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1.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics ; 114(3):e131-e132, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-2036095
2.
Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry ; 21:21, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035028

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 has mutated many times since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the omicron is currently the most dominant variant. Determining the specific strain of the virus is beneficial in providing proper care and containment of the disease. We have previously reported a novel method of counting the number of particle immunoagglutination on a paper microfluidic chip using a smartphone-based fluorescence microscope. A single-copy-level detection was demonstrated from clinical saline gargle samples. In this work, we further evaluated two different SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies to spike vs. nucleocapsid antigens for detecting omicron vs. delta and spike vs. nucleocapsid proteins. The SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody to nucleocapsid proteins could distinguish omicron from delta variants and nucleocapsid from spike proteins. However, such distinction could not be found with the monoclonal antibody to spike proteins, despite the numerous mutations found in spike proteins among variants. This result may suggest a clue to the role of nucleocapsid proteins in recognizing different variants.

4.
Lab on a Chip ; 14:14, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028739

RESUMO

For rapid detection of the COVID-19 infection, the digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) with higher sensitivity and specificity has been presented as a promising method of point-of-care testing (POCT). Unlike the conventional real-time PCR (qPCR), the dPCR system allows absolute quantification of the target DNA without a calibration curve. Although a number of dPCR systems have previously been reported, most of these previous assays lack multiplexing capabilities. As different variants of COVID-19 have rapidly emerged, there is an urgent need for highly specific multiplexed detection systems. Additionally, the advances in the Internet of Things (IoT) technology have enabled the onsite detection of infectious diseases. Here, we present an IoT-integrated multiplexed dPCR (IM-dPCR) system involving sample compartmentalization, DNA amplification, fluorescence imaging, and quantitative analysis. This IM-dPCR system comprises three modules: a plasmonic heating-based thermal cycler, a multi-color fluorescence imaging set-up, and a firmware control module. Combined with a custom-developed smartphone application built on an IoT platform, the IM-dPCR system enabled automatic processing, data collection, and cloud storage. Using a self-priming microfluidic chip, 9 RNA groups (e.g., H1N1, H3N2, IFZ B, DENV2, DENV3, DENV4, OC43, 229E, and NL63) associated with three infectious diseases (e.g., influenza, dengue, and human coronaviruses) were analyzed with higher linearity (>98%) and sensitivity (1 copy per muL). The IM-dPCR system exhibited comparable analytical accuracy to commercial qPCR platforms. Therefore, this IM-dPCR system plays a crucial role in the onsite detection of infectious diseases.

5.
Molecular & Cellular Toxicology ; : 1-13, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027708

RESUMO

Background: A significant heart attack known as a myocardial infarction (MI) occurs when the blood supply to the heart is suddenly interrupted, harming the heart muscles due to a lack of oxygen. The incidence of myocardial infarction is increasing worldwide. A relationship between COVID-19 and myocardial infarction due to the recent COVID-19 pandemic has also been revealed. Objective: We propose a biomarker and a method that can be used for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, and an aptamer-based approach. Results: For the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, an algorithm-based diagnosis method was developed using electrocardiogram data. A diagnosis method through biomarker detection was then developed. Conclusion: Myocardial infarction is a disease that is difficult to diagnose based on the aspect of a single factor. For this reason, it is necessary to use a combination of various methods to diagnose myocardial infarction quickly and accurately. In addition, new materials such as aptamers must be grafted and integrated into new ways. Purpose of Review: The incidence of myocardial infarction is increasing worldwide, and some studies are being conducted on the association between COVID-19 and myocardial infarction. The key to properly treating myocardial infarction is early detection, thus we aim to do this by offering both tools and techniques as well as the most recent diagnostic techniques. Recent Findings: Myocardial infarction is diagnosed using an electrocardiogram and echocardiogram, which utilize cardiac signals. It is required to identify biomarkers of myocardial infarction and use biomarker-based ELISA, SPR, gold nanoparticle, and aptamer technologies in order to correctly diagnose myocardial infarction.

