness self-management intervention (SELF-BREATHE). METHODS: Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with adults living with advanced malignant and non-malignant disease and chronic breathlessness (July to November 2020). Interviews were analysed using conventional and summative content analysis. RESULTS: 25 patients (COPD: n=13; lung cancer: n=8; interstitial lung disease (ILD): n=3; bronchiectasis: n=1) were interviewed: 17 male, median (range) age 70 (47-86) years and Medical Research Council dyspnoea score 3 (2-5). 21 patients had internet access. Participants described greater use, acceptance and normalisation of the internet since the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. They described multifaceted internet use: functional, self-investment (improving health and wellbeing) and social. The concept of SELF-BREATHE was highly valued, and most participants with internet access were willing to use it. In addition to technical limitations, personal choice and perceived value of the internet were important factors that underpinned readiness to use online resources. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that patients living with chronic breathlessness that have access to the internet would have the potential to benefit from the online SELF-BREATHE intervention, if given the opportunity.

11.
J R Soc Med ; 115(6): 220-230, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673700

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the experiences of, and impact on, staff working in palliative care during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Qualitative multiple case study using semi-structured interviews between November 2020 and April 2021 as part of the CovPall study. Data were analysed using thematic framework analysis. SETTING: Organisations providing specialist palliative services in any setting. PARTICIPANTS: Staff working in specialist palliative care, purposefully sampled by the criteria of role, care setting and COVID-19 experience. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Experiences of working in palliative care during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Five cases and 24 participants were recruited (n = 12 nurses, 4 clinical managers, 4 doctors, 2 senior managers, 1 healthcare assistant, 1 allied healthcare professional). Central themes demonstrate how infection control constraints prohibited and diluted participants' ability to provide care that reflected their core values, resulting in experiences of moral distress. Despite organisational, team and individual support strategies, continually managing these constraints led to a 'crescendo effect' in which the impacts of moral distress accumulated over time, sometimes leading to burnout. Solidarity with colleagues and making a valued contribution provided 'moral comfort' for some. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a unique insight into why and how healthcare staff have experienced moral distress during the pandemic, and how organisations have responded. Despite their experience of dealing with death and dying, the mental health and well-being of palliative care staff was affected by the pandemic. Organisational, structural and policy changes are urgently required to mitigate and manage these impacts.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos , Pandemias , Pesquisa Qualitativa
12.
J Palliat Med ; 25(3): 465-471, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585195

