Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 69
Filtrar
1.
Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20245167

RESUMO

Background: X-Linked Moesin-Associated Immune Deficiency (X-MAID) is a rare severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) subtype that can present at any age due to its variability. Depending on severity, patients demonstrate failure to thrive, recurrent bacterial and viral infections, and increased susceptibility to varicella zoster. It has been characterized by marked lymphopenia with hypogammaglobulinemia and impaired T-cell migration and proliferation. Case Presentation: This is a report of a Cuban 7-year-old male with poor weight gain and facial dysmorphia. He had a history of recurrent bacterial gastrointestinal infections and pneumonia beginning at 4 months of age. He additionally had 4-6 upper respiratory tract and ear infections annually. While still living in Cuba, he was admitted for a profound EBV infection in the setting of significant leukopenia. A bone marrow biopsy confirmed no malignancy. After he moved to the United States, his laboratory work-up revealed marked leukopenia with low absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte count with low T and B cells, very low immunoglobulin levels IgG, IgA, and IgM, and poor vaccination responses to streptococcus pneumonia, varicella zoster, and SARS-CoV-2. Genetic testing revealed a missense pathogenic variant c.511C>T (p.Arg171Trp) in the moesin (MSN) gene associated with X-MAID. He was managed with Bactrim and acyclovir prophylaxis, and immunoglobulin replacement therapy, and considered for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Discussion(s): Diagnosis of X-MAID should be considered in patients with recurrent infections and profound lymphopenia. As with SCID, early diagnosis and intervention is of utmost importance to prevent morbidity and mortality. This case demonstrates the importance of genetic testing in identifying this disease as it may prompt an immunologist to consider HSCT if conservative management is suboptimal. In the current literature, HSCT appears promising, but the long-term outcomes have yet to be described.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.

3.
Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20241449

RESUMO

Introduction: COVID-19 related encephalitis has been reported in pediatric patients;however, there are no reports in patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI). Activated PI3K Delta Syndrome (APDS) is a disease of immune dysregulation with immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and abnormal lymphoproliferation resulting from autosomal dominant gain-offunction variants in PIK3CD or PIK3R1 genes. We investigate a family with APDS, one mother and three children, one of whom developed COVID-19 related encephalitis. Method(s): Patients were consented to an IRB-approved protocol at our institution. Medical records and detailed immunophenotyping were reviewed. Family members were sequenced for IEI with a targeted gene panel. Result(s): The index case is a 10-year-old female with a known pathogenic variant in PIK3CD (c.3061 G > A, p.Glu1021Lys), who contracted SARS-COV-2 despite one COVID-19 vaccination in the series. Her disease course included COVID-related encephalitis with cerebellitis and compression of the pons, resulting in lasting truncal ataxia and cerebellar mutism. At that time, the patient was not on immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT), but was receiving Sirolimus. Besides the index case, 3 family members (2 brothers, 1 mother) also share the same PIK3CD variant with variable clinical and immunological phenotypes. All children exhibited high transitional B-cells, consistent with developmental block to follicular B cell stage. Increased non-class switched IgM+ memory B cells and skewing towards CD21lo B cell subset, which is considered autoreactive-like, was observed in all patients. Of note, the patient had low plasmablasts, but normal immunoglobulins. Of her family members, only one was receiving both sirolimus and IgRT. Conclusion(s): We describe a rare case of COVID-19-related encephalitis in a patient with inborn error of immunity while not on IgRT. This may indicate infection susceptibility because of a lack of sufficient immunity to SARS-CoV-2, unlike the rest of her family with the same PIK3CD variant.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.

