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Med J Malaysia ; 78(3): 279-286, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237861


INTRODUCTION: Cluster-associated transmission has contributed to the majority of COVID-19 cases in Malaysia. Although widely used, the performance of the World Health Organization (WHO) case definition for suspected COVID19 in environments with high numbers of such cases has not been reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All suspected cases of COVID-19 that self-presented to hospitals or were cluster screened from 1st April to 31st May 2020 were included. Positive SARS-CoV-2 rRT-PCR was used as the diagnostic reference for COVID-19. RESULTS: 540 individuals with suspected COVID-19 were recruited. Two-third of patients were identified through contact screening, while the rest presented sporadically. Overall COVID-19 positivity rate was 59.4% (321/540) which was higher in the cluster screened group (85.6% vs. 11.6%, p<0.001). Overall, cluster-screened COVID-19 cases were significantly younger, had fewer comorbidities and were less likely to be symptomatic than those present sporadically. Mortality was significantly lower in the cluster-screened COVID-19 cases (0.3% vs. 4.5%, p<0.05). A third of all chest radiographs in confirmed COVID-19 cases were abnormal, with consolidation, ground-glass opacities or both predominating in the peripheral lower zones. The WHO suspected case definition for COVID-19 accurately classified 35.4% of all COVID-19 patients, a rate not improved by the addition of baseline radiographic data. Misclassification rate was higher among the cluster-associated cases (80.6%) compared to sporadic cases (35.3%). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 cases in Malaysia identified by active tracing of community cluster outbreaks had lower mortality rate. The WHO suspected COVID-19 performed poorly in this setting even when chest radiographic information was available, a finding that has implications for future spikes of the disease in countries with similar transmission characteristics.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Malásia/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Surtos de Doenças
Hepatology International ; 17(Supplement 1):S123, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2327134


Background/Aims: The clinical course of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in individuals with HIV-1 coinfection is marked by accelerated disease progression. A tenofovir-containing antiretroviral regimen is recommended in most people with HIV-1/HBV-coinfection, but there have not been randomized studies of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) vs tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) in treatment- naive HIV-1/HBV-coinfected individuals. We report primary endpoint results from a Phase 3 study comparing bictegravir/emtricitabine/ TAF (B/F/TAF) vs dolutegravir + emtricitabine/TDF (DTG + F/TDF) at Week (W)48 in participants initiating treatment for both viruses. Method(s): Adults with HIV-1/HBV coinfection were randomized 1:1 to initiate blinded treatment with B/F/TAF or DTG + F/TDF (with placebo). Primary endpoints were the proportion of participants with HIV-1 RNA<50 copies/mL (FDA Snapshot) and plasma HBV DNA<29 IU/mL (missing = failure) at W48. Noninferiority was assessed with 95% CI (12% margin). Secondary and other endpoints included change from baseline cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) count, proportion with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) loss/seroconversion, and alanine transaminase (ALT) normalization (AASLD criteria). Result(s): Participants (N = 243) were randomized and treated (B/F/ TAF [n = 121], DTG + F/TDF [n = 122]) from 11 countries in Asia, Europe, North, and Latin America. Baseline characteristics were median age of 32 years, 4.5% female, 88% Asian, 30% HIV-1 RNA>100,000 c/mL, 40% CD4<200 cells/lL, median HBV DNA 8.1 log10 IU/mL, 78% HBeAg+. At W48, B/F/TAF was noninferior to DTG + F/TDF at achieving HIV-1 RNA<50 copies/mL (95% vs 91%, difference 4.1%;95% CI -2.5%-10.8%;P = 0.21), with mean CD4 gains of + 200 and + 175 cells/lL, respectively. B/F/TAF was superior to DTG + F/TDF at achieving HBV DNA<29 IU/mL (63% vs 43%, difference 16.6%;95% CI 5.9%-27.3%;P = 0.0023). Participants treated with B/F/TAF vs DTG + F/TDF had numerically higher HBsAg loss (13% vs 6%;P = 0.059), HBeAg loss (26% vs 14%;P = 0.055), HBeAg seroconversion (23% vs 11%;P = 0.031), and ALT normalization (73% vs 55%;P = 0.066). The most frequent adverse events among participants treated with B/F/TAF vs DTG + F/TDF were upper respiratory tract infection (17% vs 11%), COVID- 19 (13% vs 11%), pyrexia (9% vs 12%), ALT increase (7% vs 11%), and nasopharyngitis (11% vs 4%). ALT flares (elevations at >= 2 consecutive postbaseline visits) occurred in 11 participants (7 B/F/ TAF, 4 DTG + F/TDF), and all resolved. Conclusion(s): Among adults with HIV-1/HBV-coinfection starting antiviral therapy, both B/F/TAF and DTG + F/TDF had high HIV-1 suppression at year 1, with B/F/TAF resulting in superior HBV DNA suppression and significantly more HBeAg seroconversion. Safety findings were similar between groups.

Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ; 18(2):8-13, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2296498


Introduction: The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in December 2019 called for a rapid solution, leading to repurposing of existing drugs. Due to its immunomodulatory effect and antiviral properties, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been used in early 2020 for treatment of COVID-19 patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the treatment outcome of HCQ monotherapy in Malaysia. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in COVID-19 ward in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL), from March to April 2020. A total of 446 COVID-19 patients were recruited, only 325 patients were finally included for analysis. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS, with a significant value set at p<0.05. Results: The mean age of the patients were 38.5 ±15.5. They were majority male, (n=210, 64.6%) Malaysian (n=239, 73.5%) and Malay ethnicity (n=204, 62.8%). Ninety-one (28%) patients received HCQ monotherapy. HCQ monotherapy was associated with worse outcome (OR: 10.29, 95% CI 1.17-90.80). There was a significant difference in mean length of stay between those with and without HCQ treatment (t323=5.868, p<0.001, 95% CI, 2.56-5.31). The average length of stay for HCQ treated group was 3.84 days longer than those without treatment. 6.6% of the patient receiving HCQ monotherapy encountered adverse drug effects. Conclusion: Similar to study reported worldwide, our study demonstrated that HCQ did not improve length of stay and the outcome of COVID-19 patients. © 2023 Authors. All rights reserved.