6.
Clinical Laboratory ; 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2025359

RESUMO

Background: To assess protective immunity among a general population against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the correlation of the commercially available solid-phase assay (SPA) for SARS-CoV-2 IgG with a neutralization assay must be investigated. Methods: Both the neutralization assay and SPA were performed on samples of 143 recovered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. SARS-CoV-2 IgG was measured using two SPAs for the chemiluminescence immunoassay principle with different target proteins: nucleocapsid and spike protein (Architect i2000SR [Abbott] and Liaison XL [DiaSorin], respectively). The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) was conducted to obtain titers for the neutralizing antibody. Results: All patients had PRNT titers ranging from 10 to 2,560. Spike Ab SPA had greater sensitivity than nucleocapsid Ab SPA (81.1% [116/143] and 70.6% [101/143], respectively, p = 0.003). The values measured for both SPAs had a positive correlation with the PRNT titers (both R = 0.77, p < 0.001). To predict a high PRNT titer (>= 160), cutoff values of two SPAs were adjusted based on receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis. The nucleocapsid Ab SPA (cutoff index of 4.17) attained 90.3% sensitivity and 75.9% specificity, whereas the spike Ab SPA (cutoff value of 109 unit/mL) attained 87.1% sensitivity and 89.3% specificity. Therefore, the spike Ab SPA had greater specificity than the nucleocapsid Ab SPA (p = 0.003). Conclusions: The qualitative SPA for nucleocapsid Ab, as well as the quantitative SPA for spike Ab, had a modest positive correlation with the neutralization assay. However, spike Ab SPA was more suitable for neutralizing capacity.

7.
Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine ; 26:26, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025233

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The use of saliva samples for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection offers several advantages, including ease of sample collection, feasibility of self-collection, and minimization of exposure of medical staff to infection. The emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants has had an impact on the viral load of specimens and the results of real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). OBJECTIVE: To compare nasopharyngeal swab and saliva samples for the diagnosis of SARSCoV-2 using rRT-PCR. DESIGN: In this study, participants were recruited prospectively, and paired nasopharyngeal swab and saliva samples were collected simultaneously from each participant. After adding universal transport medium, RNA was extracted in an identical manner for both sample types, and samples were tested using rRT-PCR. In addition, samples with positive results were tested for SARS-CoV-2 variants. RESULTS: Of the 338 paired samples, 100 nasopharyngeal swab and 101 saliva samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The rRT-PCR results of the saliva and nasopharyngeal swab samples showed a positive percent agreement of 95.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 88.7-98.4%), a negative percent agreement of 97.9% (95% CI: 95.2-99.3%), and an overall percent agreement of 96.8% (95% CI: 94.3-98.4%). SARS-CoV-2 was detected in the saliva samples of 6 participants with negative nasopharyngeal sample results. In addition, the sensitivity of saliva samples was similar to that of nasopharyngeal samples for detecting various variants, including the Omicron variant. CONCLUSIONS: Saliva samples can be used as an alternative to nasopharyngeal samples for convenient and effective detection of various SARS-CoV-2 variants.

8.
9.
Frontiers in Microbiology ; 13:997539, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022796

RESUMO

Stress granule formation is induced by numerous environmental stressors, including sodium arsenite treatment and viral infection. Accordingly, stress granules can inhibit viral propagation and function as part of the antiviral host response to numerous viral infections. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) antagonizes stress granule formation, in part, via interaction between SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein and Ras-GTPase-activating SH3-domain-binding protein 1 (G3BP1). However, it is unclear whether there are differential effects in different cell types. In this study, we assessed interaction between the N protein of SARS-CoV-2 S clade and G3BP1/2 in Vero and Calu-3 cells and investigated the effect of various SARS-CoV-2 strains on sodium arsenite-induced stress granule formation. Our data show that SARS-CoV-2 S clade N protein interacts with both G3BP1 and G3BP2 more strongly in Calu-3 vs. Vero cells. Consistent with this observation, infection with SARS-CoV-2 S clade induces stress granule formation in Vero but not in Calu-3 cells. However, infection with SARS-CoV-2 S clade, as well as other SARS-CoV-2 variants, inhibits sodium arsenite-induced stress granule formation in both cell lines. Taken together, our results show differential effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on stress granule formation that is dependent on host cell type, rather than virus strain type.