4.
Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20236174

RESUMO

Introduction: With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was increased attention on anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies and its correlation with severe clinical outcomes in a large group of patients. However, this correlation has not been extensively investigated in patients with partial Recombinase Activating Gene Deficiency (pRD) who are known to have increased prevalence of anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies. Therefore, there is a need to assess the presence of anti- IFN-alpha antibodies in pRD patients before and after the COVID-19 pandemic and explore the relationship between anti- IFN-alpha antibody presence and clinical outcomes. Method(s): Sera was collected from the whole blood after informed consent and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay was conducted to confirm the presence of IgG-specific anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies. Positive samples were determined as OD values above 3 standard deviations of the healthy donor OD mean. Result(s): Our cohort included both adult (n = 13) and pediatric (n = 9) patients with variants in RAG1 and RAG2. Eleven patients (50%) out of the 22 showed elevated anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies levels. Five patients (23%) were defined as low positive for anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies, and 6 patients had no autoantibody titers. Of the 22 patients, 16 were symptomatic with infectious and non-infectious complications including recurrent viral and/or bacterial infections, autoimmune cytopenias, and lymphoproliferation. Ten (63%) of the symptomatic patients demonstrated high anti-IFN-alpha autoantibodies titers. Of the 11 patients with no or low neutralizing anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies levels, 5 were asymptomatic. In temporal comparison, 16 samples were collected pre-COVID-19 pandemic;8 samples were collected during the pandemic, 2 of which belonged to patients with samples collected before and during the pandemic. In the pre-pandemic cohort, 66% had anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies. Conversely, during the COVID-19 pandemic, 89% had anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies. Of note, one patient who had neutralizing anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies remained positive both before and during the pandemic despite HSCT. Patient also had a SARS-CoV-2 infection in summer of 2022 with a mild clinical course. Conclusions & Next Steps: We observed persistence of anti-IFN-alpha autoantibodies in our cohort post-pandemic and even post-HSCT. It is unclear whether the presence of anti-cytokine antibodies are risk factor for severe COVID-19.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.

5.
Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20234616

RESUMO

Introduction: Type 1 interferon (IFN) autoantibodies, such as anti-IFNalpha, have pathogenic significance in life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia. Ten to twenty percent of severe COVID cases are associated with type I IFN autoantibodies. These autoantibodies likely pre-exist while others arise de novo relative to SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is unclear to what extent type I anti-IFN autoantibodies are induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection and contribute to COVID-19 severity. We investigated these phenomena in those with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) and rheumatic disease (RHE). Aim(s): We aim to compare the prevalence and neutralization ability of anti-IFNalpha autoantibodies in IEI and RHE patients using archived blood samples before and after the COVID-19 pandemic began. Method(s): We determined the presence of autoantibodies against IFNalpha in plasma samples by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in 453 patients with IEI or RHE who were testing either before or after the COVID-19 pandemic began in March 2020. Using flow cytometry, we determined the function of IFNalpha autoantibodies in plasma to block CD4T cell activation by inhibiting STAT-1 phosphorylation. Result(s): We found that 25 patients with IEI or RHE were positive for anti-IFNalpha autoantibodies. 10 out of 229 patient samples collected before the pandemic (4.2%) tested positive whereas 15 out of 224 patient samples collected after the pandemic began (7.0%) were positive. Seven of the 25 patients (28%) who tested positive had neutralizing antibodies in plasma, which prevented STAT-1 phosphorylation in CD4T cells;all of these patients had partial recombination activating gene deficiency (pRD) except for one patient with autoimmunity, leukemia and selective IgA deficiency. One pRD patient had anti-IFNalpha autoantibodies with neutralization capacity before the pandemic, which persisted after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with full immune reconstitution. The patient was immunized for SARS-CoV-2 before and after HSCT and acquired COVID-19 infection a year after HSCT. The patient was symptomatic but never hospitalized and fully recovered despite having anti-IFNalpha autoantibodies. Conclusion(s): Anti-IFNalpha autoantibody levels were comparable before and after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in IEI and RHE patients but only 28% of cases were neutralizing. The clinical implications of these autoantibodies are yet to be determined.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(10)2023 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237555

RESUMO

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare demyelinating disease caused by infection with JC Polyomavirus (JCPyV). Despite the identification of the disease and isolation of the causative pathogen over fifty years ago, no antiviral treatments or prophylactic vaccines exist. Disease onset is usually associated with immunosuppression, and current treatment guidelines are limited to restoring immune function. This review summarizes the drugs and small molecules that have been shown to inhibit JCPyV infection and spread. Paying attention to historical developments in the field, we discuss key steps of the virus lifecycle and antivirals known to inhibit each event. We review current obstacles in PML drug discovery, including the difficulties associated with compound penetrance into the central nervous system. We also summarize recent findings in our laboratory regarding the potent anti-JCPyV activity of a novel compound that antagonizes the virus-induced signaling events necessary to establish a productive infection. Understanding the current panel of antiviral compounds will help center the field for future drug discovery efforts.


