Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 183
Filtrar
1.
Vestnik Transplantologii i Iskusstvennykh Organov ; 25(1):7-14, 2023.
Artigo em Russo | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20237914

RESUMO

Therapy with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is particularly relevant during COVID-19 outbreaks in patients at high risk of severe disease, including kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Objective(s): to evaluate the efficacy and safety of neutralizing mAbs in KTRs with mild to moderate COVID-19. Materials and methods. The retrospective study included 99 KTRs who received inpatient treatment for COVID-19 between September 1 and December 31, 2021. Patients were 52.0 +/- 11.5 years old (M, 47.5%). Bamlanivimab/etesevimab combination drug at a dose of 700/1400 mg was used as mAbs. To evaluate the efficacy of mAbs therapy, two groups of patients were identified. Group 1 consisted of 33 KTRs who received mAbs as one of the therapy components, while group 2 consisted of 66 patients who received no mAbs. Discharge from the hospital or death was considered as the endpoint of follow-up. Results. In group 1, after the use of mAb, progression of pulmonary process was observed less frequently than in the control group with CT1-2 transformation to CT3-4 (9.1% vs. 30.3%, respectively, p < 0.01). Group 1 KTRs differed significantly from group 2 - lower need for ICU and ventilator care (6.1% vs. 27.3% and 3% vs. 19.8%, respectively). The groups were comparable by sex, age, body mass index, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and time after kidney transplant (KTx) at the onset of the disease and by aseline blood biochemistry parameter values at the time of hospitalization. Only C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen values were higher in the non-mAbs patients who were hospitalized later in the course of the disease (7.7 +/- 3.2 days versus 4.6 +/- 1.6 days in group 1, p < 0.001). The frequency of prescription of other therapies did not differ between the compared groups. Use of mAbs significantly reduced mortality from 19.7% in KTRs in group 2 to 3% in group 1 without adverse effect on graft function. Conclusion. The use of mAbs therapy in the early stages of COVID-19 in KTRs is safe, it prevents severe COVID-19, and reduces the incidence of adverse outcomes.Copyright © 2023 Russian Transplant Society. All rights reserved.

2.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons ; 236(5 Supplement 3):S50, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20234007

RESUMO

Introduction: The geriatric population is a growing subset of surgical patients. Specialized surgical risk management is important since physiologic changes are only loosely associated with age. Searching for better risk assessment tools, we come across the 5-point FRAIL scale, a validated measure of weakness and physiologic malfunction resulting to vulnerability to stressors like surgery. Method(s): Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of FRAIL scale in predicting 30-day complications in geriatric surgical patients. We conducted this research at a tertiary hospital in the Philippines from June 2020 to June 2021. Patients were classified preoperatively as frail or robust, and they were monitored 30 days post-surgery for adverse outcomes. Result(s): Out of 100 patients, fifty-seven were frail. Postoperatively, 20% had complications, while 18% expired, with 76% of all adverse outcomes belonging to frail group. FRAIL scale had a significantly better predictive value as compared with Charlson comorbidity index and ACS surgical risk calculator in cases of mortality, but there was no significant difference in predicting morbidity for the three assessment tools. The increase in adverse outcomes compared with previous years was attributed to (1) the proportion of colorectal procedures, and (2) patients were probably in a more advanced stage of illness due to the delays in treatment caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion(s): In conclusion, FRAIL scale is an easy-to-use and effective risk assessment tool for geriatric surgical patients. Since most frail patients admit of weakness, resistance training and aerobic exercises may be an appropriate strategy to improve surgical outcomes.