10.
Frontiers in Microbiology ; 13, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022790

RESUMO

As SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern emerged, the genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 strains became more important. In this study, SARS-CoV-2 was sequenced using amplicon-based genome sequencing with MinION. The primer panel used in this study consisted of only 11 primer panels and the size of the amplicons was approximately 3 kb. Full genome sequences were obtained with a hundred copies of the SARS-CoV-2 genome, and 92.33% and 75.39% of the genome sequences were obtained with 10 copies of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. The few differences in nucleotide sequences originated from mutations in laboratory cultures and/or mixed nucleotide sequences. The quantification of the SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA was done using RT-ddPCR methods, and the level of LoD indicated that this sequencing method can be used for any RT-qPCR positive clinical sample. The sequencing results of the SARS-CoV-2 variants and clinical samples showed that our methods were very reliable. The genome sequences of five individual clinical samples were almost identical, and the analysis of the sequence variance showed that most of these nucleotide substitutions were observed in the genome sequences of the other clinical samples, indicating this amplicon-based whole-genome sequencing method can be used in various clinical fields.

11.
Clin Mol Hepatol ; 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2022644
12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; 37(35):e267, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022641

RESUMO

The omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is known to have high infectivity and is more likely to evade vaccine immunity. However, booster vaccination is expected to strengthen cross-reactive immunity, thereby increasing the vaccine effectiveness (VE). This study aimed to evaluate the relative VE of the 3-dose (booster) vaccination compared with the 2-dose primary series vaccination in healthcare workers during omicron variant-dominant periods. During the omicron-dominant period from February 1, 2022 to February 28, 2022, a 1:1 matched case-control study was conducted. Healthcare workers with positive SARS-CoV-2 test results were classified as positive cases, whereas those with negative results served as controls. Compared with the 2-dose primary series vaccination, booster vaccination with mRNA vaccine showed moderate VE (53.1%). However, in multivariate analysis including the time elapsed after vaccination, the significant VE disappeared, reflecting the impact of recent vaccination rather than the third dose itself.

13.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; 43(1):111-113, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022633
14.
PLoS One ; 17(9):e0273637, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2021931

RESUMO

We investigated the effect of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on suicide trends in Korea via a time-series analysis. We used Facebook Prophet to generate forecasting models based on the monthly numbers of suicide deaths in Korea between 1997 and 2018, validated the models by comparison with the 2019 numbers, and predicted the numbers of suicides in 2020. We compared the expected and observed numbers of suicides during the COVID-19 pandemic. The total numbers of suicides during the COVID-19 pandemic did not deviate from projections based on the pre-pandemic period. However, the number of suicides among women and those under the age of 34 years significantly exceeded the expected level. The COVID-19 pandemic did not increase the overall suicide rate significantly. However, suicides among women and young people increased, suggesting that the pandemic might drive more members of these groups to suicide. Further studies are needed to verify the long-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on suicide.

15.
Bjpsych Open ; 8(5), 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2021389

RESUMO

Background The COVID-19 pandemic poses a major threat to mental health and is associated with an increased risk of suicide. An understanding of suicidal behaviours during the pandemic is necessary for establishing policies to prevent suicides in such social conditions. Aims We aimed to investigate vulnerable individuals and the characteristics of changes in suicidal behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with suicide attempts who visited the emergency department from February 2019 to January 2021. We analysed the demographic and clinical characteristics, risk factors and rescue factors of patients, and compared the findings between the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods. Results In total, 519 patients were included. During the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods, 303 and 270 patients visited the emergency department after a suicide attempt, respectively. The proportion of suicide attempts by women (60.1% v. 69.3%, P = 0.035) and patients with a previous psychiatric illness (63.4% v. 72.9%, P = 0.006) increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, patients' rescue scores during the pandemic were lower than those during the pre-pandemic period (12 (interquartile range: 11-13) v. 13 (interquartile range: 12-14), P < 0.001). Conclusions Women and people with previous psychiatric illnesses were more vulnerable to suicide attempts during the COVID-19 pandemic. Suicide prevention policies, such as continuous monitoring and staying in touch with vulnerable individuals, are necessary to cope with suicide risk.