Assuntos
Vírus JC , Leucoencefalopatia Multifocal Progressiva , Infecções por Polyomavirus , Humanos , Leucoencefalopatia Multifocal Progressiva/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus JC/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Transplantation and Cellular Therapy ; 29(2 Supplement):S300, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2313565

RESUMO

Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with ex vivo T cell receptor (TCR) alphabeta+ T cell and CD19+ B cell depletion is an effective approach for children with primary immune deficiency disorders (PIDD) as it combines advantages of high CD34+ cell dose facilitating rapid engraftment with low risk of Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD). The ideal pre-conditioning regimen that facilitates robust donor engraftment without increasing risk of transplant related mortality has not been well defined with this approach. Method(s): We report the outcomes of 4 pediatric subjects: Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) (2), Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome (WAS) (1), and RAC2 deficient Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (1) who underwent haploidentical HCT with TCRalphabeta+ T cell/CD19+ depletion at Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital/Moffitt Cancer Center from 2020-2022 (NCT04414046). Pre-conditioning regimen consisted of distal thymoglobulin (7.5 mg/kg), fludarabine (175 mg/m2), thiotepa (10 mg/kg) and pharmacokinetic guided busulfan targeting a cumulative area under curve (cAUC) (65-75 mgxhr/L). Rituximab (200 mg/m2) was administered on day +1. Result(s): The median age at HCT was 51 months (range 10-163 months). All patients received mobilized peripheral blood stem cells from HLA- haploidentical donors (paternal=1, maternal=1 sibling=2). Median busulfan cAUC for all patients was 69 mgxhr/L (range 65-76). Median CD34 and TCR alphabeta T cell dose was 9.13x106 cells/kg (range 7.0-18.9x106) and 0.7x105 cells/kg (range 0.09-1.0x105). Median times to neutrophil and platelet engraftment were 11 days (9-12) and 11 days (range 8-15), respectively. All 4 patients are alive with median follow-up of 19.5 months (range 7-24). One patient developed late VOD without organ dysfunction that resolved with defibrotide. At last follow up, peripheral T and myeloid chimerisms exceeded 90% in all 4 patients. Average time to CD4 recovery (> 200x106/L) was 142 days. Pre-existing inflammatory bowel disease in CGD (n=1) and WAS (n=1) patients resolved immediately following transplant. There was no graft failure, and none developed Grade III-IV acute or extensive chronic GVHD. Patient with WAS developed recurrent autoimmune cytopenias requiring corticosteroids, rituximab, sirolimus and daratumumab, and ultimately resolved. Viral reactivations included EBV (n= 1), adeno (n= 1), HHV6 (n= 2), BK (n=1), norovirus (n=1), and late HSV (n=1), all responded to antivirals without disease. All patients acquired SARS-Cov-2 after transplant and recovered without sequelae. Conclusion(s): TCR alphabeta+ and CD19+ depleted haploidentical transplantation using a reduced toxicity conditioning regimen with pharmacokinetic guided busulfan, fludarabine, thiotepa and thymoglobulin is well-tolerated in young children with PIDD that results in rapid, durable engraftment with low likelihood of GVHD and graft rejection.Copyright © 2023 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy

8.
SCHOLE: A Journal of Leisure Studies and Recreation Education ; 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2285879

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the need for and value of delivering high quality online learning experiences. Engaging students in an online environment poses unique challenges, such as cultivating a community of shared learning, encouraging student buy-in, and focusing student attention, which may be more easily achieved in an in-person setting. Despite these challenges, high student engagement and learning in an online environment is possible. The process of engaging students as active members of an online learning community begins with the recognition of what GenZ students need and requires intentionality in aligning these needs with instructor goals and course learning objectives. Thus, this paper is a shared narrative from an instructor-student writing team that highlights the synergy of instructor practices and techniques and student behaviors and attitudes that promote a quality online learning environment for students enrolled in Clemson University's Youth Development undergraduate minor in the Parks, Recreation and Tourism Department. © 2023 National Recreation and Park Association.

