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Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20245167


Background: X-Linked Moesin-Associated Immune Deficiency (X-MAID) is a rare severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) subtype that can present at any age due to its variability. Depending on severity, patients demonstrate failure to thrive, recurrent bacterial and viral infections, and increased susceptibility to varicella zoster. It has been characterized by marked lymphopenia with hypogammaglobulinemia and impaired T-cell migration and proliferation. Case Presentation: This is a report of a Cuban 7-year-old male with poor weight gain and facial dysmorphia. He had a history of recurrent bacterial gastrointestinal infections and pneumonia beginning at 4 months of age. He additionally had 4-6 upper respiratory tract and ear infections annually. While still living in Cuba, he was admitted for a profound EBV infection in the setting of significant leukopenia. A bone marrow biopsy confirmed no malignancy. After he moved to the United States, his laboratory work-up revealed marked leukopenia with low absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte count with low T and B cells, very low immunoglobulin levels IgG, IgA, and IgM, and poor vaccination responses to streptococcus pneumonia, varicella zoster, and SARS-CoV-2. Genetic testing revealed a missense pathogenic variant c.511C>T (p.Arg171Trp) in the moesin (MSN) gene associated with X-MAID. He was managed with Bactrim and acyclovir prophylaxis, and immunoglobulin replacement therapy, and considered for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Discussion(s): Diagnosis of X-MAID should be considered in patients with recurrent infections and profound lymphopenia. As with SCID, early diagnosis and intervention is of utmost importance to prevent morbidity and mortality. This case demonstrates the importance of genetic testing in identifying this disease as it may prompt an immunologist to consider HSCT if conservative management is suboptimal. In the current literature, HSCT appears promising, but the long-term outcomes have yet to be described.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.

Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20241449


Introduction: COVID-19 related encephalitis has been reported in pediatric patients;however, there are no reports in patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI). Activated PI3K Delta Syndrome (APDS) is a disease of immune dysregulation with immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and abnormal lymphoproliferation resulting from autosomal dominant gain-offunction variants in PIK3CD or PIK3R1 genes. We investigate a family with APDS, one mother and three children, one of whom developed COVID-19 related encephalitis. Method(s): Patients were consented to an IRB-approved protocol at our institution. Medical records and detailed immunophenotyping were reviewed. Family members were sequenced for IEI with a targeted gene panel. Result(s): The index case is a 10-year-old female with a known pathogenic variant in PIK3CD (c.3061 G > A, p.Glu1021Lys), who contracted SARS-COV-2 despite one COVID-19 vaccination in the series. Her disease course included COVID-related encephalitis with cerebellitis and compression of the pons, resulting in lasting truncal ataxia and cerebellar mutism. At that time, the patient was not on immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT), but was receiving Sirolimus. Besides the index case, 3 family members (2 brothers, 1 mother) also share the same PIK3CD variant with variable clinical and immunological phenotypes. All children exhibited high transitional B-cells, consistent with developmental block to follicular B cell stage. Increased non-class switched IgM+ memory B cells and skewing towards CD21lo B cell subset, which is considered autoreactive-like, was observed in all patients. Of note, the patient had low plasmablasts, but normal immunoglobulins. Of her family members, only one was receiving both sirolimus and IgRT. Conclusion(s): We describe a rare case of COVID-19-related encephalitis in a patient with inborn error of immunity while not on IgRT. This may indicate infection susceptibility because of a lack of sufficient immunity to SARS-CoV-2, unlike the rest of her family with the same PIK3CD variant.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.