16.
Biol Res Nurs ; : 10998004221124273, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2020981

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Depression is prevalent among Asian Americans (AsA) during the COVID-19 pandemic, and depression often leads to sleep disturbance in this population. The gut microbiota (GM) plays a critical role in mental health and sleep quality, and the composition of the GM is largely unknown among AsA. OBJECTIVES: Examine associations of the GM with depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance among Chinese and Korean American immigrants. METHODS: Depressive symptoms (PROMIS Short Form-Depression) and sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) were collected via surveys. PROMIS measure T-score > 55 indicates positive depressive symptoms, and a total PSQI score > 5 indicates sleep disturbance. 16S rRNA V3-V4 gene regions were sequenced from fecal specimens to measure GM. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance and linear discriminant analysis effect size were applied to examine associations of the GM with symptoms. RESULTS: Among 20 participants, 55% (n = 11) reported depressive symptoms and 35% (n = 7) reported sleep disturbance. A higher alpha-diversity was marginally associated with lower depressive symptoms: Chao1 (r = -0.39, p = 0.09) and Shannon index (r = -0.41, p = 0.08);beta-diversity distinguished participants between categories of depressive symptoms (weighted UniFrac, p=0.04) or sleep disturbance (Jaccard, p=0.05). Those with depressive symptoms showed a higher abundance of Actinobacteria, while those without depressive symptoms had a higher abundance of Bacteroidetes. No significant taxa were identified for sleep disturbance. CONCLUSIONS: Gut microbial diversity showed promising associations with depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance among Chinese and Korean immigrants. Specific taxa were identified as associated with depressive symptoms. Future studies with a larger sample size are warranted to confirm our findings.

17.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(8):ofac406, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018039

RESUMO

Background: We evaluated clinical effectiveness of regdanvimab (CT-P59), a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 neutralizing monoclonal antibody, in reducing disease progression and clinical recovery time in patients with mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), primarily Alpha variant. Methods: This was phase 3 of a phase 2/3 parallel-group, double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Outpatients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 were randomized to single-dose regdanvimab 40 mg/kg (n = 656) or placebo (n = 659), alongside standard of care. The primary endpoint was COVID-19 disease progression up to day 28 among "high-risk" patients. Key secondary endpoints were disease progression (all randomized patients) and time to recovery (high-risk and all randomized patients). Results: Of 1315 randomized patients, 880 were high risk;the majority were infected with Alpha variant. The proportion with disease progression was lower (14/446, 3.1% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.9%-5.2%] vs 48/434, 11.1% [95% CI, 8.4%-14.4%];P < .001) and time to recovery was shorter (median, 9.27 days [95% CI, 8.27-11.05 days] vs not reached [95% CI, 12.35-not calculable];P < .001) with regdanvimab than placebo. Consistent improvements were seen in all randomized and non-high-risk patients who received regdanvimab. Viral load reductions were more rapid with regdanvimab. Infusion-related reactions occurred in 11 patients (4/652 [0.6%] regdanvimab, 7/650 [1.1%] placebo). Treatment-emergent serious adverse events were reported in 5 of (4/652 [0.6%] regdanvimab and 1/650 [0.2%] placebo). Conclusions: Regdanvimab was an effective treatment for patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19, significantly reducing disease progression and clinical recovery time without notable safety concerns prior to the emergence of the Omicron variant. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT04602000;2020-003369-20 (EudraCT).

18.
J Med Virol ; 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2013627
19.
Jama Network Open ; 5(8), 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2013233
20.
25th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2021 ; : 857-858, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2012689

RESUMO

Paper microfluidics has had a rich history in medical diagnostics owing to their portability, low-cost and capacity for mass manufacture. While nitrocellulose has widespread use in commercial paper-based assays, shortages can become a bottleneck for deployment. Here, we seek to overcome this limitation by enabling swift and efficient production of cellulose-based paper assays with minimal substrate processing via protein engineering. We demonstrate good clinical and lab-based performance for both serological and antigen rapid tests and their compatibility with roll-to-roll mass manufacturing, which validates our proposed workflow for commercialization. © 2021 MicroTAS 2021 - 25th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences. All rights reserved.

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