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1.
Clinical and translational science ; 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2192506

RESUMO

Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was initially promoted as an oral therapy for early treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Conventional meta-analyses cannot fully address the heterogeneity of different designs and outcomes of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of HCQ in outpatients with mild COVID-19. We conducted a pooled analysis of individual participant data from RCTs that evaluated the effect of HCQ on hospitalization and viral load reduction in outpatients with confirmed COVID-19. We evaluated the overall treatment group effect by log-likelihood ratio test (-2LL) from a generalized linear mixed model to accommodate correlated longitudinal binary data. The analysis included data from 11 RCTs. The outcome of virological effect, assessed in 1560 participants (N = 795 HCQ, N = 765 control), did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups (-2LL = 7.66;p = 0.18) when adjusting for cohort, duration of symptoms, and comorbidities. The decline in polymerase chain reaction positive tests from day 1 to 7 was 42.0 and 41.6 percentage points in the HCQ and control groups, respectively. Among the 2037 participants evaluable for hospitalization (N = 1058 HCQ, N = 979 control), we found no significant differences in hospitalization rate between participants receiving HCQ and controls (odds ratio 0.995;95% confidence interval 0.614-1.610;-2LL = 0.0;p = 0.98) when adjusting for cohort, duration of symptoms, and comorbidities. This individual participant data meta-analysis of 11 HCQ trials that evaluated severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 viral clearance and COVID-19 hospitalization did not show a clinical benefit of HCQ. Our meta-analysis provides evidence to support the interruption in the use of HCQ in mild COVID-19 outpatients to reduce progression to severe disease.

2.
European Geriatric Medicine ; 13(Supplement 1):S180, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2175556

RESUMO

Introduction: Regular physical activity is consistently associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases, cognitive decline, and mortality. In 2020 to reduce COVID-19 transmission, lockdowns were imposed and people instructed to stay at home, with many services suspended, thereby limiting opportunities for physical activity. Method(s): Understanding Society is a longitudinal survey of approximately 40,000 UK households. Some 3,660 older adults (aged >= 65) took part in annual surveys pre-2020 and specific COVID-19 studies. We examined changes in proportion of older adults that were achieving physical activity recommendations for health maintenance at several time points before and after COVID-19 lockdowns were imposed. We stratified these trends by the presence of health conditions, age, neighbourhood deprivation, and pre-pandemic activity levels. Result(s): There was a marked decline in older adults' physical activity levels during the national lockdowns to January 2021. The proportion achieving physical activity recommendations decreased from 47% pre-pandemic to 33% in January 2021. This decrease in physical activity occurred regardless of health condition, age, neighbourhood deprivation, or pre-pandemic activity levels. Those doing the least activity pre-lockdown increased their activity during initial lockdowns and those doing the most decreased their activity levels. Conclusion(s): Reductions in older adults' physical activity levels during COVID-19 lockdowns have put them at risk of becoming deconditioned and developing adverse health outcomes. Resources to promote the uptake of physical activity in older adults to reverse the effects of deconditioning are needed and we describe the Greater Manchester response.

3.
European Geriatric Medicine ; 13(Supplement 1):S269, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2175506

RESUMO

Introduction: Some 14% of people aged 60+in England are frail and 42% are pre-frail. Frailty prevalence increases exponentially with age resulting in hospitalisation, falls, loss of independence, disability and death. Although traditionally thought a unidirectional long-term condition, recent evidence suggest frailty can be delayed, and even reversed. Physical activity (PA) is effective in reversing/delaying some effects. Huge public health gains could be achieved from targeting pre-frail older adults with interventions to prevent/delay/ reverse frailty. This study explores the feasibility of a PA signposting intervention targeting pre-frail older adults as a first step towards an intervention study. Method(s): In-depth qualitative interviews with key groups to be involved in a future intervention-general practitioners (GPs), physical activity referral staff (PARS), older adults. Result(s): 43 interviews analysed using thematic analysis: PARS (16), older adults (22), GPs (5). Key themes: Consensus intervention proposes a positive and proactive approach;PARS and GPs highlighted concern around recruitment pathways and potential impact of unmet need in addition to other general capacity issues involved in signposting. Other issues included understanding older adults' motivation to exercise, and more generally the messaging around PA. Conclusion(s): MRC guidelines emphasise engagement of intended groups in intervention development to ensure it is acceptable. This study demonstrates clear need and acceptability for an intervention targeting pre-frail older adults, a need amplified by the deconditioning consequent on the COVID-19 pandemic. We will use this information to design our proposed intervention to focus on recruitment pathways;role of primary care;and physical activity messaging.

4.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2022 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2177745
5.
Gerontology ; 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2153210

RESUMO

Introduction Falls have major implications for quality-of-life, independence and cost to health services. Strength and balance training has been found to be effective in reducing the rate/risk of falls, as long as there is adequate fidelity to the evidence-based programme. The aims of this study were to: (1) assess the feasibility of using the 'Motivate Me' and 'My Activity Programme' intervention to support falls rehabilitation when delivered in practice (2) assess study design and trial procedures for the evaluation of the intervention. Methods A two-arm, pragmatic feasibility randomised controlled trial was conducted with five health service providers in the UK. Patients aged 50+ years eligible for a falls rehabilitation exercise programme from community services were recruited and received either: (1) standard service with a smartphone for outcome measurement only or (2) standard service plus the 'Motivate Me' and 'My Activity Programme' apps. The primary outcome was feasibility of the intervention, study design and procedures (including recruitment rate, adherence and drop-out). Outcome measures include balance, function, falls, strength, fear of falling, health related quality of life, resource use and adherence, measured at baseline, three and six month post-randomisation. Blinded assessors collected the outcome measures. Results 24 patients were randomised to control group, 26 to intervention group, mean age 77.6 (Range 62 to 92) years. We recruited 37.5% of eligible participants across the five clinical sites. 77% in the intervention group completed their full exercise programme (including the use of the app). Response rate for outcome measures at six months were 77%-80% across outcome measures, but this was effected by the COVID19 pandemic. There was a mean 2.6 ± 1.9 point difference between groups in change in BERG balance score from baseline to three months and mean 4.4 ± 2.7 point difference from baseline to six months in favour of the intervention group. Less falls (1.8 ± 2.8 vs 9.1 ± 32.6) and less injurious falls (0.1 ± 0.5 vs 0.4 ± 0.6) in the intervention group and higher adherence scores at three (17.7 ± 6.8 vs 13.1 ± 6.5) and six months (15.3 ± 7.8 vs 14.9 ± 7.8). There were no related adverse events. Health professionals and patients had few technical issues with the apps. Conclusions The motivational apps and trial procedures were feasible for health professionals and patients. There are positive indications from outcome measures in the feasibility trial and key criteria for progression to full trial were met.

6.
Ann Intern Med ; 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145020
7.
JACC Asia ; 1(2):187-199, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2102156

RESUMO

Background The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic significantly affected management of cardiovascular disease around the world. The effect of the pandemic on volume of cardiovascular diagnostic procedures is not known. Objectives This study sought to evaluate the effects of the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic on cardiovascular diagnostic procedures and safety practices in Asia. Methods The International Atomic Energy Agency conducted a worldwide survey to assess changes in cardiovascular procedure volume and safety practices caused by COVID-19. Testing volumes were reported for March 2020 and April 2020 and were compared to those from March 2019. Data from 180 centers across 33 Asian countries were grouped into 4 subregions for comparison. Results Procedure volumes decreased by 47% from March 2019 to March 2020, showing recovery from March 2020 to April 2020 in Eastern Asia, particularly in China. The majority of centers cancelled outpatient activities and increased time per study. Practice changes included implementing physical distancing and restricting visitors. Although COVID testing was not commonly performed, it was conducted in one-third of facilities in Eastern Asia. The most severe reductions in procedure volumes were observed in lower-income countries, where volumes decreased 81% from March 2019 to April 2020. Conclusions The COVID-19 pandemic in Asia caused significant reductions in cardiovascular diagnostic procedures, particularly in low-income countries. Further studies on effects of COVID-19 on cardiovascular outcomes and changes in care delivery are warranted. Central Illustration

