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Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20245167


Background: X-Linked Moesin-Associated Immune Deficiency (X-MAID) is a rare severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) subtype that can present at any age due to its variability. Depending on severity, patients demonstrate failure to thrive, recurrent bacterial and viral infections, and increased susceptibility to varicella zoster. It has been characterized by marked lymphopenia with hypogammaglobulinemia and impaired T-cell migration and proliferation. Case Presentation: This is a report of a Cuban 7-year-old male with poor weight gain and facial dysmorphia. He had a history of recurrent bacterial gastrointestinal infections and pneumonia beginning at 4 months of age. He additionally had 4-6 upper respiratory tract and ear infections annually. While still living in Cuba, he was admitted for a profound EBV infection in the setting of significant leukopenia. A bone marrow biopsy confirmed no malignancy. After he moved to the United States, his laboratory work-up revealed marked leukopenia with low absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte count with low T and B cells, very low immunoglobulin levels IgG, IgA, and IgM, and poor vaccination responses to streptococcus pneumonia, varicella zoster, and SARS-CoV-2. Genetic testing revealed a missense pathogenic variant c.511C>T (p.Arg171Trp) in the moesin (MSN) gene associated with X-MAID. He was managed with Bactrim and acyclovir prophylaxis, and immunoglobulin replacement therapy, and considered for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Discussion(s): Diagnosis of X-MAID should be considered in patients with recurrent infections and profound lymphopenia. As with SCID, early diagnosis and intervention is of utmost importance to prevent morbidity and mortality. This case demonstrates the importance of genetic testing in identifying this disease as it may prompt an immunologist to consider HSCT if conservative management is suboptimal. In the current literature, HSCT appears promising, but the long-term outcomes have yet to be described.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.

Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20241449


Introduction: COVID-19 related encephalitis has been reported in pediatric patients;however, there are no reports in patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI). Activated PI3K Delta Syndrome (APDS) is a disease of immune dysregulation with immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and abnormal lymphoproliferation resulting from autosomal dominant gain-offunction variants in PIK3CD or PIK3R1 genes. We investigate a family with APDS, one mother and three children, one of whom developed COVID-19 related encephalitis. Method(s): Patients were consented to an IRB-approved protocol at our institution. Medical records and detailed immunophenotyping were reviewed. Family members were sequenced for IEI with a targeted gene panel. Result(s): The index case is a 10-year-old female with a known pathogenic variant in PIK3CD (c.3061 G > A, p.Glu1021Lys), who contracted SARS-COV-2 despite one COVID-19 vaccination in the series. Her disease course included COVID-related encephalitis with cerebellitis and compression of the pons, resulting in lasting truncal ataxia and cerebellar mutism. At that time, the patient was not on immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT), but was receiving Sirolimus. Besides the index case, 3 family members (2 brothers, 1 mother) also share the same PIK3CD variant with variable clinical and immunological phenotypes. All children exhibited high transitional B-cells, consistent with developmental block to follicular B cell stage. Increased non-class switched IgM+ memory B cells and skewing towards CD21lo B cell subset, which is considered autoreactive-like, was observed in all patients. Of note, the patient had low plasmablasts, but normal immunoglobulins. Of her family members, only one was receiving both sirolimus and IgRT. Conclusion(s): We describe a rare case of COVID-19-related encephalitis in a patient with inborn error of immunity while not on IgRT. This may indicate infection susceptibility because of a lack of sufficient immunity to SARS-CoV-2, unlike the rest of her family with the same PIK3CD variant.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.

Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20236174


Introduction: With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was increased attention on anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies and its correlation with severe clinical outcomes in a large group of patients. However, this correlation has not been extensively investigated in patients with partial Recombinase Activating Gene Deficiency (pRD) who are known to have increased prevalence of anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies. Therefore, there is a need to assess the presence of anti- IFN-alpha antibodies in pRD patients before and after the COVID-19 pandemic and explore the relationship between anti- IFN-alpha antibody presence and clinical outcomes. Method(s): Sera was collected from the whole blood after informed consent and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay was conducted to confirm the presence of IgG-specific anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies. Positive samples were determined as OD values above 3 standard deviations of the healthy donor OD mean. Result(s): Our cohort included both adult (n = 13) and pediatric (n = 9) patients with variants in RAG1 and RAG2. Eleven patients (50%) out of the 22 showed elevated anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies levels. Five patients (23%) were defined as low positive for anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies, and 6 patients had no autoantibody titers. Of the 22 patients, 16 were symptomatic with infectious and non-infectious complications including recurrent viral and/or bacterial infections, autoimmune cytopenias, and lymphoproliferation. Ten (63%) of the symptomatic patients demonstrated high anti-IFN-alpha autoantibodies titers. Of the 11 patients with no or low neutralizing anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies levels, 5 were asymptomatic. In temporal comparison, 16 samples were collected pre-COVID-19 pandemic;8 samples were collected during the pandemic, 2 of which belonged to patients with samples collected before and during the pandemic. In the pre-pandemic cohort, 66% had anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies. Conversely, during the COVID-19 pandemic, 89% had anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies. Of note, one patient who had neutralizing anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies remained positive both before and during the pandemic despite HSCT. Patient also had a SARS-CoV-2 infection in summer of 2022 with a mild clinical course. Conclusions & Next Steps: We observed persistence of anti-IFN-alpha autoantibodies in our cohort post-pandemic and even post-HSCT. It is unclear whether the presence of anti-cytokine antibodies are risk factor for severe COVID-19.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.

Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20234616


Introduction: Type 1 interferon (IFN) autoantibodies, such as anti-IFNalpha, have pathogenic significance in life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia. Ten to twenty percent of severe COVID cases are associated with type I IFN autoantibodies. These autoantibodies likely pre-exist while others arise de novo relative to SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is unclear to what extent type I anti-IFN autoantibodies are induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection and contribute to COVID-19 severity. We investigated these phenomena in those with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) and rheumatic disease (RHE). Aim(s): We aim to compare the prevalence and neutralization ability of anti-IFNalpha autoantibodies in IEI and RHE patients using archived blood samples before and after the COVID-19 pandemic began. Method(s): We determined the presence of autoantibodies against IFNalpha in plasma samples by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in 453 patients with IEI or RHE who were testing either before or after the COVID-19 pandemic began in March 2020. Using flow cytometry, we determined the function of IFNalpha autoantibodies in plasma to block CD4T cell activation by inhibiting STAT-1 phosphorylation. Result(s): We found that 25 patients with IEI or RHE were positive for anti-IFNalpha autoantibodies. 10 out of 229 patient samples collected before the pandemic (4.2%) tested positive whereas 15 out of 224 patient samples collected after the pandemic began (7.0%) were positive. Seven of the 25 patients (28%) who tested positive had neutralizing antibodies in plasma, which prevented STAT-1 phosphorylation in CD4T cells;all of these patients had partial recombination activating gene deficiency (pRD) except for one patient with autoimmunity, leukemia and selective IgA deficiency. One pRD patient had anti-IFNalpha autoantibodies with neutralization capacity before the pandemic, which persisted after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with full immune reconstitution. The patient was immunized for SARS-CoV-2 before and after HSCT and acquired COVID-19 infection a year after HSCT. The patient was symptomatic but never hospitalized and fully recovered despite having anti-IFNalpha autoantibodies. Conclusion(s): Anti-IFNalpha autoantibody levels were comparable before and after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in IEI and RHE patients but only 28% of cases were neutralizing. The clinical implications of these autoantibodies are yet to be determined.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.