9.
European Respiratory Journal Conference: European Respiratory Society International Congress, ERS ; 60(Supplement 66), 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2257690

RESUMO

Background: Lockdowns and mask wearing have impacted infectious disease patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigated changes in the use of bronchoscopy and the results of routine microbiology in bronchial lavage. Method(s): We included bronchoscopies from 2017-2021 at the LMU University Department of Pulmonology. In this we present an initial cohort comparing bronchoscopies in 2017-2018 to the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. Comparisons used chi-squared and Fischer's exact tests in SPSS. Result(s): We analysed 480 bronchoscopies from before and 85 during the COVID-19 pandemic. Mean age: 62.6 y (+/-14.1) before vs. 55.2 y (+/-16.3) during the pandemic (p<0.001). Indication for bronchoscopy: secretions/atelectasis (n=122), suspected tumor (n=89) and intervention/therapy (n=80) before;suspected tumor (n=30), respiratory deterioration after lung transplant (n=19) and infection (n=7) during the pandemic. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were common in both groups. Frequencies of EBV (p<0.001), CMV (p=0.003) and HHV6 (p<0.001) differed significantly. Conclusion(s): There were clinically relevant differences in the use of bronchoscopy before vs. during the COVID-19 pandemic: pandemic patients were younger and interventions such as bronchial stenting and recanalisation less common. Bacterial results were similar but the frequency of common viruses differed. The effect of lockdowns, mask wearing and social distancing on bronchial microbiology in patients with lung cancer or chronic lung disease will be investigated in further detail in this cohort. Clinical relevant differences may support continued mask wearing in some high-risk situations post-pandemic.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232768

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, possesses an unusually large positive-sense, single-stranded viral RNA (ssvRNA) genome of about ~29,903 nucleotides (nt). In many respects, this ssvRNA resembles a very large, polycistronic messenger RNA (mRNA) possessing a 5'-methyl cap (m7GpppN), a 3'- and 5'-untranslated region (3'-UTR, 5'-UTR), and a poly-adenylated (poly-A+) tail. As such, the SARS-CoV-2 ssvRNA is susceptible to targeting by small non-coding RNA (sncRNA) and/or microRNA (miRNA), as well as neutralization and/or inhibition of its infectivity via the human body's natural complement of about ~2650 miRNA species. Depending on host cell and tissue type, in silico analysis, RNA sequencing, and molecular-genetic investigations indicate that, remarkably, almost every single human miRNA has the potential to interact with the primary sequence of SARS-CoV-2 ssvRNA. Individual human variation in host miRNA abundance, speciation, and complexity among different human populations and additional variability in the cell and tissue distribution of the SARS-CoV-2 angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor (ACE2R) appear to further contribute to the molecular-genetic basis for the wide variation in individual host cell and tissue susceptibility to COVID-19 infection. In this paper, we review recently described aspects of the miRNA and ssvRNA ribonucleotide sequence structure in this highly evolved miRNA-ssvRNA recognition and signaling system and, for the first time, report the most abundant miRNAs in the control superior temporal lobe neocortex (STLN), an anatomical area involved in cognition and targeted by both SARS-CoV-2 invasion and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We further evaluate important factors involving the neurotropic nature of SARS-CoV-2 and miRNAs and ACE2R distribution in the STLN that modulate significant functional deficits in the brain and CNS associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19's long-term neurological effects.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo
11.
Dermatitis ; 34(1): 29-32, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2222535

RESUMO

Objectives: Sexual and gender minority (SGM) patients face health issues relevant to dermatologists, such as allergic contact dermatitis (ACD); however, there is a lack of information surrounding common allergens causing ACD that disproportionally affect SGM patients. Methods: Covidence, Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched to identify relevant articles studying ACD in the SGM population. Results: Common allergens associated with ACD in SGM patients include nitrates, fragrance mix, methylisothiazolinone, methylisothiazolinone-methylchloroisothiazolinone, topical antibiotics, and allergens seen in chest binders. Common anatomic sites included the chest, cheeks, perioral region, nasal orifices, and the anogenital region. Conclusions: Certain allergens and body sites affected by ACD are more common among the SGM community. This can help guide patch testing as a diagnostic tool. Further research must be conducted regarding ACD in SGM patients.