RESUMO

Objectives: To identify factors associated with palliative care services being busier during Covid-19. Methods: Cross-sectional online survey of UK palliative care services (April to July 2020) (CovPall). Ethical approval was received from King's College London Research Ethics committee (LRS-19/20-18541). The primary outcome was change in busyness (five-point ordinal scale). Ordinal logistic regression investigated factors associated with the primary outcome. Results: Of 277 responses, 71 (26%) reported being a lot more busy, 62 (22%) slightly more, 53 (19%) about the same, 50 (18%) slightly less, and 28 (10%) much less busy. Increased business was associated with homecare services (odds ratio [OR] 1.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-3.25), nursing care at home (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.70-6.19), publicly managed services (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.11-4.34), Covid-19 cases (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.01), and staff shortages (OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.64-4.48). Conclusion: Services providing community care, and publicly managed services, may have been better able to respond to escalating needs during Covid-19. This has potential implications for both service delivery and funding models.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Palliat Med ; 36(2): 319-331, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Palliative rehabilitation involves multi-professional processes and interventions aimed at optimising patients' symptom self-management, independence and social participation throughout advanced illness. Rehabilitation services were highly disrupted during the Covid-19 pandemic. AIM: To understand rehabilitation provision in palliative care services during the Covid-19 pandemic, identifying and reflecting on adaptative and innovative practice to inform ongoing provision. DESIGN: Cross-sectional national online survey. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Rehabilitation leads for specialist palliative care services across hospice, hospital, or community settings, conducted from 30/07/20 to 21/09/2020. FINDINGS: 61 completed responses (England, n = 55; Scotland, n = 4; Wales, n = 1; and Northern Ireland, n = 1) most frequently from services based in hospices (56/61, 92%) providing adult rehabilitation. Most services (55/61, 90%) reported rehabilitation provision becoming remote during Covid-19 and half reported reduced caseloads. Rehabilitation teams frequently had staff members on sick-leave with suspected/confirmed Covid-19 (27/61, 44%), redeployed to other services/organisations (25/61, 41%) or furloughed (15/61, 26%). Free text responses were constructed into four themes: (i) fluctuating shared spaces; (ii) remote and digitised rehabilitation offer; (iii) capacity to provide and participate in rehabilitation; (iv) Covid-19 as a springboard for positive change. These represent how rehabilitation services contracted, reconfigured, and were redirected to more remote modes of delivery, and how this affected the capacity of clinicians and patients to participate in rehabilitation. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates how changes in provision of rehabilitation during the pandemic could act as a springboard for positive changes. Hybrid models of rehabilitation have the potential to expand the equity of access and reach of rehabilitation within specialist palliative care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hospitais para Doentes Terminais , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volunteers are common within palliative care services, and provide support that enhances care quality. The support they provided, and any role changes, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are unknown. The aim of this study is to understand volunteer deployment and activities within palliative care services, and to identify what may affect any changes in volunteer service provision, during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Multi-national online survey disseminated via key stakeholders to specialist palliative care services, completed by lead clinicians. Data collected on volunteer roles, deployment, and changes in volunteer engagement. Analysis included descriptive statistics, a multivariable logistic regression, and analysis of free-text comments using a content analysis approach. RESULTS: 458 respondents: 277 UK, 85 rest of Europe, and 95 rest of the world. 68.5% indicated volunteer use pre-COVID-19 across a number of roles (from 458): direct patient facing support (58.7%), indirect support (52.0%), back office (48.5%) and fundraising (45.6%). 11% had volunteers with COVID-19. Of those responding to a question on change in volunteer deployment (328 of 458) most (256/328, 78%) indicated less or much less use of volunteers. Less use of volunteers was associated with being an in-patient hospice, (odds ratio [OR]=0.15, 95% CI=0.07-0.3, P<.001). This reduction in volunteers was felt to protect potentially vulnerable volunteers, with policy changes preventing volunteer support. However, adapting was also seen where new roles were created, or existing roles pivoted to provide virtual support. CONCLUSION: Volunteers were mostly prevented from supporting many forms of palliative care which may have quality and safety implications given their previously central roles. Volunteer re-deployment plans are needed that take a more considered approach, using volunteers more flexibly to enhance care while ensuring safe working practices. Consideration needs to be given to widening the volunteer base away from those who may be considered to be most vulnerable to COVID-19.

15.
BMJ Support Palliat Care ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405222

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop insights into response of palliative care services caring for people from ethnic minority groups during COVID-19. METHODS: Cross-sectional online survey of UK palliative care services response to COVID-19. Quantitative data were summarised descriptively and χ2 tests used to explore relationships between categorical variables. Free text comments were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: 277 UK services responded. 168 included hospice teams (76% of all UK hospice teams). Services supporting those from ethnic minority groups were more likely to include hospital (p<0.001) and less likely to include hospice (p<0.001) or home care teams (p=0.008). 34% (93/277) of services had cared for patients with COVID-19 or families from ethnic minority groups. 66% (61/93) of these services stated no difference in how they supported or reached these groups during the pandemic.Three themes demonstrated impact of policy introduced during the pandemic, including: disproportionate adverse impact of restricted visiting, compounded communication challenges and unmet religious and faith needs. One theme demonstrated mistrust of services by ethnic minority groups, and the final theme demonstrated a focus on equal and individualised care. CONCLUSIONS: Policies introduced during the COVID-19 pandemic may have adversely impacted those from ethnic minority groups making these at-risk populations even more vulnerable. The palliative care response may have been equal but inequitable. During the para-COVID-19 period, systemic steps, including equality impact assessments, are urgently needed.

16.
Palliat Med ; 35(10): 1975-1984, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding patterns of mortality and place of death during the COVID-19 pandemic is important to help provide appropriate services and resources. AIMS: To analyse patterns of mortality including place of death in the United Kingdom (UK) (England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland) during the COVID-19 pandemic to date. DESIGN: Descriptive analysis of UK mortality data between March 2020 and March 2021. Weekly number of deaths was described by place of death, using the following definitions: (1) expected deaths: average expected deaths estimated using historical data (2015-19); (2) COVID-19 deaths: where COVID-19 is mentioned on the death certificate; (3) additional non-COVID-19 deaths: above expected but not attributed to COVID-19; (4) baseline deaths: up to and including expected deaths but excluding COVID-19 deaths. RESULTS: During the analysis period, 798,643 deaths were registered in the UK, of which 147,282 were COVID-19 deaths and 17,672 were additional non-COVID-19 deaths. While numbers of people who died in care homes and hospitals increased above expected only during the pandemic waves, the numbers of people who died at home remained above expected both during and between the pandemic waves, with an overall increase of 41%. CONCLUSIONS: Where people died changed during the COVID-19 pandemic, with an increase in deaths at home during and between pandemic waves. This has implications for planning and organisation of palliative care and community services. The extent to which these changes will persist longer term remains unclear. Further research could investigate whether this is reflected in other countries with high COVID-19 mortality.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Enfermagem de Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido
17.
Chron Respir Dis ; 18: 14799731211035822, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354699