8.
CMAJ Open ; 10(3): E807-E817, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of remdesivir in the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 remains ill-defined. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis alongside the Canadian Treatments for COVID-19 (CATCO) open-label, randomized clinical trial evaluating remdesivir. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 in Canadian hospitals from Aug. 14, 2020, to Apr. 1, 2021, were randomly assigned to receive remdesivir plus usual care versus usual care alone. Taking a public health care payer's perspective, we collected in-hospital outcomes and health care resource utilization alongside estimated unit costs in 2020 Canadian dollars over a time horizon from randomization to hospital discharge or death. Data from 1281 adults admitted to 52 hospitals in 6 Canadian provinces were analyzed. RESULTS: The total mean cost per patient was $37 918 (standard deviation [SD] $42 413; 95% confidence interval [CI] $34 617 to $41 220) for patients randomly assigned to the remdesivir group and $38 026 (SD $46 021; 95% CI $34 480 to $41 573) for patients receiving usual care (incremental cost -$108 [95% CI -$4953 to $4737], p > 0.9). The difference in proportions of in-hospital deaths between remdesivir and usual care groups was -3.9% (18.7% v. 22.6%, 95% CI -8.3% to 1.0%, p = 0.09). The difference in proportions of incident invasive mechanical ventilation events between groups was -7.0% (8.0% v. 15.0%, 95% CI -10.6% to -3.4%, p = 0.006), whereas the difference in proportions of total mechanical ventilation events between groups was -5.7% (16.4% v. 22.1%, 95% CI -10.0% to -1.4%, p = 0.01). Remdesivir was the dominant intervention (but only marginally less costly, with mildly lower mortality) with an incalculable incremental cost effectiveness ratio; we report results of incremental costs and incremental effects separately. For willingness-to-pay thresholds of $0, $20 000, $50 000 and $100 000 per death averted, a strategy using remdesivir was cost-effective in 60%, 67%, 74% and 79% of simulations, respectively. The remdesivir costs were the fifth highest cost driver, offset by shorter lengths of stay and less mechanical ventilation. INTERPRETATION: From a health care payer perspective, treating patients hospitalized with COVID-19 with remdesivir and usual care appears to be preferrable to treating with usual care alone, albeit with marginal incremental cost and small clinical effects. The added cost of remdesivir was offset by shorter lengths of stay in the intensive care unit and less need for ventilation. STUDY REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials. gov, no. NCT04330690.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Alanina/análogos & derivados , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Canadá , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos
9.
biorxiv; 2022.
Preprint em Inglês | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.11.08.515725

RESUMO

The rapid evolution of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron sublineages mandates a better un-derstanding of viral replication and cross-neutralization among these sublineages. Here we used K18-hACE2 mice and primary human airway cultures to examine the viral fit-ness and antigenic relationship among Omicron sublineages. In both K18-hACE2 mice and human airway cultures, Omicron sublineages exhibited a replication order of BA.5 [≥] BA.2 [≥] BA.2.12.1 > BA.1; no difference in body weight loss was observed among differ-ent sublineage-infected mice. The BA.1-, BA.2-, BA.2.12.1-, and BA.5-infected mice de-veloped distinguisable cross-neutralizations against Omicron sublineages, but exhibited little neutralization against the index virus (i.e., USA-WA1/2020) or the Delta variant. Surprisingly, the BA.5-infected mice developed higher neutralization activity against heterologous BA.2 and BA.2.12.1 than that against homologous BA.5; serum neutralizing titers did not always correlate with viral replication levels in infected animals. Our results reveal distinct antigenic cartography of Omicron sublineages and support the bivalent vaccine approach.


Assuntos
Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Redução de Peso
10.
CMAJ open ; 10(3):E807-E817, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2034124

RESUMO

Background: The role of remdesivir in the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 remains ill-defined. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis alongside the Canadian Treatments for COVID-19 (CATCO) open-label, randomized clinical trial evaluating remdesivir. Methods: Patients with COVID-19 in Canadian hospitals from Aug. 14, 2020, to Apr. 1, 2021, were randomly assigned to receive remdesivir plus usual care versus usual care alone. Taking a public health care payer’s perspective, we collected in-hospital outcomes and health care resource utilization alongside estimated unit costs in 2020 Canadian dollars over a time horizon from randomization to hospital discharge or death. Data from 1281 adults admitted to 52 hospitals in 6 Canadian provinces were analyzed. Results: The total mean cost per patient was $37 918 (standard deviation [SD] $42 413;95% confidence interval [CI] $34 617 to $41 220) for patients randomly assigned to the remdesivir group and $38 026 (SD $46 021;95% CI $34 480 to $41 573) for patients receiving usual care (incremental cost −$108 [95% CI −$4953 to $4737], p > 0.9). The difference in proportions of in-hospital deaths between remdesivir and usual care groups was −3.9% (18.7% v. 22.6%, 95% CI −8.3% to 1.0%, p = 0.09). The difference in proportions of incident invasive mechanical ventilation events between groups was −7.0% (8.0% v. 15.0%, 95% CI −10.6% to −3.4%, p = 0.006), whereas the difference in proportions of total mechanical ventilation events between groups was −5.7% (16.4% v. 22.1%, 95% CI −10.0% to −1.4%, p = 0.01). Remdesivir was the dominant intervention (but only marginally less costly, with mildly lower mortality) with an incalculable incremental cost effectiveness ratio;we report results of incremental costs and incremental effects separately. For willingness-to-pay thresholds of $0, $20 000, $50 000 and $100 000 per death averted, a strategy using remdesivir was cost-effective in 60%, 67%, 74% and 79% of simulations, respectively. The remdesivir costs were the fifth highest cost driver, offset by shorter lengths of stay and less mechanical ventilation. Interpretation: From a health care payer perspective, treating patients hospitalized with COVID-19 with remdesivir and usual care appears to be preferrable to treating with usual care alone, albeit with marginal incremental cost and small clinical effects. The added cost of remdesivir was offset by shorter lengths of stay in the intensive care unit and less need for ventilation. Study registration: ClinicalTrials. gov, no. NCT04330690

11.
BMJ Supportive and Palliative Care ; 11:A37-A38, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032473

RESUMO

Background In 2020 Highland Hospice faced the challenge of continuing the rehabilitation service delivered by our inpatient physiotherapist and occupational therapist. The service was originally delivered by admission to the unit for a five-day (Respiratory) or 10-day (Neurological) stay with intensive multi-disciplinary team rehabilitation. The team adapted the delivery of this service due to COVID-19 restrictions using the Zoom platform (licensed version). Aim To continue to provide ongoing rehabilitation for palliative care patients during COVID-19. Methods Referrals were received as usual from respiratory/ neuro nurses or consultant. Screening was carried out in a weekly meeting with the allied health professionals and doctors. Appropriate patients were contacted by telephone to schedule an initial assessment before setting up a Zoom call or home visit to set up technology. Patients were seen in person (if hearing or technology was an issue), or virtually for 6- 12 weeks. Results Of the eleven patients to date there were challenges for some but all participated and benefited. A survey was sent to participants. Three people responded. All three respondents said their goals were clear after the first session.•The respondents either mostly agreed/or agreed that their symptoms were better controlled.•Activity levels had increased.•Ability to cope was better.•Knowledge of helpful techniques was better and,•Quality of life was better after attending the service for the 6- 12 week period. Feedback from participants includes: 'The service was friendly and positive';'It helped me immensely';'a friend had been in respiratory crisis and I was able to help her while she waited for the ambulance - that felt good'. Conclusion Despite challenges, a virtual approach for palliative rehabilitation provided beneficial outcomes for patients who would not have been able to attend in person. This method will likely form a part of our services going forward.