Assuntos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato , Humanos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/epidemiologia , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Testes do Emplastro/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Front Neurosci ; 16: 1002770, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055038
14.
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg ; 37(5): 754-764, 2022 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040576

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, cardiac surgeries in patients with previous infection by COVID-19 were suspended or postponed, which led to surgeries performed in patients with an advanced stage of their disease and an increase in the waiting list. There is a heterogeneous attitude in Latin America on the optimal timing to cardiac surgery in patients with previous COVID-19 infection due to scarce data on its outcome. Two Latin American associations joined to establish common suggestions on the optimal timing of surgery in patients with previous COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Data collection was performed using a pre-established form, which included year of publication, objective, type of study (prospective/retrospective, descriptive/analytical), number of patients, year of study, waiting time between infection and surgery, type of surgery, morbidity, mortality, and conclusions regarding the association between mortality and morbidity. Final recommendations were approved by the board of directors of Latin American Association of Cardiac and Endovascular Surgery (LACES) and Latin American Confederation of Anesthesia Societies (CLASA). RESULTS: Of the initial 1,016 articles, 11 comprised the final selection. Only six of them included patients who underwent cardiac surgery. According to the analyzed literature, optimal timing for cardiac surgery needs to consider the following aspects: deferable surgery, symptomatic COVID-19 infection, completeness of COVID-19 vaccination. CONCLUSION: These recommendations derive from the analysis of the scarce literature published at present on outcomes after cardiac surgery in patients with previous COVID-19 infection. These are to be taken as a dynamic recommendation in which Latin American reality was taken into consideration.


Assuntos
Anestesia em Procedimentos Cardíacos , COVID-19 , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Humanos , América Latina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Biomolecules ; 12(9)2022 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009942

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the COVID-19 disease, is a highly infectious and transmissible viral pathogen that continues to impact human health globally. Nearly ~600 million people have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, and about half exhibit some degree of continuing health complication, generically referred to as long COVID. Lingering and often serious neurological problems for patients in the post-COVID-19 recovery period include brain fog, behavioral changes, confusion, delirium, deficits in intellect, cognition and memory issues, loss of balance and coordination, problems with vision, visual processing and hallucinations, encephalopathy, encephalitis, neurovascular or cerebrovascular insufficiency, and/or impaired consciousness. Depending upon the patient's age at the onset of COVID-19 and other factors, up to ~35% of all elderly COVID-19 patients develop a mild-to-severe encephalopathy due to complications arising from a SARS-CoV-2-induced cytokine storm and a surge in cytokine-mediated pro-inflammatory and immune signaling. In fact, this cytokine storm syndrome:&nbsp;(i) appears to predispose aged COVID-19 patients to the development of other neurological complications, especially those who have experienced a more serious grade of COVID-19 infection; (ii) lies along highly interactive and pathological pathways involving SARS-CoV-2 infection that promotes the parallel development and/or intensification of progressive and often lethal neurological conditions, and (iii) is strongly associated with the symptomology, onset, and development of human prion disease (PrD) and other insidious and incurable neurological syndromes. This commentary paper will evaluate some recent peer-reviewed studies in this intriguing area of human SARS-CoV-2-associated neuropathology and will assess how chronic, viral-mediated changes to the brain and CNS contribute to cognitive decline in PrD and other progressive, age-related neurodegenerative disorders.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Encefalite , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Doenças Priônicas , Idoso , COVID-19/complicações , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Citocinas/metabolismo , Encefalite/complicações , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome Pós-COVID-19 Aguda
16.
Journal of General Internal Medicine ; 37:S642, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995611