RESUMO

In people with advanced respiratory disease, we examined (i) the impact of COVID-19-related physical and social isolation on physical activity and (ii) relationships between time spent in isolation and disability in activities of daily living. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted in adults with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, chronic obstructive lung disease or interstitial lung disease. Measures included change in physical activity since physically and socially isolating (Likert scale) and disability (Barthel Index and Lawton-Brody IADL scale) or difficulty (World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule-2.0) in daily activities. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with disability in daily activities. 194/201 participants were isolating for a median [IQR] 5 [3-8]-month period, often leading to lower levels of physical activity at home (n = 94, 47%), and outside home (n = 129, 65%). 104 (52%) and 142 (71%) were not fully independent in basic and instrumental activities of daily living, respectively. 96% reported some degree of difficulty in undertaking daily activities. Prolonged physical and social isolation related to increased disability in basic (r = -0.28, p < 0.001) and instrumental (r = -0.24, p < 0.001) activities of daily living, and greater difficulty in daily activities (r = 0.22, p = 0.002). Each month spent in physical or social isolation was independently related to disability in basic activities of daily living (odds ratio [OR], 1.17 [95% CI: 1.03-1.33], p = 0.013). These findings suggest disability in daily activities is associated with prolonged physical or social isolation, which may present as difficulty in people who are fully independent. Post-isolation recovery and rehabilitation needs should be considered for all people deemed extremely clinically vulnerable.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/fisiopatologia , Exercício Físico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2 , Isolamento Social
19.
Palliat Med ; 35(7): 1225-1237, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Specialist palliative care services play an important role in conducting advance care planning during COVID-19. Little is known about the challenges to advance care planning in this context, or the changes services made to adapt. AIM: Describe the challenges that UK specialist palliative care services experienced regarding advance care planning during COVID-19 and changes made to support timely conversations. DESIGN: Online survey of UK palliative/hospice services' response to COVID-19. Closed-ended responses are reported descriptively. Open-ended responses were analysed using a thematic Framework approach using the Social Ecological Model to understand challenges. RESPONDENTS: Two hundred and seventy-seven services. RESULTS: More direct advance care planning was provided by 38% of services, and 59% provided more support to others. Some challenges to advance care planning pre-dated the pandemic, whilst others were specific to/exacerbated by COVID-19. Challenges are demonstrated through six themes: complex decision making in the face of a new infectious disease; maintaining a personalised approach; COVID-19-specific communication difficulties; workload and pressure; sharing information; and national context of fear and uncertainty. Two themes demonstrate changes made to support: adapting local processes and adapting local structures. CONCLUSIONS: Professionals and healthcare providers need to ensure advance care planning is individualised by tailoring it to the values, priorities, and ethnic/cultural/religious context of each person. Policymakers need to consider how high-quality advance care planning can be resourced as a part of standard healthcare ahead of future pandemic waves. In facilitating this, we provide questions to consider at each level of the Social Ecological Model.


Assuntos
Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados , COVID-19 , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido
20.
Future Healthc J ; 8(1): 62-64, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168115

RESUMO

London was at the forefront of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK, with an exponential rise in hospital admissions from March 2020. This case study appraises the impact on and response of a hospital palliative care service based in a large inner-city teaching hospital. Referrals increased from a mean of 39 to 75 per week; deaths from 13 to 52 per week. Multiple actions were taken by the team to manage the surge in referrals, which have been categorised based on the 4S model: systems, space, stuff and staff. Several lessons are highlighted: need for flexible and responsive staffing over the 7-day week; implementing clear, accessible clinical guidance supported by ward-based teaching; benefits of integrating clinical practice with research; and the importance of maintaining team well-being and camaraderie to sustain change. Further evaluation is needed of the differential impact of changes made to inform service planning for future pandemics.

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