12.
Baruch, Joaquin, Rojek, Amanda, Kartsonaki, Christiana, Vijayaraghavan, Bharath K. T.; Gonçalves, Bronner P.; Pritchard, Mark G.; Merson, Laura, Dunning, Jake, Hall, Matthew, Sigfrid, Louise, Citarella, Barbara W.; Murthy, Srinivas, Yeabah, Trokon O.; Olliaro, Piero, Abbas, Ali, Abdukahil, Sheryl Ann, Abdulkadir, Nurul Najmee, Abe, Ryuzo, Abel, Laurent, Absil, Lara, Acharya, Subhash, Acker, Andrew, Adam, Elisabeth, Adrião, Diana, Al Ageel, Saleh, Ahmed, Shakeel, Ainscough, Kate, Airlangga, Eka, Aisa, Tharwat, Hssain, Ali Ait, Tamlihat, Younes Ait, Akimoto, Takako, Akmal, Ernita, Al Qasim, Eman, Alalqam, Razi, Alberti, Angela, Al‐dabbous, Tala, Alegesan, Senthilkumar, Alegre, Cynthia, Alessi, Marta, Alex, Beatrice, Alexandre, Kévin, Al‐Fares, Abdulrahman, Alfoudri, Huda, Ali, Imran, Ali, Adam, Shah, Naseem Ali, Alidjnou, Kazali Enagnon, Aliudin, Jeffrey, Alkhafajee, Qabas, Allavena, Clotilde, Allou, Nathalie, Altaf, Aneela, Alves, João, Alves, Rita, Alves, João Melo, Amaral, Maria, Amira, Nur, Ampaw, Phoebe, Andini, Roberto, Andréjak, Claire, Angheben, Andrea, Angoulvant, François, Ansart, Séverine, Anthonidass, Sivanesen, Antonelli, Massimo, de Brito, Carlos Alexandre Antunes, Apriyana, Ardiyan, Arabi, Yaseen, Aragao, Irene, Araujo, Carolline, Arcadipane, Antonio, Archambault, Patrick, Arenz, Lukas, Arlet, Jean‐Benoît, Arora, Lovkesh, Arora, Rakesh, Artaud‐Macari, Elise, Aryal, Diptesh, Asensio, Angel, Ashraf, Muhammad, Asif, Namra, Asim, Mohammad, Assie, Jean Baptiste, Asyraf, Amirul, Atique, Anika, Attanyake, A. M. Udara Lakshan, Auchabie, Johann, Aumaitre, Hugues, Auvet, Adrien, Axelsen, Eyvind W.; Azemar, Laurène, Azoulay, Cecile, Bach, Benjamin, Bachelet, Delphine, Badr, Claudine, Bævre‐Jensen, Roar, Baig, Nadia, Baillie, J. Kenneth, Baird, J. Kevin, Bak, Erica, Bakakos, Agamemnon, Bakar, Nazreen Abu, Bal, Andriy, Balakrishnan, Mohanaprasanth, Balan, Valeria, Bani‐Sadr, Firouzé, Barbalho, Renata, Barbosa, Nicholas Yuri, Barclay, Wendy S.; Barnett, Saef Umar, Barnikel, Michaela, Barrasa, Helena, Barrelet, Audrey, Barrigoto, Cleide, Bartoli, Marie, Baruch, Joaquín, Bashir, Mustehan, Basmaci, Romain, Basri, Muhammad Fadhli Hassin, Battaglini, Denise, Bauer, Jules, Rincon, Diego Fernando Bautista, Dow, Denisse Bazan, Beane, Abigail, Bedossa, Alexandra, Bee, Ker Hong, Begum, Husna, Behilill, Sylvie, Beishuizen, Albertus, Beljantsev, Aleksandr, Bellemare, David, Beltrame, Anna, Beltrão, Beatriz Amorim, Beluze, Marine, Benech, Nicolas, Benjiman, Lionel Eric, Benkerrou, Dehbia, Bennett, Suzanne, Bento, Luís, Berdal, Jan‐Erik, Bergeaud, Delphine, Bergin, Hazel, Sobrino, José Luis Bernal, Bertoli, Giulia, Bertolino, Lorenzo, Bessis, Simon, Bevilcaqua, Sybille, Bezulier, Karine, Bhatt, Amar, Bhavsar, Krishna, Bianco, Claudia, Bidin, Farah Nadiah, Singh, Moirangthem Bikram, Humaid, Felwa Bin, Kamarudin, Mohd Nazlin Bin, Bissuel, François, Bitker, Laurent, Bitton, Jonathan, Blanco‐Schweizer, Pablo, Blier, Catherine, Bloos, Frank, Blot, Mathieu, Boccia, Filomena, Bodenes, Laetitia, Bogaarts, Alice, Bogaert, Debby, Boivin, Anne‐Hélène, Bolze, Pierre‐Adrien, Bompart, François, Bonfasius, Aurelius, Borges, Diogo, Borie, Raphaël, Bosse, Hans Martin, Botelho‐Nevers, Elisabeth, Bouadma, Lila, Bouchaud, Olivier, Bouchez, Sabelline, Bouhmani, Dounia, Bouhour, Damien, Bouiller, Kévin, Bouillet, Laurence, Bouisse, Camile, Boureau, Anne‐Sophie, Bourke, John, Bouscambert, Maude, Bousquet, Aurore, Bouziotis, Jason, Boxma, Bianca, Boyer‐Besseyre, Marielle, Boylan, Maria, Bozza, Fernando Augusto, Braconnier, Axelle, Braga, Cynthia, Brandenburger, Timo, Monteiro, Filipa Brás, Brazzi, Luca, Breen, Patrick, Breen, Dorothy, Breen, Patrick, Brickell, Kathy, Browne, Shaunagh, Browne, Alex, Brozzi, Nicolas, Brunvoll, Sonja Hjellegjerde, Brusse‐Keizer, Marjolein, Buchtele, Nina, Buesaquillo, Christian, Bugaeva, Polina, Buisson, Marielle, Buonsenso, Danilo, Burhan, Erlina, Burrell, Aidan, Bustos, Ingrid G.; Butnaru, Denis, Cabie, André, Cabral, Susana, Caceres, Eder, Cadoz, Cyril, Calligy, Kate, Calvache, Jose Andres, Camões, João, Campana, Valentine, Campbell, Paul, Campisi, Josie, Canepa, Cecilia, Cantero, Mireia, Caraux‐Paz, Pauline, Cárcel, Sheila, Cardellino, Chiara Simona, Cardoso, Sofia, Cardoso, Filipe, Cardoso, Filipa, Cardoso, Nelson, Carelli, Simone, Carlier, Nicolas, Carmoi, Thierry, Carney, Gayle, Carqueja, Inês, Carret, Marie‐Christine, Carrier, François Martin, Carroll, Ida, Carson, Gail, Casanova, Maire‐Laure, Cascão, Mariana, Casey, Siobhan, Casimiro, José, Cassandra, Bailey, Castañeda, Silvia, Castanheira, Nidyanara, Castor‐Alexandre, Guylaine, Castrillón, Henry, Castro, Ivo, Catarino, Ana, Catherine, François‐Xavier, Cattaneo, Paolo, Cavalin, Roberta, Cavalli, Giulio Giovanni, Cavayas, Alexandros, Ceccato, Adrian, Cervantes‐Gonzalez, Minerva, Chair, Anissa, Chakveatze, Catherine, Chan, Adrienne, Chand, Meera, Auger, Christelle Chantalat, Chapplain, Jean‐Marc, Chas, Julie, Chatterjee, Allegra, Chaudry, Mobin, Iñiguez, Jonathan Samuel Chávez, Chen, Anjellica, Chen, Yih‐Sharng, Cheng, Matthew Pellan, Cheret, Antoine, Chiarabini, Thibault, Chica, Julian, Chidambaram, Suresh Kumar, Tho, Leong Chin, Chirouze, Catherine, Chiumello, Davide, Cho, Sung‐Min, Cholley, Bernard, Chopin, Marie‐Charlotte, Chow, Ting Soo, Chow, Yock Ping, Chua, Jonathan, Chua, Hiu Jian, Cidade, Jose Pedro, Herreros, José Miguel Cisneros, Citarella, Barbara Wanjiru, Ciullo, Anna, Clarke, Jennifer, Clarke, Emma, Granado, Rolando Claure‐Del, Clohisey, Sara, Cobb, Perren J.; Codan, Cassidy, Cody, Caitriona, Coelho, Alexandra, Coles, Megan, Colin, Gwenhaël, Collins, Michael, Colombo, Sebastiano Maria, Combs, Pamela, Connor, Marie, Conrad, Anne, Contreras, Sofía, Conway, Elaine, Cooke, Graham S.; Copland, Mary, Cordel, Hugues, Corley, Amanda, Cornelis, Sabine, Cornet, Alexander Daniel, Corpuz, Arianne Joy, Cortegiani, Andrea, Corvaisier, Grégory, Costigan, Emma, Couffignal, Camille, Couffin‐Cadiergues, Sandrine, Courtois, Roxane, Cousse, Stéphanie, Cregan, Rachel, Croonen, Sabine, Crowl, Gloria, Crump, Jonathan, Cruz, Claudina, Bermúdez, Juan Luis Cruz, Rojo, Jaime Cruz, Csete, Marc, Cullen, Ailbhe, Cummings, Matthew, Curley, Gerard, Curlier, Elodie, Curran, Colleen, Custodio, Paula, da Silva Filipe, Ana, Da Silveira, Charlene, Dabaliz, Al‐Awwab, Dagens, Andrew, Dahl, John Arne, Dahly, Darren, Dalton, Heidi, Dalton, Jo, Daly, Seamus, Daneman, Nick, Daniel, Corinne, Dankwa, Emmanuelle A.; Dantas, Jorge, D'Aragon, Frédérick, de Loughry, Gillian, de Mendoza, Diego, De Montmollin, Etienne, de Oliveira França, Rafael Freitas, de Pinho Oliveira, Ana Isabel, De Rosa, Rosanna, De Rose, Cristina, de Silva, Thushan, de Vries, Peter, Deacon, Jillian, Dean, David, Debard, Alexa, Debray, Marie‐Pierre, DeCastro, Nathalie, Dechert, William, Deconninck, Lauren, Decours, Romain, Defous, Eve, Delacroix, Isabelle, Delaveuve, Eric, Delavigne, Karen, Delfos, Nathalie M.; Deligiannis, Ionna, Dell'Amore, Andrea, Delmas, Christelle, Delobel, Pierre, Delsing, Corine, Demonchy, Elisa, Denis, Emmanuelle, Deplanque, Dominique, Depuydt, Pieter, Desai, Mehul, Descamps, Diane, Desvallées, Mathilde, Dewayanti, Santi, Dhanger, Pathik, Diallo, Alpha, Diamantis, Sylvain, Dias, André, Diaz, Juan