RESUMO

SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 66 first-year internal medicine residents at Northwestern Memorial Hospital were randomized to Group A or Group B. Curriculum participation was mandatory for all first-year internal medicine residents, but participants were given the option to exclude their answers from the study. DESCRIPTION: Prior to 2020, there was no formal radiographic curriculum for internal medicine residents at our institution. Additionally, the COVID pandemic necessitated a paradigm shift in medical education from in-person teaching to remote learning. Accordingly, we created a novel virtual learning curriculum to teach common CXR findings to first-year residents. Objectives of the curriculum include 1) providing first-year residents with a systematic approach to reading and interpreting CXRs, and 2) prompting pattern recognition via proper identification of common CXR findings. We created a randomized cohort study with cross-over design to evaluate the efficacy of our curriculum. First-year internal medicine residents at McGaw Medical Center of Northwestern University were randomized into two groups (Group A/B). In phase I, only Group A was administered the 11-week curriculum. Learners received 2-4 weekly CXRs focusing on a modified ”ABCDE” approach. Each weekly lesson was designed to be completed in 15 mins via smartphone or laptop. Multiple choice standardized assessments were administered before (Pre-Test) and after (Post- Test #1) administration. In phase II, Group B, but not Group A, was given the curriculum;both groups then completed Post-Test #2. This phase assessed curriculum efficacy (Group B) and learning retention (Group A). EVALUATION: Independent and paired-sample T tests were used to compare scores between and within groups. Group A scored higher on Post-Test #1 following curriculum administration, compared to on the Pre-Test (pre: 44 ± 15%;post: 59 ± 17 %;p= 0.005). Group B scored similarly on the Pre-test and Post-Test #1 (pre: 50 ± 14%;post: 44 ± 17%;p= 0.25), but higher on Post-Test #2, following their curriculum administration (60 ± 17%) than on Post-Test #1 (p= 0.04). There was no statistically significant difference in Post-Test #2 scores between Groups A and B (55 ± 17% and 60 ± 17%, respectively). In Group A, self-assessed confidence with CXR reading was higher at the time of Post- Test #1 than Pre-Test (72 ± 13%;55 ± 12%;p= <0.01). DISCUSSION / REFLECTION / LESSONS LEARNED: This study suggests that our novel remote learning curriculum is a practical, effective adjunct to standard residency education for reading CXRs. Notably, residents who received the curriculum demonstrated higher scores and had improved confidence with reading CXRs. Study limitations include small sample size and participant attrition. Future studies include applying our remote learning framework to other imaging studies.

17.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 887800, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987470

RESUMO

The single-stranded viral RNA (ssvRNA) known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes COVID-19 can be effectively inactivated by a number of natural ribonucleic acid-based host cell defenses. One of the most important of these defenses includes the actions of a class of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) known as microRNAs (miRNAs). Via base-pair complementarity miRNAs are capable of specifically targeting ssvRNA sequences such as SARS-CoV-2 promoting its inactivation and neutralization. RNA-sequencing and bioinformatics analysis indicate that multiple naturally-occurring human miRNAs have extensive complementarity to the SARS-CoV-2 ssvRNA genome. Since miRNA abundance, speciation, and complexity vary significantly amongst human individuals, this may in part explain the variability in the innate-immune and pathophysiological response of different individuals to SARS-CoV-2 and overall susceptibility to ssvRNA-mediated viral infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , MicroRNAs/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética
18.
Adv Stat Anal ; 106(3): 391-397, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1941862

RESUMO

In the Corona pandemic, it became clear with burning clarity how much good quality statistics are needed, and at the same time how unsuccessful we are at providing such statistics despite the existing technical and methodological possibilities and diverse data sources. It is therefore more than overdue to get to the bottom of the causes of these issues and to learn from the findings. This defines a high aspiration, namely that firstly a diagnosis is carried out in which the causes of the deficiencies with their interactions are identified as broadly as possible. Secondly, such a broad diagnosis should result in a therapy that includes a coherent strategy that can be generalised, i.e. that goes beyond the Corona pandemic.

19.
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.07.15.22277570

RESUMO

Background: There is no generally accepted methodology for in vivo assessment of antiviral activity in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Ivermectin has been recommended widely as a treatment of COVID-19, but whether it has significant antiviral activity in vivo is uncertain. Methods: In a multicentre open label, randomized, controlled adaptive platform trial, adult patients with early symptomatic COVID-19 were randomized to one of six treatment arms including high dose ivermectin (600micrograms/kg daily for seven days), the monoclonal antibodies casirivimab and imdevimab (600mg/600mg), and no study drug. Viral clearance rates were derived from daily duplicate oropharyngeal quantitative PCR measurements. This ongoing trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT05041907). Results: Randomization to the ivermectin arm was stopped after enrolling 205 patients into all arms, as the prespecified futility threshold was reached. Compared with the no study drug arm, the mean estimated SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance following ivermectin was 9.1% slower [95%CI -27.2% to +11.8%; n=45 versus n=41], whereas in a preliminary analysis of the casirivimab/imdevimab arm it was 52.3% faster [95%CI +7.0% to +115.1%; n=10 (Delta variant) versus n=41]. Conclusions: High dose ivermectin did not have measurable antiviral activity in early symptomatic COVID-19. Measured in this way viral clearance rate is a valuable

20.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 16: 937961, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903089
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA