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1.
Front Microbiol ; 13, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2215338

RESUMO

Due to immunosuppressive cancer therapies, cancer patients diagnosed with COVID-19 have a higher chance of developing severe symptoms and present a higher mortality rate in comparison to the general population. Here we show a comparative analysis of the microbiome from naso-oropharyngeal samples of breast cancer patients with respect to SARS-CoV-2 status and identified bacteria associated with symptom severity. Total DNA of naso-oropharyngeal swabs from 74 women with or without breast cancer, positive or negative for SARS-CoV-2 were PCR-amplified for 16S-rDNA V3 and V4 regions and submitted to massive parallel sequencing. Sequencing data were analyzed with QIIME2 and taxonomic identification was performed using the q2-feature-classifier QIIME2 plugin, the Greengenes Database, and amplicon sequence variants (ASV) analysis. A total of 486 different bacteria were identified. No difference was found in taxa diversity between sample groups. Cluster analysis did not group the samples concerning SARS-CoV-2 status, breast cancer diagnosis, or symptom severity. Three taxa (Pseudomonas, Moraxella, and Klebsiella,) showed to be overrepresented in women with breast cancer and positive for SARS-CoV-2 when compared to the other women groups, and five bacterial groups were associated with COVID-19 severity among breast cancer patients: Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Scardovia, Parasegitibacter luogiensis, and Thermomonas. The presence of Staphylococcus in COVID-19 breast cancer patients may possibly be a consequence of nosocomial infection.

2.
Indian Journal of Nephrology ; 32(7 Supplement 1):S87, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2201584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major risk factor for mortality in ICU patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spectrum and outcomes of non-COVID related AKI admitted to non-COVID intensive care units of a tertiary care hospital during COVID pandemic. AIM OF THE STUDY: To study the Spectrum and Outcomes of Acute Kidney Injury in a Non-COVID Intensive Care Unit during COVID Pandemic METHODS: Patients were prospectively enrolled from February 2020 to June 2021 using a predesigned standardized pro forma as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Demographic details, comorbid conditions, biochemical parameters, urine output system affection, renal replacement therapy (RRT) details, and fluid replacement were recorded. Outcome measures assessed were serum creatinine at transfer-out from ICU serum creatinine at discharge days of ICU stay and days of hospital stay death/ discharge and requirement of RRT after discharge. RESULT(S): 200 patients of AKI getting admitted to ICU were included in this study. Diabetes mellitus (19.5%) was the most common comorbidity. AKI was most seen in the post-surgery setting (33%), and severe non-surgical sepsis (37%). The most important risk factors predicting in-hospital mortality in AKI patients were hepatic dysfunction (HR-3.471, p = 0.001), septicemia (HR-3.342, p = 0.0001), age >60 years (HR-4.000, p = 0.026), higher baseline SOFA score (HR-1.107, p = 0.001), anemia (HR-0.879, p = 0.003), and reduced serum iron levels (HR- 0.982, p = 0.001). CONCLUSION(S): Presence of age >60 years, hepatic dysfunction, septicemia, higher baseline SOFA score, anemia, and reduced serum iron emerged to be the most important predictors of mortality among intensive care requiring AKI patients. The surgical AKI incidence was less due to lesser number of elective surgeries during the COVID pandemic.

3.
Millennial Asia ; 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2195022

RESUMO

The study gives new evidence on the effects of public debt on economic growth in India with key macroeconomic indicators from 1980 to 2019. In the past decade, and after the COVID-19 pandemic, there is a substantial rise in public debt, which reached 90% of the GDP in April 2021. Therefore, it is imperative to study the impact of different public debt sources on the Indian economy to help policymakers frame informed debt management policies. The long-run equilibrium relationship and cointegrating coefficients are calculated using Johansen cointegration and fully modified ordinary least square techniques. Toda and Yamamoto's (1995) Granger causality test is used as a short-run diagnostic test for the long-run equilibrium relationship. The study's major findings suggest that domestic debt, total factor productivity (TFP) and exports are the major determinants of economic development in the long run. In contrast, economic prosperity determines the growth of external debt, debt service payments and TFP in the short run. It is recommended that the government should control and channel public debt productively for favourable growth effects.

4.
Menopause ; 29(12):1486, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2190888

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the severity of menopausal symptoms with Crila capsules taken twice daily, stratified by weight. As a novel, non-estrogenic, plant-based alternative, Crila is a proprietary extract from the patented cultivar Crinum Latifolium L var. crilae Tram & Khanh. Design(s): In 2019, A Prospective Open-Label Dietary Supplement clinical study was approved by two Ethics Committees in Mexico to study oral Crila herbal supplements (Crinum latifolium L var. crilae Tram & Khanh) in menopausal women. In 2020-2021, women in Guadalajara and Queretaro took the estrogen-free botanical supplement twice daily over a 90-day period and evaluated their symptoms every 30 days according to MENQOL -a Menopause-Specific Quality of Life validated survey. Sixtyone women with menopausal symptoms received 4 to 10 capsules of Crila for 3 months. This study was conducted utilizing a decentralized design at two centers in Mexico. Primary inclusion criteria: female subjects at least 45 years of age, BMI 26-30, and experiencing at least 35 vasomotor symptoms per week (average of 5/day) for the previous 3 months. Subject's total study duration was 90 days from screening (Day 1) through conclusion of the Final Visit (Visit 4) (Day 90). Result(s): Sixty-one women finished the study. Impact of oral Crila capsules on the severity of menopausal symptoms was assessed using the MENQOL. When compared to Visit 1, all 3 following visits have a significantly lower total score (P, 0.001 <0.05) (Figure 1, Table 2). Total score of Visit 2, is significantly different than total scores of the other 3 visits (P<0.05) (Figure 1, Table 2). Visit 2 has a significantly higher total score than Visit 3 (P, 0.02<0.05) and Visit 4 (P, 0.001<0.05) (Figure 1, Table 2). There is no significant difference between total score of Visit 3 and Visit 4 (P, 0.22>0.05) (Figure 1, Table 2). When comparing Visit 1 to all 3 subsequent visits, a significant decrease was observed in vasomotor, psychological, physiological, and sex-based components of MENQOL (Figure 1, Table 1). Safety and tolerability of oral Crila capsules was assessed by the frequency and severity of AEs, relationship of AEs to IP, vital signs, physical abnormalities. Crila was well tolerated and none of the participants experienced any adverse reactions. Conclusion(s): Sixty-one women completed the study at the height of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data analysis confirmed 93% experienced symptom improvement. A decentralized design was key to study completion. The observed positive outcome supports the potential for larger sample size and longer duration studies.

5.
6th International Conference on Advanced Production and Industrial Engineering , ICAPIE 2021 ; : 244-252, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2173869

RESUMO

The outbreak of the COVID-19 virus has led to several countries establishing guidelines asking citizens to stay secluded and at their homes as much as possible. This has a profound impact on the working lives in almost all professions. Hence, people have been advised to work from home. However, working from home has several limitations and on average will cause financial losses to an individual. This has given rise to a dilemma where each person has the choice of working from home or going outside with the incentive of earning more capital but also increasing the risk of capturing the virus. We have modeled this situation using an n-player game where each player is trying to maximize their payoff, i.e., trying to make as much money as possible but limiting the risk of catching the virus. We aim to predict the proportion of a population cooperating, i.e., the following work from home guidelines at a particular stage of spread. This project presents an algorithm to model the n-player game and has used actual COVID-19 case numbers from various Indian states to simulate the situation. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

6.
Journal of Association of Physicians of India ; 70(10):35-38, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2168828

RESUMO

Background: Clinical studies have correlated severe deterioration of COVID-19 patients due to excessive and uncontrolled production of cytokines. There is a pressing need to explore therapies, which could prevent the cytokine storm rather than terminating it. Aims and objectives: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of itolizumab on clinical outcomes of patients with moderate-severe COVID-19 disease admitted to ICU. The primary aim of the current study is to find out any mortality benefit in 14 days. The secondary aim is to assess the morbidity outcomes in terms of reduction in inflammatory markers and also the duration of hospital stays to assess the prognostication. Materials and methods: It is a retrospective case-control study in which laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU were taken. A total of 62 patients were recruited, 31 patients received itolizumab (cases/treatment group) and 31 patients didn't receive itolizumab (designated as controls). Results: Among the total patients recruited, 68% of the study population was male and 32% were female. A total of 12 patients expired among cases and 13 expired among controls. Overall mortality in both groups was noted to be almost similar. The control group showed mortality at lower computed tomography (CT) scores compared to the cases. There is a significant reduction in inflammatory markers, like interleukins-6 (IL-6) and D-dimer in cases compared to the control group. Conclusion: In conclusion, treating patients with cytokine storms before they require intubation/mechanical ventilation is crucial to preventing deaths. Itolizumab has shown no clinical benefit in critically ill COVID-19 patients, however, timely initiation of itolizumab therapy may serve as a key therapeutic option in preventing the mortality and morbidity outcomes in moderate-severe COVID-19 patients. © The Author(s). 2022Open Access This article is distributedunder the terms ofthe Creative Commons Attribution 4.0InternationalLicense (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/)

7.
International Journal of Academic Medicine and Pharmacy ; 4(5):392-395, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2156289

RESUMO

Background: To assess effectiveness of Bain's circuit attached to a NIV mask for assisting spontaneous ventilation. Material(s) and Method(s): Fifty- six adult COVID- 19 patients were divided into 2 groups of twenty- eight each. In group I, patients were ventilated using the modified Bain's circuit attached to an appropriately sized NIV mask and in group II patients were continued on ventilation using BiPAP. Hemodynamic variables such as partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), partial pressure of O2 (pO2), SO2, heart rate and pH values were recorded at baseline, after 30 minutes and after 2 hours. Result(s): There was non- significant difference in mean heart rate, SpO2, pH, pO2, pCO2 and SO2 at baseline, after 30 minutes after 2 hours in group I and group II (P> 0.05). Conclusion(s): Modified Bain's circuit can be considered as an alternative to non-invasive ventilation in COVID- 19 patients. Copyright © 2022 Necati Ozpinar. All Rights Reserved.

9.
Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis Conference ; 6(Supplement 1), 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2128086

RESUMO

Background: Some COVID-19 vaccinated individuals develop anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibodies that cause thrombocytopenia and thrombosis;a rare syndrome referred to as vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). Currently, information on the characteristics and persistence of anti-PF4 antibodies that cause VITT after Ad26.COV2.S vaccination is limited, and available PF4-polyanion enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and functional diagnostic assays fail to differentiate Ad26.COV2.S and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19-associated VITT from similar clinical disorders, namely heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and spontaneous HIT. Aim(s): Evaluate the persistence of anti-PF4 antibodies in Ad26. COV2.S-associated VITT and correlate findings with clinical and laboratory variables such as thrombosis and platelet counts. Develop/ investigate laboratory tools that differentiate VITT antibodies from HIT and spontaneous HIT. Method(s): Blood samples from VITT and HIT patient cohorts were tested in antigen-based and functional assays and correlated with clinical and laboratory features. Result(s): While Ad26.COV2.S-associated VITT patients were strongly positive in PF4-polyanion ELISAs;they were frequently negative in the serotonin release assay (4 of 8 tested patients were negative). In contrast, the PF4-dependent p-selectin expression assay (PEA) that uses PF4-treated platelets consistently diagnosed Ad26.COV2.S-associated VITT. Most Ad26.COV2.S-associated VITT antibodies persisted for >5 months in PF4-polyanion ELISAs, while the PEA became negative earlier. Two patients had otherwise unexplained mild persistent thrombocytopenia (140-150,000/ mul) six months after acute presentation. No recurrence of thrombosis was noted. Additionally, a novel un-complexed PF4 ELISA specifically differentiated VITT secondary to Ad26.COV2.S and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination, from spontaneous HIT and HIT (Fig 1A-PF4/ polyanion ELISA;Fig 1B-Un-complexed PF4 ELISA;closed black circles-Ad26. COV2.S-associated VITT;closed red circle-ChAdOx1 nCoV-19-associated VITT;***p < 0.001;****p < 0.0001). Its specificity was further confirmed by testing commonly-encountered HIT-suspected patient samples that are PF4/polyanion ELISA-positive but negative in functional assays (1A-1B). Conclusion(s): Ad26.COV2.S-associated VITT antibodies are persistent, and the un-complexed PF4 ELISA appears to be both sensitive and specific for VITT diagnosis.

10.
International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition ; 11(4):218-224, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2144909

RESUMO

Background: School age is the foundation of human life. A healthy and balanced diet plays a major role in the proper growth development of the body as well as the mind. Only a balanced diet can provide all the macro and micronutrients. Covid 19 has impacted each and every human being in some or another manner. School-going children had to cope with new encounters involving online teaching-learning methodology and social distancing. As a result, these children have undergone mental and psychological trauma. This led them to follow faulty dietary habits, which would have long time impact on their health. Aim and Objectives: In the present survey, an attempt has been made to compile a report on the dietary intake of school-going children in the Roopnagar district of Punjab, India. Methodology: For the purpose sample of 100 students (7 to 12 years) was selected from four development blocks of district Roopnagar, and the cluster sampling method was adopted for data collection. A detailed pretested questionnaire on the dietary habits of children was used. Results: 59% of children were vegetarian, 32% were non-vegetarian, and 9% were eggetarian. Study findings showed that children preferred some of the items such as wheat, rice, sugar, rajma, black gram, green gram, potato, tomato, onion, apple, banana, and grapes over other food items in the same food group. Conclusion: Results showed that children do not consume a variety of food items, and some selected food items only resulting low dietary diversity and food variety. © 2022 Lifescience Global.

11.
Indian Heart J ; 74:S106, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2119828
12.
Indian Heart J ; 74:S14-5, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2119827
14.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 9(6):1768-1771, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2073794

RESUMO

Background: To assess the pattern of covid-19 manifestations in group of patients visiting tertiary care hospital. Material(s) and Method(s):A total of 80 survivors of COVID-19 were enrolled in the present study. Complete medical history of all the patients was undertaken. Clinical and radiographic examination of all the patients was obtained. Information was collected through a telephonic interview and also by a questionnaire after the discharge from the hospital. Result(s):The subjects were in age group of 30 to 60 years. The mean age was 45.2 years and their mean BMI was 30.1 Kg/m2. From the subjects with post covid symptoms 25 (62.5%) were males and 15 (37.5%) were females. 22 (55%) of the patients were smokers. Fatigue (75%), dyspnoea (65%) and joint pain (55%) were the most common post COVID-19 manifestations found to be present Conclusion(s):Majority of the COVID-19 survivors exhibit manifestations similar to COVID-19. Copyright © 2022 Ubiquity Press. All rights reserved.

15.
Media, Migrants and the Pandemic in India: A Reader ; : 207-212, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2055920
16.
New Journal of Chemistry ; 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2042348

RESUMO

Coronavirus induced disease-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has presented an unprecedented health and economic crisis worldwide. Substantial progress has been made in the last two years to develop vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Along with vaccines, antiviral drugs constitute the secondary line of defense against the viral pathogen. Viral proteins are considered to be promising targets for designing antiviral drugs. The main protease (M-pro) is known to play a significant role in SARS-CoV-2 replication within the host. Accordingly, in the present study, a series of selenium-containing amino acids, selenopyridines and their respective derivatives, were screened for interaction with M-pro (PDB code: 6LU7) by molecular docking approach. The most potent docked compounds, namely nicotinamide diselenide (Nict(2)Se(2)) and pyridine diselenide (2-Py2Se2) with binding affinities in the range of similar to 10(5) M-1, were subjected to biochemical evaluation. The IC50 values of Nict(2)Se(2) and 2-Py2Se2 for M-pro inhibition estimated by bioassay were similar to 516.0 +/- 0.02 nM and 69.4 +/- 0.03 nM, respectively. The toxicity evaluation in a normal lung fibroblast (WI38) cell line suggested that among the above two compounds, Nict(2)Se(2) was much safer for biological applications. The circular dichroism studies and competitive kinetic assay using 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as a substrate suggested that Nict(2)Se(2) treatment induced structural deformation of M-pro probably through interacting with a cysteine residue present in its active site. Together, the present investigation proposes that organoselenium compounds comprising aromatic amide moieties connected by a diselenide bridge could be potential candidate molecules for the future design of antiviral drugs specifically against SARS-CoV-2.

17.
Current Medical Issues ; 20(3):172-176, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010409

RESUMO

Background: N95 respirators have prevented transmission among health-care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. During times of intense shortage of respirators and border closures during the pandemic, re-use strategies with available decontamination methods were necessitated. This in-house experimental study evaluated the effect of hydrogen peroxide gas-plasma sterilization on respirators and helped establish an evidence-based protocol for their re-use in a resource-poor setting. Materials and Methods: A three-dimensional experimental model using saline nebulization as the aerosol exposure and a particle counter to measure the filtration of particles through the mask pre- and post-sterilization was used. Multiple cycles of plasma sterilization were done till the physical integrity/fit was lost. Total filtration volume was used as a surrogate marker to assess the filtration efficiency (FE). Results: The total volume of particles filtered on a 3M respirator was 99.9%. Unused Halyard and Venus respirators were compared against 3M and found to have FE of 99.9% and 60.5%, respectively. After repeated sterilization cycles, the total volume of particles filtered was 59.3% for Halyard in the seventh cycle and 36.2% for Venus in the fifth cycle. When the physical integrity and fit was tested, the appropriate fit was lost after eight cycles of sterilization for Venus and was not lost for Halyard even after the tenth cycle. Conclusion: This low-cost experimental study helped implement an effective and safe decontamination strategy for safe re-use of N95 respirators in an emergent situation with no access to commercial testing in a resource poor health-care setting during the pandemic.

18.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26:S94, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006381

RESUMO

Aim and background: COVID-19 was a new disease-causing a pandemic and hence generated uncertainty, and a great deal of anxiety with regard to appropriate therapeutic interventions. Many treatment regimens were tried with no evidence supporting the same. Critical and fatal COVID-19 due to immune dysregulation results in severe inflammation or a cytokine storm with markedly elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-6 (IL-6). Tocilizumab, an IL-6 receptor antagonist, is reported to prevent disease progression. However, since this is an expensive intervention, it is important that evidence is reviewed systematically regarding its utility. The India COVID guidelines is a group of experts and methodologists who came together to use a process of evidence synthesis to inform treatment guidelines using an evidence to decision framework (www.indiacovidguidelines.org). We report the data regarding tocilizumab in severe to critical COVID-19 infection. Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in patients with COVID-19. Materials and methods: Search methods: We performed a systematic search till 15.10.2021 of the following databases: Pubmed, WHO ICTRP, L.OVE platform, Cochrane library, and COVID-NMA. Selection criteria: We selected only randomised controlled trials (RCT) evaluating tocilizumab use in COVID-19. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently screened and identified studies using Rayyan, did a risk of bias assessment using the Cochrane ROB 2 tool and extracted numerical data from studies for outcomes like all-cause mortality, disease progression, clinical improvement, and adverse events. Meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.4. I2 statistics were used to measure residual heterogeneity. Certainty of evidence was evaluated using GRADE methodology. A group of experts then used the WHO evidence to decision framework to judge values and preferences, and a recommendation for tocilizumab applicable to a lower-middle-income country was generated. Results: Our search retrieved 1408 s from various databases. Twenty-three RCTs were included in this systematic review with 10,583 participants. All participants were hospitalised adults with moderate to severe disease with an average age of 54-65 years. Median C-reactive protein was ≥ 100 mg/L indicating significant systemic inflammation. Prevalence of comorbidities varied and tocilizumab was initiated in rapidly worsening patients within 24-48 hours of admission to intensive care in most trials. More than 80% of participants were administered corticosteroids. Tocilizumabtreated patients showed a significant reduction in mortality with RR 0.88 (95% CI 0.81, 0.94) and reduced disease progression with RR 0.87 (95% CI 0.72, 1.06) with moderate certainty of the evidence, increased clinical improvement with RR 1.04 (95% CI 1.00, 1.09), and reduced time to clinical improvement with HR 1.22 (95% CI 1.14, 1.30) with low certainty of evidence. There was very low certainty in the evidence for adverse events and serious adverse events. Secondary infections were uncommon in most trials with follow-up till 14 or 28 days, which may have been too early to detect the same. Conclusion: A systematic review and meta-analysis which generated efficacy data of tocilizumab was then applied to an evidence to decision framework by subject experts resulting in a robust evidence-informed guideline applicable to any Indian secondary or tertiary healthcare setting.

20.
7th IEEE International conference for Convergence in Technology, I2CT 2022 ; 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1992610

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 has a confirmed case count of about 11.3 million and a death count of about 158,000 in India as of March 13th, 2021. Despite the early social distancing and lockdown measures imposed by the government, these counts have continued to rise. Mathematical models prove extremely useful to predict the course of the pandemic and for the government to strategize accordingly. Over due course several models have emerged to predict the number of COVID-19 cases, but a thorough comparison among them is lacking. In this paper, we propose three novel Hybrid Models based on the compartment-based modeling over data from January 22nd, 2020 to December 3rd 2020 and then make comparisons among them and show through experiments that each performs a better fitting and prediction on the Johns Hopkins COVID-19 dataset pertaining to India than all other benchmark models discussed. Comparison of our proposed Hybrid models with the existing compartment models like SIR, SIRD and SEIRD demonstrates that our proposed Hybrid models not only overcome the performance inefficiencies related to the existing compartmental models but also achieve a better fitting on the Johns Hopkins COVID-19 dataset. © 2022 IEEE.

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