Jose, Diaz, Priscila, Diaz, Rodrigo, Didier, Kévin, Diehl, Jean‐Luc, Dieperink, Wim, Dimet, Jérôme, Dinot, Vincent, Diop, Fara, Diouf, Alphonsine, Dishon, Yael, Djossou, Félix, Docherty, Annemarie B.; Doherty, Helen, Dondorp, Arjen M.; Donnelly, Maria, Donnelly, Christl A.; Donohue, Sean, Donohue, Yoann, Donohue, Chloe, Doran, Peter, Dorival, Céline, D'Ortenzio, Eric, Douglas, James Joshua, Douma, Renee, Dournon, Nathalie, Downer, Triona, Downey, Joanne, Downing, Mark, Drake, Tom, Driscoll, Aoife, Dryden, Murray, Fonseca, Claudio Duarte, Dubee, Vincent, Dubos, François, Ducancelle, Alexandre, Duculan, Toni, Dudman, Susanne, Duggal, Abhijit, Dunand, Paul, Dunning, Jake, Duplaix, Mathilde, Durante‐Mangoni, Emanuele, Durham, Lucian, Dussol, Bertrand, Duthoit, Juliette, Duval, Xavier, Dyrhol‐Riise, Anne Margarita, Ean, Sim Choon, Echeverria‐Villalobos, Marco, Egan, Siobhan, Eggesbø, Linn Margrete, Eira, Carla, El Sanharawi, Mohammed, Elapavaluru, Subbarao, Elharrar, Brigitte, Ellerbroek, Jacobien, Ellingjord‐Dale, Merete, Eloy, Philippine, Elshazly, Tarek, Elyazar, Iqbal, Enderle, Isabelle, Endo, Tomoyuki, Eng, Chan Chee, Engelmann, Ilka, Enouf, Vincent, Epaulard, Olivier, Escher, Martina, Esperatti, Mariano, Esperou, Hélène, Esposito‐Farese, Marina, Estevão, João, Etienne, Manuel, Ettalhaoui, Nadia, Everding, Anna Greti, Evers, Mirjam, Fabre, Marc, Fabre, Isabelle, Faheem, Amna, Fahy, Arabella, Fairfield, Cameron J.; Fakar, Zul, Fareed, Komal, Faria, Pedro, Farooq, Ahmed, Fateena, Hanan, Fatoni, Arie Zainul, Faure, Karine, Favory, Raphaël, Fayed, Mohamed, Feely, Niamh, Feeney, Laura, Fernandes, Jorge, Fernandes, Marília Andreia, Fernandes, Susana, Ferrand, François‐Xavier, Devouge, Eglantine Ferrand, Ferrão, Joana, Ferraz, Mário, Ferreira, Sílvia, Ferreira, Isabel, Ferreira, Benigno, Ferrer‐Roca, Ricard, Ferriere, Nicolas, Ficko, Céline, Figueiredo‐Mello, Claudia, Finlayson, William, Fiorda, Juan, Flament, Thomas, Flateau, Clara, Fletcher, Tom, Florio, Letizia Lucia, Flynn, Deirdre, Foley, Claire, Foley, Jean, Fomin, Victor, Fonseca, Tatiana, Fontela, Patricia, Forsyth, Simon, Foster, Denise, Foti, Giuseppe, Fourn, Erwan, Fowler, Robert A.; Fraher, Marianne, Franch‐Llasat, Diego, Fraser, John F.; Fraser, Christophe, Freire, Marcela Vieira, Ribeiro, Ana Freitas, Friedrich, Caren, Fry, Stéphanie, Fuentes, Nora, Fukuda, Masahiro, Argin, G.; Gaborieau, Valérie, Gaci, Rostane, Gagliardi, Massimo, Gagnard, Jean‐Charles, Gagneux‐Brunon, Amandine, Gaião, Sérgio, Skeie, Linda Gail, Gallagher, Phil, Gamble, Carrol, Gani, Yasmin, Garan, Arthur, Garcia, Rebekha, Barrio, Noelia García, Garcia‐Diaz, Julia, Garcia‐Gallo, Esteban, Garimella, Navya, Garot, Denis, Garrait, Valérie, Gauli, Basanta, Gault, Nathalie, Gavin, Aisling, Gavrylov, Anatoliy, Gaymard, Alexandre, Gebauer, Johannes, Geraud, Eva, Morlaes, Louis Gerbaud, Germano, Nuno, Ghisulal, Praveen Kumar, Ghosn, Jade, Giani, Marco, Gibson, Jess, Gigante, Tristan, Gilg, Morgane, Gilroy, Elaine, Giordano, Guillermo, Girvan, Michelle, Gissot, Valérie, Glikman, Daniel, Glybochko, Petr, Gnall, Eric, Goco, Geraldine, Goehringer, François, Goepel, Siri, Goffard, Jean‐Christophe, Goh, Jin Yi, Golob, Jonathan, Gomez, Kyle, Gómez‐Junyent, Joan, Gominet, Marie, Gonçalves, Bronner P.; Gonzalez, Alicia, Gordon, Patricia, Gorenne, Isabelle, Goubert, Laure, Goujard, Cécile, Goulenok, Tiphaine, Grable, Margarite, Graf, Jeronimo, Grandin, Edward Wilson, Granier, Pascal, Grasselli, Giacomo, Green, Christopher A.; Greene, Courtney, Greenhalf, William, Greffe, Segolène, Grieco, Domenico Luca, Griffee, Matthew, Griffiths, Fiona, Grigoras, Ioana, Groenendijk, Albert, Lordemann, Anja Grosse, Gruner, Heidi, Gu, Yusing, Guedj, Jérémie, Guego, Martin, Guellec, Dewi, Guerguerian, Anne‐Marie, Guerreiro, Daniela, Guery, Romain, Guillaumot, Anne, Guilleminault, Laurent, Guimarães de Castro, Maisa, Guimard, Thomas, Haalboom, Marieke, Haber, Daniel, Habraken, Hannah, Hachemi, Ali, Hackmann, Amy, Hadri, Nadir, Haidri, Fakhir, Hakak, Sheeba, Hall, Adam, Hall, Matthew, Halpin, Sophie, Hameed, Jawad, Hamer, Ansley, Hamers, Raph L.; Hamidfar, Rebecca, Hammarström, Bato, Hammond, Terese, Han, Lim Yuen, Haniffa, Rashan, Hao, Kok Wei, Hardwick, Hayley, Harrison, Ewen M.; Harrison, Janet, Harrison, Samuel Bernard Ekow, Hartman, Alan, Hasan, Mohd Shahnaz, Hashmi, Junaid, Hayat, Muhammad, Hayes, Ailbhe, Hays, Leanne, Heerman, Jan, Heggelund, Lars, Hendry, Ross, Hennessy, Martina, Henriquez‐Trujillo, Aquiles, Hentzien, Maxime, Hernandez‐Montfort, Jaime, Hershey, Andrew, Hesstvedt, Liv, Hidayah, Astarini, Higgins, Eibhilin, Higgins, Dawn, Higgins, Rupert, Hinchion, Rita, Hinton, Samuel, Hiraiwa, Hiroaki, Hirkani, Haider, Hitoto, Hikombo, Ho, Yi Bin, Ho, Antonia, Hoctin, Alexandre, Hoffmann, Isabelle, Hoh, Wei Han, Hoiting, Oscar, Holt, Rebecca, Holter, Jan Cato, Horby, Peter, Horcajada, Juan Pablo, Hoshino, Koji, Houas, Ikram, Hough, Catherine L.; Houltham, Stuart, Hsu, Jimmy Ming‐Yang, Hulot, Jean‐Sébastien, Huo, Stella, Hurd, Abby, Hussain, Iqbal, Ijaz, Samreen, Illes, Hajnal‐Gabriela, Imbert, Patrick, Imran, Mohammad, Sikander, Rana Imran, Imtiaz, Aftab, Inácio, Hugo, Dominguez, Carmen Infante, Ing, Yun Sii, Iosifidis, Elias, Ippolito, Mariachiara, Isgett, Sarah, Isidoro, Tiago, Ismail, Nadiah, Isnard, Margaux, Istre, Mette Stausland, Itai, Junji, Ivulich, Daniel, Jaafar, Danielle, Jaafoura, Salma, Jabot, Julien, Jackson, Clare, Jamieson, Nina, Jaquet, Pierre, Jaud‐Fischer, Coline, Jaureguiberry, Stéphane, Jaworsky, Denise, Jego, Florence, Jelani, Anilawati Mat, Jenum, Synne, Jimbo‐Sotomayor, Ruth, Joe, Ong Yiaw, Jorge García, Ruth N.; Jørgensen, Silje Bakken, Joseph, Cédric, Joseph, Mark, Joshi, Swosti, Jourdain, Mercé, Jouvet, Philippe, Jung, Hanna, Jung, Anna, Juzar, Dafsah, Kafif, Ouifiya, Kaguelidou, Florentia, Kaisbain, Neerusha, Kaleesvran, Thavamany, Kali, Sabina, Kalicinska, Alina, Kalleberg, Karl Trygve, Kalomoiri, Smaragdi, Kamaluddin, Muhammad Aisar Ayadi, Kamaruddin, Zul Amali Che, Kamarudin, Nadiah, Kamineni, Kavita, Kandamby, Darshana Hewa, Kandel, Chris, Kang, Kong Yeow, Kanwal, Darakhshan, Karpayah, Pratap, Kartsonaki, Christiana, Kasugai, Daisuke, Kataria, Anant, Katz, Kevin, Kaur, Aasmine, Kay, Christy, Keane, Hannah, Keating, Seán, Kedia, Pulak, Kelly, Claire, Kelly, Yvelynne, Kelly, Andrea, Kelly, Niamh, Kelly, Aoife, Kelly, Sadie, Kelsey, Maeve, Kennedy, Ryan, Kennon, Kalynn, Kernan, Maeve, Kerroumi, Younes, Keshav, Sharma, Khalid, Imrana, Khalid, Osama, Khalil, Antoine, Khan, Coralie, Khan, Irfan, Khan, Quratul Ain, Khanal, Sushil, Khatak, Abid, Khawaja, Amin, Kherajani, Krish, Kho, Michelle E.; Khoo, Ryan, Khoo, Denisa, Khoo, Saye, Khoso, Nasir, Kiat, Khor How, Kida, Yuri, Kiiza, Peter, Granerud, Beathe Kiland, Kildal, Anders Benjamin, Kim, Jae Burm, Kimmoun, Antoine, Kindgen‐Milles, Detlef, King, Alexander, Kitamura, Nobuya, Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke Kjetland, Klenerman, Paul, Klont, Rob, Bekken, Gry Kloumann, Knight, Stephen R.; Kobbe, Robin, Kodippily, Chamira, Vasconcelos, Malte Kohns, Koirala, Sabin, Komatsu, Mamoru, Kosgei, Caroline, Kpangon, Arsène, Krawczyk, Karolina, Krishnan, Vinothini, Krishnan, Sudhir, Kruglova, Oksana, Kumar, Ganesh, Kumar, Deepali, Kumar, Mukesh, Vecham, Pavan Kumar, Kuriakose, Dinesh, Kurtzman, Ethan, Kutsogiannis, Demetrios, Kutsyna, Galyna, Kyriakoulis, Konstantinos, Lachatre, Marie, Lacoste, Marie, Laffey, John G.; Lagrange, Marie, Laine, Fabrice, Lairez, Olivier, Lakhey, Sanjay, Lalueza, Antonio, Lambert, Marc, Lamontagne, François, Langelot‐Richard, Marie, Langlois, Vincent, Lantang, Eka Yudha, Lanza, Marina, Laouénan, Cédric, Laribi, Samira, Lariviere, Delphine, Lasry, Stéphane, Lath, Sakshi, Latif, Naveed, Launay, Odile, Laureillard, Didier, Lavie‐Badie, Yoan, Law, Andy, Lawrence, Teresa, Lawrence, Cassie, Le, Minh, Le Bihan, Clément, Le Bris, Cyril, Le Falher, Georges, Le Fevre, Lucie, Le Hingrat, Quentin, Le Maréchal, Marion, Le Mestre, Soizic, Le Moal, Gwenaël, Le Moing, Vincent, Le Nagard, Hervé, Le Turnier, Paul, Leal, Ema, Santos, Marta Leal, Lee, Heng Gee, Lee, Biing Horng, Lee, Yi Lin, Lee, Todd C.; Lee, James, Lee, Jennifer, Lee, Su Hwan, Leeming, Gary, Lefebvre, Laurent, Lefebvre, Bénédicte, Lefèvre, Benjamin, LeGac, Sylvie, Lelievre, Jean‐Daniel, Lellouche, François, Lemaignen, Adrien, Lemee, Véronique, Lemeur, Anthony, Lemmink, Gretchen, Lene, Ha Sha, Lennon, Jenny, León, Rafael, Leone, Marc, Leone, Michela, Lepiller, Quentin, Lescure, François‐Xavier, Lesens, Olivier, Lesouhaitier, Mathieu, Lester‐Grant, Amy, Levy, Yves, Levy, Bruno, Levy‐Marchal, Claire, Lewandowska, Katarzyna, L'Her, Erwan, Bassi, Gianluigi Li, Liang, Janet, Liaquat, Ali, Liegeon, Geoffrey, Lim, Kah Chuan, Lim, Wei Shen, Lima, Chantre, Lina, Lim, Lina, Bruno, Lind, Andreas, Lingad, Maja Katherine, Lingas, Guillaume, Lion‐Daolio, Sylvie, Lissauer, Samantha, Liu, Keibun, Livrozet, Marine, Lizotte, Patricia, Loforte, Antonio, Lolong, Navy, Loon, Leong Chee, Lopes, Diogo, Lopez‐Colon, Dalia, Lopez‐Revilla, Jose W.; Loschner, Anthony L.; Loubet, Paul, Loufti, Bouchra, Louis, Guillame, Lourenco, Silvia, Lovelace‐Macon, Lara, Low, Lee Lee, Lowik, Marije, Loy, Jia Shyi, Lucet, Jean Christophe, Bermejo, Carlos Lumbreras, Luna, Carlos M.; Lungu, Olguta, Luong, Liem, Luque, Nestor, Luton, Dominique, Lwin, Nilar, Lyons, Ruth, Maasikas, Olavi, Mabiala, Oryane, Machado, Moïse, Macheda, Gabriel, Madiha, Hashmi, Maestro de la Calle, Guillermo, Mahieu, Rafael, Mahy, Sophie, Maia, Ana Raquel, Maier, Lars S.; Maillet, Mylène, Maitre, Thomas, Malfertheiner, Maximilian, Malik, Nadia, Mallon, Paddy, Maltez, Fernando, Malvy, Denis, Manda, Victoria, Mandelbrot, Laurent, Manetta, Frank, Mankikian, Julie, Manning, Edmund, Manuel, Aldric, Sant'Ana Malaque, Ceila Maria, Marino, Flávio, Marino, Daniel, Markowicz, Samuel, Maroun Eid, Charbel, Marques, Ana, Marquis, Catherine, Marsh, Brian, Marsh, Laura, Marshal, Megan, Marshall, John, Martelli, Celina Turchi, Martin, Dori‐Ann, Martin, Emily, Martin‐Blondel, Guillaume, Martin‐Loeches, Ignacio, Martinot, Martin, Martin‐Quiros, Alejandro, Martins, João, Martins, Ana, Martins, Nuno, Rego, Caroline Martins, Martucci, Gennaro, Martynenko, Olga, Marwali, Eva Miranda, Marzukie, Marsilla, Maslove, David, Mason, Sabina, Masood, Sobia, Nor, Basri Mat, Matan, Moshe, Mathew, Meghena, Mathieu, Daniel, Mattei, Mathieu, Matulevics, Romans, Maulin, Laurence, Maxwell, Michael, Maynar, Javier, Mazzoni, Thierry, Evoy, Natalie Mc, Sweeney, Lisa Mc, McArthur, Colin, McArthur, Colin, McCarthy, Anne, McCarthy, Aine, McCloskey, Colin, McConnochie, Rachael, McDermott, Sherry, McDonald, Sarah E.; McElroy, Aine, McElwee, Samuel, McEneany, Victoria, McGeer, Allison, McKay, Chris, McKeown, Johnny, McLean, Kenneth A.; McNally, Paul, McNicholas, Bairbre, McPartlan, Elaine, Meaney, Edel, Mear‐Passard, Cécile, Mechlin, Maggie, Meher, Maqsood, Mehkri, Omar, Mele, Ferruccio, Melo, Luis, Memon, Kashif, Mendes, Joao Joao, Menkiti, Ogechukwu, Menon, Kusum, Mentré, France, Mentzer, Alexander J.; Mercier, Noémie, Mercier, Emmanuelle, Merckx, Antoine, Mergeay‐Fabre, Mayka, Mergler, Blake, Merson, Laura, Mesquita, António, Meta, Roberta, Metwally, Osama, Meybeck, Agnès, Meyer, Dan, Meynert, Alison M.; Meysonnier, Vanina, Meziane, Amina, Mezidi, Mehdi, Michelanglei, Céline, Michelet, Isabelle, Mihelis, Efstathia, Mihnovit, Vladislav, Miranda‐Maldonado, Hugo, Misnan, Nor Arisah, Mohamed, Tahira Jamal, Mohamed, Nik Nur Eliza, Moin, Asma, Molina, David, Molinos, Elena, Molloy, Brenda, Mone, Mary, Monteiro, Agostinho, Montes, Claudia, Montrucchio, Giorgia, Moore, Shona C.; Moore, Sarah, Cely, Lina Morales, Moro, Lucia, Morton, Ben, Motherway, Catherine, Motos, Ana, Mouquet, Hugo, Perrot, Clara Mouton, Moyet, Julien, Mudara, Caroline, Mufti, Aisha Kalsoom, Muh, Ng Yong, Muhamad, Dzawani, Mullaert, Jimmy, Müller, Fredrik, Müller, Karl Erik, Munblit, Daniel, Muneeb, Syed, Munir, Nadeem, Munshi, Laveena, Murphy, Aisling, Murphy, Lorna, Murphy, Aisling, Murris, Marlène, Murthy, Srinivas, Musaab, Himed, Muvindi, Himasha, Muyandy, Gugapriyaa, Myrodia, Dimitra Melia, Mohd‐Hanafiah, Farah Nadia, Nagpal, Dave, Nagrebetsky, Alex, Narasimhan, Mangala, Narayanan, Nageswaran, Khan, Rashid Nasim, Nazerali‐Maitland, Alasdair, Neant, Nadège, Neb, Holger, Nekliudov, Nikita, Nelwan, Erni, Neto, Raul, Neumann, Emily, Ng, Pauline Yeung, Ng, Wing Yiu, Nghi, Anthony, Nguyen, Duc, Choileain, Orna Ni, Leathlobhair, Niamh Ni, Nichol, Alistair, Nitayavardhana, Prompak, Nonas, Stephanie, Noordin, Nurul Amani Mohd, Noret, Marion, Norharizam, Nurul Faten Izzati, Norman, Lisa, Notari, Alessandra, Noursadeghi, Mahdad, Nowicka, Karolina, Nowinski, Adam, Nseir, Saad, Nunez, Jose I.; Nurnaningsih, Nurnaningsih, Nusantara, Dwi Utomo, Nyamankolly, Elsa, Nygaard, Anders Benteson, Brien, Fionnuala O.; Callaghan, Annmarie O.; O'Callaghan, Annmarie, Occhipinti, Giovanna, Oconnor, Derbrenn, O'Donnell, Max, Ogston, Tawnya, Ogura, Takayuki, Oh, Tak‐Hyuk, O'Halloran, Sophie, O'Hearn, Katie, Ohshimo, Shinichiro, Oldakowska, Agnieszka, Oliveira, João, Oliveira, Larissa, Olliaro, Piero L.; Ong, Jee Yan, Ong, David S. Y.; Oosthuyzen, Wilna, Opavsky, Anne, Openshaw, Peter, Orakzai, Saijad, Orozco‐Chamorro, Claudia Milena, Ortoleva, Jamel, Osatnik, Javier, O'Shea, Linda, O'Sullivan, Miriam, Othman, Siti Zubaidah, Ouamara, Nadia, Ouissa, Rachida, Oziol, Eric, Pagadoy, Maïder, Pages, Justine, Palacios, Mario, Palacios, Amanda, Palmarini, Massimo, Panarello, Giovanna, Panda, Prasan Kumar, Paneru, Hem, Pang, Lai Hui, Panigada, Mauro, Pansu, Nathalie, Papadopoulos, Aurélie, Parke, Rachael, Parker, Melissa, Parra, Briseida, Pasha, Taha, Pasquier, Jérémie, Pastene, Bruno, Patauner, Fabian, Patel, Drashti, Pathmanathan, Mohan Dass, Patrão, Luís, Patricio, Patricia, Patrier, Juliette, Patterson, Lisa, Pattnaik, Rajyabardhan, Paul, Mical, Paul, Christelle, Paulos, Jorge, Paxton, William A.; Payen, Jean‐François, Peariasamy, Kalaiarasu, Jiménez, Miguel Pedrera, Peek, Giles J.; Peelman, Florent, Peiffer‐Smadja, Nathan, Peigne, Vincent, Pejkovska, Mare, Pelosi, Paolo, Peltan, Ithan D.; Pereira, Rui, Perez, Daniel, Periel, Luis, Perpoint, Thomas, Pesenti, Antonio, Pestre, Vincent, Petrou, Lenka, Petrovic, Michele, Petrov‐Sanchez, Ventzislava, Pettersen, Frank Olav, Peytavin, Gilles, Pharand, Scott, Picard, Walter, Picone, Olivier, de Piero, Maria, Pierobon, Carola, Piersma, Djura, Pimentel, Carlos, Pinto, Raquel, Pires, Catarina, Pironneau, Isabelle, Piroth, Lionel, Pitaloka, Ayodhia, Pius, Riinu, Plantier, Laurent, Png, Hon Shen, Poissy, Julien, Pokeerbux, Ryadh, Pokorska‐Spiewak, Maria, Poli, Sergio, Pollakis, Georgios, Ponscarme, Diane, Popielska, Jolanta, Porto, Diego Bastos, Post, Andra‐Maris, Postma, Douwe F.; Povoa, Pedro, Póvoas, Diana, Powis, Jeff, Prapa, Sofia, Preau, Sébastien, Prebensen, Christian, Preiser, Jean‐Charles, Prinssen, Anton, Pritchard, Mark G.; Priyadarshani, Gamage Dona Dilanthi, Proença, Lucia, Pudota, Sravya, Puéchal, Oriane, Semedi, Bambang Pujo, Pulicken, Mathew, Purcell, Gregory, Quesada, Luisa, Quinones‐Cardona, Vilmaris, González, Víctor Quirós, Quist‐Paulsen, Else, Quraishi, Mohammed, Rabaa, Maia, Rabaud, Christian, Rabindrarajan, Ebenezer, Rafael, Aldo, Rafiq, Marie, Rahardjani, Mutia, Rahman, Rozanah Abd, Rahman, Ahmad Kashfi Haji Ab, Rahutullah, Arsalan, Rainieri, Fernando, Rajahram, Giri Shan, Ramachandran, Pratheema, Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan, Ramli, Ahmad Afiq, Rammaert, Blandine, Ramos, Grazielle Viana, Rana, Asim, Rangappa, Rajavardhan, Ranjan, Ritika, Rapp, Christophe, Rashan, Aasiyah, Rashan, Thalha, Rasheed, Ghulam, Rasmin, Menaldi, Rätsep, Indrek, Rau, Cornelius, Ravi, Tharmini, Raza, Ali, Real, Andre, Rebaudet, Stanislas, Redl, Sarah, Reeve, Brenda, Rehman, Attaur, Reid, Liadain, Reikvam, Dag Henrik, Reis, Renato, Rello, Jordi, Remppis, Jonathan, Remy, Martine, Ren, Hongru, Renk, Hanna, Resseguier, Anne‐Sophie, Revest, Matthieu, Rewa, Oleksa, Reyes, Luis Felipe, Reyes, Tiago, Ribeiro, Maria Ines, Ricchiuto, Antonia, Richardson, David, Richardson, Denise, Richier, Laurent, Ridzuan, Siti Nurul Atikah Ahmad, Riera, Jordi, Rios, Ana L.; Rishu, Asgar, Rispal, Patrick, Risso, Karine, Nuñez, Maria Angelica Rivera, Rizer, Nicholas, Robba, Chiara, Roberto, André, Roberts, Stephanie, Robertson, David L.; Robineau, Olivier, Roche‐Campo, Ferran, Rodari, Paola, Rodeia, Simão, Abreu, Julia Rodriguez, Roessler, Bernhard, Roger, Pierre‐Marie, Roger, Claire, Roilides, Emmanuel, Rojek, Amanda, Romaru, Juliette, Roncon‐Albuquerque, Roberto, Roriz, Mélanie, Rosa‐Calatrava, Manuel, Rose, Michael, Rosenberger, Dorothea, Roslan, Nurul Hidayah Mohammad, Rossanese, Andrea, Rossetti, Matteo, Rossignol, Bénédicte, Rossignol, Patrick, Rousset, Stella, Roy, Carine, Roze, Benoît, Rusmawatiningtyas, Desy, Russell, Clark D.; Ryan, Maria, Ryan, Maeve, Ryckaert, Steffi, Holten, Aleksander Rygh, Saba, Isabela, Sadaf, Sairah, Sadat, Musharaf, Sahraei, Valla, Saint‐Gilles, Maximilien, Sakiyalak, Pranya, Salahuddin, Nawal, Salazar, Leonardo, Saleem, Jodat, Sales, Gabriele, Sallaberry, Stéphane, Salmon Gandonniere, Charlotte, Salvator, Hélène, Sanchez, Olivier, Sanchez‐Miralles, Angel, Sancho‐Shimizu, Vanessa, Sandhu, Gyan, Sandhu, Zulfiqar, Sandrine, Pierre‐François, Sandulescu, Oana, Santos, Marlene, Sarfo‐Mensah, Shirley, Banheiro, Bruno Sarmento, Sarmiento, Iam Claire E.; Sarton, Benjamine, Satya, Ankana, Satyapriya, Sree, Satyawati, Rumaisah, Saviciute, Egle, Savvidou, Parthena, Saw, Yen Tsen, Schaffer, Justin, Schermer, Tjard, Scherpereel, Arnaud, Schneider, Marion, Schroll, Stephan, Schwameis, Michael, Schwartz, Gary, Scott, Janet T.; Scott‐Brown, James, Sedillot, Nicholas, Seitz, Tamara, Selvanayagam, Jaganathan, Selvarajoo, Mageswari, Semaille, Caroline, Semple, Malcolm G.; Senian, Rasidah Bt, Senneville, Eric, Sequeira, Filipa, Sequeira, Tânia, Neto, Ary Serpa, Balazote, Pablo Serrano, Shadowitz, Ellen, Shahidan, Syamin Asyraf, Shamsah, Mohammad, Shankar, Anuraj, Sharjeel, Shaikh, Sharma, Pratima, Shaw, Catherine A.; Shaw, Victoria, Sheharyar, Ashraf, Shetty, Rohan, Shetty, Rajesh Mohan, Shi, Haixia, Shiekh, Mohiuddin, Shime, Nobuaki, Shimizu, Keiki, Shrapnel, Sally, Shrestha, Pramesh Sundar, Shrestha, Shubha Kalyan, Shum, Hoi Ping, Mohammed, Nassima Si, Siang, Ng Yong, Sibiude, Jeanne, Siddiqui, Atif, Sigfrid, Louise, Sillaots, Piret, Silva, Catarina, Silva, Rogério, Silva, Maria Joao, Heng, Benedict Sim Lim, Sin, Wai Ching, Sinatti, Dario, Singh, Punam, Singh, Budha Charan, Sitompul, Pompini Agustina, Sivam, Karisha, Skogen, Vegard, Smith, Sue, Smood, Benjamin, Smyth, Coilin, Smyth, Michelle, Snacken, Morgane, So, Dominic, Soh, Tze Vee, Solberg, Lene Bergendal, Solomon, Joshua, Solomon, Tom, Somers, Emily, Sommet, Agnès, Song, Rima, Song, Myung Jin, Song, Tae, Chia, Jack Song, Sonntagbauer, Michael, Soom, Azlan Mat, Søraas, Arne, Søraas, Camilla Lund, Sotto, Alberto, Soum, Edouard, Sousa, Marta, Sousa, Ana Chora, Uva, Maria Sousa, Souza‐Dantas, Vicente, Sperry, Alexandra, Spinuzza, Elisabetta, Darshana, B. P. Sanka Ruwan Sri, Sriskandan, Shiranee, Stabler, Sarah, Staudinger, Thomas, Stecher, Stephanie‐Susanne, Steinsvik, Trude, Stienstra, Ymkje, Stiksrud, Birgitte, Stolz, Eva, Stone, Amy, Streinu‐Cercel, Adrian, Streinu‐Cercel, Anca, Stuart, David, Stuart, Ami, Subekti, Decy, Suen, Gabriel, Suen, Jacky Y.; Sultana, Asfia, Summers, Charlotte, Supic, Dubravka, Suppiah, Deepashankari, Surovcová, Magdalena, Suwarti, Suwarti, Svistunov, Andrey, Syahrin, Sarah, Syrigos, Konstantinos, Sztajnbok, Jaques, Szuldrzynski, Konstanty, Tabrizi, Shirin, Taccone, Fabio S.; Tagherset, Lysa, Taib, Shahdattul Mawarni, Talarek, Ewa, Taleb, Sara, Talsma, Jelmer, Tamisier, Renaud, Tampubolon, Maria Lawrensia, Tan, Kim Keat, Tan, Yan Chyi, Tanaka, Taku, Tanaka, Hiroyuki, Taniguchi, Hayato, Taqdees, Huda, Taqi, Arshad, Tardivon, Coralie, Tattevin, Pierre, Taufik, M. Azhari, Tawfik, Hassan, Tedder, Richard S.; Tee, Tze Yuan, Teixeira, João, Tejada, Sofia, Tellier, Marie‐Capucine, Teoh, Sze Kye, Teotonio, Vanessa, Téoulé, François, Terpstra, Pleun, Terrier, Olivier, Terzi, Nicolas, Tessier‐Grenier, Hubert, Tey, Adrian, Thabit, Alif Adlan Mohd, Thakur, Anand, Tham, Zhang Duan, Thangavelu, Suvintheran, Thibault, Vincent, Thiberville, Simon‐Djamel, Thill, Benoît, Thirumanickam, Jananee, Thompson, Shaun, Thomson, Emma C.; Thurai, Surain Raaj Thanga, Thwaites, Ryan S.; Tierney, Paul, Tieroshyn, Vadim, Timashev, Peter S.; Timsit, Jean‐François, Vijayaraghavan, Bharath Kumar Tirupakuzhi, Tissot, Noémie, Toh, Jordan Zhien Yang, Toki, Maria, Tonby, Kristian, Tonnii, Sia Loong, Torres, Margarida, Torres, Antoni, Santos‐Olmo, Rosario Maria Torres, Torres‐Zevallos, Hernando, Towers, Michael, Trapani, Tony, Treoux, Théo, Tromeur, Cécile, Trontzas, Ioannis, Trouillon, Tiffany, Truong, Jeanne, Tual, Christelle, Tubiana, Sarah, Tuite, Helen, Turmel, Jean‐Marie, Turtle, Lance C. W.; Tveita, Anders, Twardowski, Pawel, Uchiyama, Makoto, Udayanga, P. G. Ishara, Udy, Andrew, Ullrich, Roman, Uribe, Alberto, Usman, Asad.
Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses ; 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2019369

RESUMO

Introduction: Case definitions are used to guide clinical practice, surveillance and research protocols. However, how they identify COVID-19-hospitalised patients is not fully understood. We analysed the proportion of hospitalised patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, in the ISARIC prospective cohort study database, meeting widely used case definitions. Methods: Patients were assessed using the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), World Health Organization (WHO) and UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) case definitions by age, region and time. Case fatality ratios (CFRs) and symptoms of those who did and who did not meet the case definitions were evaluated. Patients with incomplete data and non-laboratory-confirmed test result were excluded. Results: A total of 263,218 of the patients (42%) in the ISARIC database were included. Most patients (90.4%) were from Europe arid Central Asia. The proportions of patients meeting the case definitions were 56.8% (WHO), 74.4% (UKHSA), 81.6% (ECDC) and 82.3% (CDC). For each case definition, patients at the extremes of age distribution met the criteria less frequently than those aged 30 to 70 years;geographical and time variations were also observed. Estimated CFRs were similar for the patients who met the case definitions. However, when more patients did riot meet the case definition, the CFR increased. Conclusions: The performance of case definitions might be different in different regions and may change over time. Similarly concerning is the fact that older patients often did not meet case definitions, risking delayed medical care. While epidemiologists must balance their analytics with field applicability, ongoing revision of case definitions is necessary to improve patient care through early diagnosis and limit potential nosocomial spread.

13.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 23(11): 908-918, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018352

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in adaptations to pediatric resuscitation systems of care. The objective of this study was to determine the temporal association between the pandemic and pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) process of care metrics, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) quality, and patient outcomes. DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective analysis of a dataset comprising observations of IHCA outcomes pre pandemic (March 1, 2019 to February 29, 2020) versus pandemic (March 1, 2020 to February 28, 2021). SETTING: Data source was the ICU-RESUScitation Project ("ICU-RESUS;" NCT028374497), a prospective, multicenter, cluster randomized interventional trial. PATIENTS: Children (≤ 18 yr) who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation while admitted to the ICU and were enrolled in ICU-RESUS. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 429 IHCAs meeting inclusion criteria, occurrence during the pandemic period was associated with higher frequency of hypotension as the immediate cause of arrest. Cardiac arrest physiology, cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality metrics, and postarrest physiologic and quality of care metrics were similar between the two periods. Survival with favorable neurologic outcome (Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category score 1-3 or unchanged from baseline) occurred in 102 of 195 subjects (52%) during the pandemic compared with 140 of 234 (60%) pre pandemic ( p = 0.12). Among survivors, occurrence of IHCA during the pandemic period was associated with a greater increase in Functional Status Scale (FSS) (i.e., worsening) from baseline (1 [0-3] vs 0 [0-2]; p = 0.01). After adjustment for confounders, IHCA survival during the pandemic period was associated with a greater increase in FSS from baseline (+1.19 [95% CI, 0.35-2.04] FSS points; p = 0.006) and higher odds of a new FSS-defined morbidity (adjusted odds ratio, 1.88 [95% CI, 1.03-3.46]; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Using the ICU-RESUS dataset, we found that relative to the year prior, pediatric IHCA during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with greater worsening of functional status and higher odds of new functional morbidity among survivors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Parada Cardíaca , Criança , Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Prospectivos , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Parada Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca/terapia
14.
BMJ Supportive and Palliative Care ; 12:A8, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2005473

RESUMO

Background and Aims People of African and Caribbean descent experienced the highest mortality rates during the pandemic, yet often have the poorest access to palliative care. This study aims to identify how palliative care services can better meet the needs of people of African and Caribbean descent, by exploring patients' (by proxy), families' and health, social care and community workers' experiences of end-of-life-care during the pandemic. Methods Bereaved relatives, and professionals were recruited using social media, community networks and direct advertising to over 100 organisations. Semi-structured interviews explored experiences of end-of-life-care using a topic guide, developed with patient and public involvement partners. Participants' suggestions for care improvement were foregrounded throughout. The theoretical framework combined Critical Race Theory and Saurman's model of access. Thematic analysis was used. Results Over 40 participants were recruited. Results indicate that people of African and Caribbean descent are poorly served by current services. Interviewees identified distinct differences between the culture of care, and that of the patent. Participants reported institutional racism. Processes were insensitive to diversity in family and community support structures in different cultures. Themes describing end of life care services included: Unavailable: spiritual support, paid carers, specialist care, visitation and choice Inadequate: advertisement of services, cultural diversity and the appreciation of the importance of extended families Unacceptable: communication surrounding death and bereavement (upstream/proactive early discussions would improve engagement) and mental health and bereavement support. Conclusions People of African and Caribbean descent are often termed a 'hard to reach' group. Yet our study suggests that current configuration mean it is services that are hard to reach. Prioritisation of person-centred, culturally competent spiritual, psychological and social interventions remains an aspiration for palliative care. A focus on cultural sensitivity and communication may be a good start to enhance palliative and end of life care for all.

15.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials (RCT) established the mortality reduction by tocilizumab (Actemra), baricitinib (Olumiant), and sarilumab (Kevzara) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. However, uncertainty remains about which treatment performs best in patients receiving corticosteroids. OBJECTIVES: To estimate probabilities of noninferiority between baricitinib and sarilumab compared to tocilizumab in patients treated with corticosteroids. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and MedRxiv. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Eligible RCTs assigning hospitalized adults with COVID-19 treated with corticosteroids to tocilizumab or baricitinib or sarilumab versus standard of care or placebo (control). METHODS: Reviewers independently abstracted published data and assessed study quality with the Risk of Bias 2 tool. Unpublished data, if required, were requested from authors of included studies. The outcome of interest was all-cause mortality at 28 days. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-seven RCTs with 13 549 patients were included. Overall, the risk of bias was low. Bayesian pairwise meta-analyses were used to aggregate results of each treatment versus control. The average odds ratio for mortality was 0.78 (95% credible interval [CrI]: 0.65, 0.94) for tocilizumab; 0.78 (95% CrI: 0.56, 1.03) for baricitinib; and 0.91 (95% CrI: 0.60, 1.40) for sarilumab. The certainty of evidence (GRADE) ranged from moderate to low. Bayesian meta-regressions with multiple priors were used to estimate probabilities of noninferiority (margin of 13% greater effect by tocilizumab). Compared to tocilizumab, there were ≤94% and 90% probabilities of noninferiority with baricitinib and sarilumab, respectively. RESULTS: All but two studies included data with only indirect evidence for the comparison of interest. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized COVID-19 treated with corticosteroids, there are high probabilities that both baricitinib and sarilumab are associated with similar mortality reductions in comparison to tocilizumab.

16.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 119: 106813, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926262

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: APOL1 risk alleles are associated with increased cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk. It is unknown whether knowledge of APOL1 risk status motivates patients and providers to attain recommended blood pressure (BP) targets to reduce cardiovascular disease. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter, pragmatic, randomized controlled clinical trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 6650 individuals with African ancestry and hypertension from 13 health systems. INTERVENTION: APOL1 genotyping with clinical decision support (CDS) results are returned to participants and providers immediately (intervention) or at 6 months (control). A subset of participants are re-randomized to pharmacogenomic testing for relevant antihypertensive medications (pharmacogenomic sub-study). CDS alerts encourage appropriate CKD screening and antihypertensive agent use. OUTCOMES: Blood pressure and surveys are assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months. The primary outcome is change in systolic BP from enrollment to 3 months in individuals with two APOL1 risk alleles. Secondary outcomes include new diagnoses of CKD, systolic blood pressure at 6 months, diastolic BP, and survey results. The pharmacogenomic sub-study will evaluate the relationship of pharmacogenomic genotype and change in systolic BP between baseline and 3 months. RESULTS: To date, the trial has enrolled 3423 participants. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of patient and provider knowledge of APOL1 genotype on systolic blood pressure has not been well-studied. GUARDD-US addresses whether blood pressure improves when patients and providers have this information. GUARDD-US provides a CDS framework for primary care and specialty clinics to incorporate APOL1 genetic risk and pharmacogenomic prescribing in the electronic health record. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.govNCT04191824.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Afro-Americanos , Anti-Hipertensivos , Apolipoproteína L1 , Pressão Sanguínea , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Farmacogenética
17.
J Assoc Med Microbiol Infect Dis Can ; 7(2): 131-134, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few reports exist on the characteristics and outcomes of persistent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in immunocompromised hosts. METHODS: A 49-year-old patient with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and a renal transplant experienced multiple hospitalizations for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and relapses between October 2020 and February 2021. Careful chart review of medical history, hospitalizations, and microbiological testing including SARS-CoV-2 cycle threshold values, therapies, and imaging was undertaken. SARS-CoV-2 genome sequencing was performed in five viral samples to distinguish persistent infection from re-infection with a different strain. RESULTS: Sequencing confirmed that all samples tested were from the same viral lineage, indicating a long-term, persistent infection rather than re-infection with a new strain. The patient ultimately stabilized after two courses of remdesivir plus dexamethasone, replacement intravenous immunoglobulin, and bamlanivimab. Rituximab maintenance therapy for vasculitis remains on hold. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 may persist for several months in immunocompromised hosts and may go unrecognized as an ongoing active infection. More studies are needed to determine how to optimize COVID-19 treatment in this vulnerable population.


HISTORIQUE: Il existe peu de rapports sur les caractéristiques et les issues de l'infection par le coronavirus 2 du syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère (SRAS-CoV-2) chez les hôtes immunodéprimés. MÉTHODOLOGIE: UNE PATIENTE de 49 ans receveuse d'une transplantation rénale atteinte d'une granulomatose avec polyangéite a été hospitalisée à de multiples reprises à cause d'une pneumonie à maladie à coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) et de récidives entre octobre 2020 et février 2021. Les chercheurs ont exécuté une analyse attentive du dossier pour connaître l'histoire médicale de la patiente, les hospitalisations et les tests microbiologiques effectués, y compris les valeurs seuils du cycle du SRAS-CoV-2, les traitements et les techniques d'imagerie. Ils ont procédé au séquençage du génome du SRAS-CoV-2 dans cinq prélèvements viraux pour distinguer l'infection persistante de la réinfection par une souche différente. RÉSULTATS : Le séquençage a confirmé que tous les prélèvements effectués provenaient de la même lignée virale, ce qui détermine une infection persistante prolongée plutôt qu'une réinfection par une nouvelle souche. L'état de la patiente a fini par se stabiliser après deux traitements au remdésivir combiné à de la dexaméthasone, une thérapie de substitution par immunoglobuline intraveineuse et du bamlanivimab. Un traitement d'entretien de la vasculite au rituximab demeure en suspens. CONCLUSIONS: Le SRAS-CoV-2 peut persister plusieurs mois chez les hôtes immunodéprimés, et un état d'infection active continue peut passer inaperçu. Plus d'études devront être réalisées pour déterminer le moyen d'optimiser le traitement de la COVID-19 dans cette population vulnérable.

18.
Crit Care Med ; 50(9): 1306-1317, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860941

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are associated with improved outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 according to sex and to report sex-related differences in renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study comparing the effects of ARB or ACE inhibitors versus no ARBs or ACE inhibitors in males versus females. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 downregulates ACE-2, potentially increasing angiotensin II (a pro-inflammatory vasoconstrictor). Sex-based differences in RAS dysregulation may explain sex-based differences in responses to ARBs because the ACE2 gene is on the X chromosome. We recorded baseline characteristics, comorbidities, prehospital ARBs or ACE inhibitor treatment, use of organ support and mortality, and measured RAS components at admission and days 2, 4, 7, and 14 in a subgroup ( n = 46), recorded d -dimer ( n = 967), comparing males with females. SETTING: ARBs CORONA I is a multicenter Canadian observational cohort of patients hospitalized with acute COVID-19. This analysis includes patients admitted to 10 large urban hospitals across the four most populated provinces. PATIENTS: One-thousand six-hundred eighty-six patients with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 (February 2020 to March 2021) for acute COVID-19 illness were included. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Males on ARBs before admission had decreased use of ventilation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.52; p = 0.007) and vasopressors (aOR = 0.55; p = 0.011) compared with males not on ARBs or ACE inhibitors. No significant effects were observed in females for these outcomes. The test for interaction was significant for use of ventilation ( p = 0.006) and vasopressors ( p = 0.044) indicating significantly different responses to ARBs according to sex. Males had significantly higher plasma ACE-1 at baseline and angiotensin II at day 7 and 14 than females. CONCLUSIONS: ARBs use was associated with less ventilation and vasopressors in males but not females. Sex-based differences in RAS dysregulation may contribute to sex-based differences in outcomes and responses to ARBs in COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hipertensão , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais
19.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(9): 1203-1210, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefits of remdesivir in the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 remain debated with the National Institutes of Health and the World Health Organization providing contradictory recommendations for and against use. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of remdesivir for hospitalized inpatients as a function of oxygen requirements. DATA SOURCES: Beginning with our prior systematic review, we searched MEDLINE using PubMed from 15 January 2021 through 5 May 2022. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials; all languages. PARTICIPANTS: All hospitalized adults with COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: Remdesivir, in comparison to either placebo, or standard of care. ASSESSMENT OF RISK OF BIAS: We used the ROB-2 criteria. METHODS OF DATA SYNTHESIS: The primary outcome was mortality, stratified by oxygen use (none, supplemental oxygen without mechanical ventilation, and mechanical ventilation). We conducted a frequentist random effects meta-analysis on the risk ratio scale and, to contextualize the probabilistic benefits, we also performed a Bayesian random effects meta-analysis on the risk difference scale. A ≥1% absolute risk reduction was considered clinically important. RESULTS: We identified eight randomized trials, totaling 10 751 participants. The risk ratio for mortality comparing remdesivir vs. control was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.5-1.19) in the patients who did not require supplemental oxygen; 0.89 (95% CI, 0.79-0.99) for nonventilated patients requiring oxygen; and 1.08 (95% CI, 0.88-1.31) in the setting of mechanical ventilation. Using neutral priors, the probabilities that remdesivir reduces mortality were 76.8%, 93.8%, and 14.7%, respectively. The probability that remdesivir reduced mortality by ≥ 1% was 77.4% for nonventilated patients requiring oxygen. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this meta-analysis, there is a high probability that remdesivir reduces mortality for nonventilated patients with COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen therapy. Treatment guidelines should be re-evaluated.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Teorema de Bayes , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Oxigênio , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 79(20): 2001-2017, 2022 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The extent to which health care systems have adapted to the COVID-19 pandemic to provide necessary cardiac diagnostic services is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the pandemic on cardiac testing practices, volumes and types of diagnostic services, and perceived psychological stress to health care providers worldwide. METHODS: The International Atomic Energy Agency conducted a worldwide survey assessing alterations from baseline in cardiovascular diagnostic care at the pandemic's onset and 1 year later. Multivariable regression was used to determine factors associated with procedure volume recovery. RESULTS: Surveys were submitted from 669 centers in 107 countries. Worldwide reduction in cardiac procedure volumes of 64% from March 2019 to April 2020 recovered by April 2021 in high- and upper middle-income countries (recovery rates of 108% and 99%) but remained depressed in lower middle- and low-income countries (46% and 30% recovery). Although stress testing was used 12% less frequently in 2021 than in 2019, coronary computed tomographic angiography was used 14% more, a trend also seen for other advanced cardiac imaging modalities (positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance; 22%-25% increases). Pandemic-related psychological stress was estimated to have affected nearly 40% of staff, impacting patient care at 78% of sites. In multivariable regression, only lower-income status and physicians' psychological stress were significant in predicting recovery of cardiac testing. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac diagnostic testing has yet to recover to prepandemic levels in lower-income countries. Worldwide, the decrease in standard stress testing is offset by greater use of advanced cardiac imaging modalities. Pandemic-related psychological stress among providers is widespread and associated with poor recovery of cardiac testing.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários
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