3.
Value in Health ; 26(6 Supplement):S97-S98, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20233925

RESUMO

Objectives: Assess real-world evidence data on the prevalence and impact of long COVID (LC) to establish a baseline for the value of potential therapeutic interventions. Method(s): This study was a retrospective, longitudinal analysis of administrative claims from multiple payer channels spanning 4/1/2020-6/30/2022. Inclusion criteria: 1) ICD-10-CM diagnosis code of COVID-19 (U07.1) on or after 4/1/2020 (COVID-19 diagnosis date=index date), 2) 18+ years of age on index, and 3) at least -365/+30 days of continuous plan enrollment surrounding index. Employing a conservative LC definition, patients were classified as LC if they presented at least 1 claim >= 28 days following the index date which included both a COVID-19 diagnosis and >=1 of 8 LC-related symptoms. LC and non-LC patients were compared on demographics, COVID-19 symptoms, healthcare utilization, and medical costs. Descriptive statistics were presented for outcomes, and bivariate tests of significance were used to assess differences between cohorts. Result(s): Of 4,938,801 medically attended COVID-19 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 386,153 (7.8%) qualified as LC. The LC patients were older (Mean(SD) = 67.0(19.0) vs. 51.0(20.7)), were more likely to be female (65.1% vs. 60.4%), were in poorer health (Deyo-Charlson Comorbidity Index=3.51(3.24) vs. 1.47(2.45)), and presented greater baseline total medical expenditures ($39,769($60,401) vs. $15,275($35,640);p < 0.0001). On index, LC patients had a higher rate of LC-related symptoms, and in the 180-day post-index period, LC patients incurred increased total medical costs ($38,874($54,098) vs. $7,319($18,439);p < 0.001) and greater use of inpatient and outpatient medical services. Conclusion(s): Patients with LC presented elevated rates of symptoms and incurred 5-fold greater medical costs post-index compared to non-LC patients. This study is one of the first to longitudinally quantify the cost and symptom burden of LC in a real-world setting and helps to establish a baseline for the value of potential therapeutic interventions.Copyright © 2023

4.
Profilakticheskaya Meditsina ; 26(3):91-100, 2023.
Artigo em Russo | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20232700

RESUMO

Background. After the first wave of the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infection, the researchers focused on identifying potential short-and long-term complications of COVID-19, especially in high-risk patients, after prolonged hospitalization and intensive care. Objective. To study the outcomes, adverse effects of severe COVID-19 and their predictors 90 days after hospital discharge in elderly patients with asthma. Material and methods. The study included elderly patients (101 subjects, 42 males and 59 females;median age 74 (67;79) years) with asthma, discharged from the hospital after treatment of severe COVID-19. They were followed up for 90 days after discharge. In the hospital, COVID-19 was confirmed by laboratory tests (polymerase chain reaction method) and/or clinically and radiologically. All patients had a documented history of asthma according to GINA 2020 criteria. Results and discussion. During the 90-day post-hospital follow-up, 86 (85%) patients survived, and 15 (15%) died after discharge. Deaths were reported within 1 to 4 weeks after discharge: 6 subjects died during re-hospitalization, 6 at home, and 3 in a rehabilitation center. The multivariate regression analysis model, adjusted for all statistically significant indicators, and the ROC analysis showed the most significant predictors of 90-day post-hospital mortality and their threshold values. They include the Charlson comorbidity index >=4 points, lung damage according to computed tomography >=30%, the absolute number of eosinophils <=100 cells/muL, and concomitant diabetes mellitus. The analysis showed that 90-day post-hospital mortality depends on combinations of identified risk factors;a combination of two, three, and especially four risk factors statistically significantly is associated with patients' lower average survival time. Conclusion. The key risk factors for 90-day post-hospital mortality in elderly patients with asthma after severe COVID-19 include the Charlson comorbidity index, lung damage >=30% according to computed tomography, the absolute number of eosinophils <=100 cells/muL, and concomitant diabetes mellitus. The 90-day post-hospital survival rate is correlated with the number of risk factors identified in patients. The effect of asthma severity on 90-day post-hospital mortality in elderly patients was not observed.Copyright © 2023, Media Sphera Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

5.
Value in Health ; 26(6 Supplement):S195, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20232322

RESUMO

Objectives: Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) Aurum captures primary care electronic healthcare records for ~28% of the population in England. From August 2020-;March 2022, all SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests performed were reported back to the patient's general practitioner (GP), making the CPRD a closed system uniquely positioned to answer COVID research questions. Method(s): We defined persons with COVID as those recorded in primary care with a positive PCR test from August 1, 2020-March 31, 2021. We required continuous registration with their GP practice for >=365 days prior to diagnosis to establish comorbid conditions, and eligibility for linkage to Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) Admitted Patient Care data. Hospitalizations for COVID were defined as persons admitted with a primary diagnosis of COVID (ICD-10-CM U07.1) within 12 weeks of the initial primary care diagnosis record. Result(s): Our cohort included 535,453 persons diagnosed in primary care with COVID, with 2% later hospitalized. The hospitalized group was 57% male, 42% current/former smokers, 35% obese46% with a Charlson Comorbidity Index >1 and 98% had never received any COVID vaccine. Hospitalizations increased with age;<0.1% of patients aged 1-17, 1% aged 18-49, 4% aged 50-64, 9% aged 65-74, 13% aged 74-84, and 11% of COVID cases aged >=85 were hospitalized. Persons living in socially disadvantaged areas were overrepresented in the hospitalized cohort (25% in the Index of Multiple Deprivation's most deprived quintile). Conclusion(s): Consistent with other studies, hospitalized COVID patients were disproportionately those with male sex, smoking history, high body mass index, comorbidity and unvaccinated status. Hospitalizations were more common with age, and for individuals living in socially and economically deprived communities. Understanding the demographic and clinical characteristics of this cohort can help contextualize future work describing healthcare resource utilization and costs, as well as the impact of vaccines, associated with COVID in England.Copyright © 2023

6.
Hepatology International ; 17(Supplement 1):S162, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2323827

RESUMO

Background/Aims: The global pandemic of COVID-19 has caused tremendous loss of human life since 2019. Vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is one of the best policies to control the pandemic. The vaccination efficacy in Taiwanese patients with different comorbidities is elusive and to be explored. Method(s): Uninfected subjects who received 3-doses of mRNA vaccines (Moderna, BioNTech), non-replicating viral vector-based vaccines (AstraZeneca, AZ) or protein subunit vaccines (Medigen COVID-19 vaccine, MVC) were prospectively enrolled. SARSCoV2- IgG spike antibody level was determined (Abbott [SARS-CoV- 2 IgG II]) within 3 months after the last dose of vaccination. Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was applied to disclose the association of vaccine titer and underlying comorbidities. Result(s): A total of 824 subjects were enrolled in the current study. The mean age was 58.9 years and males accounted for 48.7% of the population. The proportion of CCI with 0-1, 2-3 and>4 was 52.8% (n = 435), 31.3% (n = 258) and 15.9% (n = 131), respectively. The most commonly used vaccination combination was AZ-AZ-Moderna (39.2%), followed by Moderna-Moderna-Moderna (27.8%) and AZAZ- BioNTech (14.7%), respectively. The mean vaccination titer was 3.11 log BAU/mL after a median 48 days of the 3rd dose. Subjects of male gender, lower body mass index, chronic kidney disease, higher CCI, and receiving AZ-AZ based vaccination were likely to have a lower titer of antibody. There was a decreasing trend of antibody titer with the increase of CCT (trend P<0.001). Linear regression analysis revealed that AZ-AZ-based vaccination (beta: 0.341, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.144, 0.21, P<0.001) and higher CCI (beta: - 0.055, CI: - 0.096, - 0.014, P = 0.009) independently correlated with low IgG spike antibody levels. Conclusion(s): Patients with more comorbidities had a poor response to 3 doses of COVID-19 vaccination. Further studies are warranted to clarify the efficacy of booster vaccination in the population. The vaccine titer did not differ between patient with or without chronic liver disease.

7.
HIV Medicine ; 24(Supplement 3):59, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2323541

RESUMO

Background: People living with HIV (PLWH) are at increased risk of severe or critical COVID-19. This is in addition to the increased risk associated with any coexisting conditions such as chronic pulmonary disease (CPD), chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Vaccination against COVID-19 is therefore strongly recommended for PLWH. Method(s): We conducted a descriptive study to evaluate comorbidities among PLWH attending for HIV care at two NHS Trusts in North East England and who were under- or unvaccinated against COVID-19, defined as having received either zero or 1 doses of any COVID-19 vaccine by 01/10/2022. PLWH under active care were identified using the HIV and AIDS Reporting System (HARS) dataset. Vaccination data were obtained from regional integrated care records (RICR) and cross-referenced with HARS. Information on comorbidities was collated for any patients who were under- or unvaccinated. To quantify risk and clinical vulnerability, we calculated the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) for each of these patients. A CCI score >=1 is associated with mortality/poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Result(s): 141 under- or unvaccinated patients were identified out of a total cohort of 1492 patients who attended for HIV care (9.5%);of these, 96 (68.1%) and 45 (31.9%) had received zero and one vaccination respectively. The median age of this under-/unvaccinated cohort was 41 years and 91 (64.5%) were male. 62 patients (44.0%) had a CCI score of 1 or more;13 patients (9.2%) had a diagnosis of AIDS during the time period evaluated;11 (84.6%) of the patients with an AIDS diagnosis were completely unvaccinated. Non-HIV comorbidities included liver disease (10/141, 7.1%), solid organ cancer (5/141, 3.5%), CPD (4/141, 2.8%) and connective tissue disease (3/141, 2.1%). Six patients (4.3%) had >=2 comorbidities. Conclusion(s): Nearly half of the under-/unvaccinated PLWH attending our services were identified as being at an increased risk of having a poor outcome in the event of contracting COVID-19. Proactively identifying these individuals would allow services to offer tailored support in making informed decisions about vaccinations. Useful strategies may include the use of patient information leaflets and targeted discussion with patients explaining their individual risk from COVID-19.

8.
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition ; 47(Supplement 2):S93-S94, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2325179

RESUMO

Background: Optimal supportive care which includes adequate nutrient delivery remains the cornerstone in managing critically ill patients with COVID-19. Nutrition guiding principles for critically ill patients with COVID-19 strongly recommend providing early enteral nutrition (EEN) within 24-36 hours of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) or within 12 hours of placement on mechanical ventilation (MV). Moreover, data show critically ill COVID-19 patients have negative alterations in their gut microbiome which is attributed to many factors including insufficient EN and fiber provision. The success and tolerance of EEN with a prebiotic formula in patients with COVID 19 is unknown. Here we aimed to assess, before and after implementation of an enteral feeding protocol, the achievement of EEN, estimated energy goals, and tolerance of a prebiotic formula in MV patients with COVID-19. Method(s): Data were collected and analyzed retrospectively from June 2020-May 2021 and prospectively from June 2021-January 2022. A protocol to promote EEN and improve nutrition delivery with a prebiotic-containing formula to patients within the seven days of ICU admission was created and implemented in June 2021 in the Medical ICU. Time to start EEN following invasive MV was assessed. Feeding adequacy over the first seven days of ICU admission was calculated by dividing the mean total calories of formula infused over the first seven ICU days by the estimated goal calories/day. The average number of bowel movements (BM) over the first seven ICU days was used to evaluate feeding tolerance. To determine the impact of inflammation and co-morbid conditions on feeding adequacy and tolerance, admission C-reactive protein (CRP) and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) were trended with feeding adequacy. The Institutional Review Board approved the study. Result(s): A total of 343 patient records were analyzed with 203 patients in retrospective (R) and 140 patients in prospective groups (P). The post- MV feeding initiation time was shorter after implementing the feeding protocol (Mean 45.2 vs 33.8 hrs, and Interquartile Range (IQR) of Median (hrs) (18, 51) vs (16, 43) for the R and P groups, respectively (p = 0.04). Achievement of feeding goal rates were similar between groups (30.0 % vs 29.5%) (p >0.05). A prebiotic-containing formula was received in 36.2 % of patients in the R group versus 43.4 % in the P group. Providing a prebiotic formula had no impact on achieving goal nutrition in either period. In the R group, patients receiving the non-prebiotic formula had a higher total 7-days BM occurrence compared to the prebiotic formula group (8 vs 5.9 BMs/7 days, p = 0.03). In the P group there were no differences in the number of BMs between non-prebiotic and prebiotic formula groups (5.3 vs 5.0 BMs/7 days, p >0.05). Higher admission CRP and CCI values trended with higher incidence of inadequate feeding. Mean CCI was 4.42 and 4.17 for patients who received less than 25% goal feeding compared to those who received >80% of their goal feeds, respectively. Mean CRP was 12.3 and 11.4 for patients who received < 25% goal feeds compared to those who received >80% of goal feeds, respectively (p > 0.05). There were no differences in overall ICU length of stay between the R (11.7 days) and P (11.1 days) groups. (p = 0.34) Conclusion(s): EEN protocol implementation decreased time to EEN initiation in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients but did not affect patients in achieving goal nutrition in the first week of their ICU stay. Furthermore, COVID-19 patients tolerated EEN with prebiotic containing formulas. Further research is warranted to determine the impact of EEN with a prebiotic formula on the gut microbiome in critically ill MV patients with COVID-19.

9.
Respirology ; 28(Supplement 2):238, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2319726

RESUMO

Introduction/Aim: The COVID-19 Delta strain outbreak in New South Wales resulted in significantly increased hospitalisations for respiratory infection across the state. The most common cause of hospitalisation was hypoxaemia resulting from COVID pneumonitis. We aimed to identify predictors of oxygen requirements and disease trajectory in COVID pneumonitis (predominantly delta strain) from clinical data, laboratory and radiological testing. Method(s): Retrospective cohort study on 194 patients admitted with COVID pneumonitis in the Westmead COVID Respiratory ward from July 2021 to September 2021. We collected patient demographics, Charlson comorbidity index, blood tests on admission, chest X-ray (CXR) findings, and treatments received. Outcomes included peak FiO 2 required to maintain saturations>92%, duration of oxygen therapy, support device used, ICU admission and mortality. Patients were divided into three groups based on highest amount of supplemental oxygen needed to maintain saturations >92%: (i) Mild: no oxygen requirement;(ii) Moderate: FiO 2 up to 36% or nasal prongs 1-4 L and (iii) Severe: FiO 2 > 36%, requiring HFNP, NIV or intubation. We compared continuous data between groups with ANOVA and post-hoc multiple group comparisons with Bonferroni correction, and Chi-square tests for categorical data. Result(s): Mean age was 51.8 years;110 (57.7%) were male and 151 (78%) patients were unvaccinated. Average length of stay was 12.2 days and with mean duration of oxygen use was 8.9 days. Age and Charlson Comorbidity Index were found to be significant predictors of degree of hypoxia, with significant differences between the severity groups. There were significant differences in LDH, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, CRP and CXR severity between the three severity groups. Conclusion(s): Age, comorbidities and non-English speaking background were predictors of hypoxemia severity. While various biomarkers demonstrated utility in predicting severity of hypoxia, the strongest predictors in our study were CRP, procalcitonin, LDH, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and degree of radiological abnormalities.

10.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 31(2):219, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2317439

RESUMO

Background: There is limited data on the association between COVID-19 therapy and hospital readmissions, including during evolution of the pandemic over time. We examine all cause 30-day readmissions after a COVID-19 hospitalization among remdesivir (RDV)-treated vs non-RDV treated patients across different dominant variants of concern (VOC) periods: pre-Delta (May'20-Apr'21), Delta (May-Nov'21) and Omicron (Dec'21-Apr'22). Method(s): Using the Premier Healthcare Database, we examined adults hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of COVID-19 (ICD-10:U07.1) who were discharged alive from the COVID-19 hospitalization. All-cause readmission to the same hospital was examined using multivariate logistic regression. The model adjusted for: age, corticosteroids use, VOC period, Charlson comorbidity index, maximum oxygenation requirements and ICU admission during COVID-19 hospitalization. Result(s): In the study period (May'20-Apr'22), 440,601 patients with a primary diagnosis of COVID-19 were discharged alive, of which 53% received RDV. As compared to non-RDV, RDV patients were younger (median[IQR]: 62[51-73] vs 64[52-76]), with a lower proportion with no supplementary oxygen charges (30% vs 52%), a higher proportion with low-flow oxygen (46% vs 36%), highflow oxygen/non-invasive ventilation (20% vs 10%), and invasive mechanical ventilation/ECMO (4% vs 2%). Among RDV-treated, the all-cause 30-day readmission was 6.3% compared to 9.1% (p< .0001) in non-RDV treated. Lower readmission for RDV vs non-RDV was seen in Pre-delta (6.3% vs 9.3%;p< .0001), Delta (5.1% vs 7.8%;p< .0001), and Omicron (8.7% vs 9.9%;p< .0001) (Fig). After adjusting for age and characteristics at index hospitalization including corticosteroid, RDV patients had significantly lower likelihood of all-cause 30-day readmission (OR[95% CI]:0.73[0.72-0.75]) as compared to non-RDV. Significantly Lower odds of 30-day readmission for RDV vs non-RDV patients were observed in Pre-delta (0.69[0.67-0.71]), Delta (0.72[0.68-0.76]) and Omicron-(0.87[0.83-0.92]) (Fig). Similarly, RDV-related reduction in readmissions was also seen for COVID-19 related readmissions. Conclusion(s): RDV use during the COVID-19 hospitalization was associated with significantly lower likelihood of all-cause 30-day readmission across the VOC periods of the pandemic May 2020 till April 2022. The lower rate of hospital re-admission for RDV-treated patients was observed despite the RDV group having higher supplemental oxygen requirement during their index COVID-19 hospitalization.

11.
Critical Care Conference: 42nd International Symposium on Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine Brussels Belgium ; 27(Supplement 1), 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2316924

RESUMO

Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) appears to be prevalent in ICU COVID-19 patients. Nevertheless, there are few data in comparison with non-COVID-19 patients. The aim of our study was to compare the prevalence of AKI in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 critically ill patients. Method(s): We performed a retrospective single-center study including all consecutively COVID-19 critically ill mechanically ventilated patients admitted from 03/2020 to 11/2021 to our ICU and all consecutively critically ill mechanically ventilated patients from 08/2020 to 01/2021 and from 03/2021 to 08/2021 admitted to our non-COVID-19 ICU. Patients' demographics, comorbidity including Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), outcome, as well as, admission, maximum and minimum creatinine blood values, as well as KDIGO stage were recorded. Two patient groups, i.e., COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients were compared in terms of AKI. Result(s): The study included 333 patients (183 COVID-19, 150 non- COVID-19), of an average age 66.3 +/- 14.36 years-old. Between the two patient groups there was no difference in age or sex. COVID-19 patients had a lower CCI score (84% had a score of < 5 compared to 68.8%, p = 0.004). COVID-19 patients had a lower admission creatinine (1.13 +/- 0.78 mg/dl vs 1.49 +/- 1.33 mg/dl, p 0.003), nevertheless, developed more often AKI (74.3% vs 54%, p 0001) during their ICU hospitalization. Among COVID-19 ICU patients that developed AKI 54.4% were stage 1, 18.8% stage 2 and 26.8% stage 3, while 10.27% (19/185) of patients underwent CRRT. Twenty-eight-day mortality was high in COVID-19 patients (66.18%, 90/136). There was no difference in KDIGO stage percentage among the two groups. Conclusion(s): COVID-19 critically-ill patients develop more often AKI compared to non-COVID-19 patients. More studies are required to assess this phenomenon, focusing also on the long-term follow-up of the kidney function of these patients.

12.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 31(2):406-407, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2315279

RESUMO

Background: People with HIV (PWH) may be at increased risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes compared with people without HIV. However, COVID-19 vaccination coverage among PWH is largely unknown, especially among those with advanced HIV or comorbidities. Method(s): We conducted a cohort study to evaluate coverage of the initial COVID-19 vaccine primary series and factors associated with the completion in adult PWH (>=18 years) enrolled in 8 healthcare organizations participating in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) project during December 1, 2020- December 31, 2021. Completion of two doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna mRNA COVID-19 vaccines or one dose of the single-dose Janssen COVID-19 vaccine was assessed. Multivariable analysis was conducted using a robust Poisson regression model to estimate the rate ratio (RR) for factors associated with primary series completion, accounting for follow-up time. Result(s): A total of 22,063 PWH were identified, among which 89% were male and 93% were viral suppressed (viral load, VL <=200 copies/ml). Chronic comorbid conditions were prevalent, with 25% having a Charlson comorbidity score of 1-2 and 13% having a score of 3 or greater. About 23% were overweight and 17% were obese. The majority (90%) completed the primary series and 1,782 PWH (8%) did not receive any dose during the study period. A rapid uptake was achieved within the 6 months after the national COVID-19 vaccination program launched on December 14, 2020. (Figure 1) PWH who received one dose of mRNA vaccine (i.e., partially vaccinated) were excluded (n=314) from the analysis for the primary series completion. Having received an influenza vaccination in the past 2 years was the strongest predictor of completion (RR=1.17, 95%CI: 1.15, 1.20). Males (RR= 1.06, 95%CI: 1.04-1.08) and those of Asian race (RR=1.05, 95%CI: 1.03-1.06, vs. White) were more likely to complete the primary series. However, PWH with baseline CD4 counts < 200 (RR=0.97, 95%CI: 0.94-0.99) and those failing to achieve viral suppression (VL= 201-10k: RR= 0.89, 95%CI: 0.85-0.94;VL >10k: RR= 0.92, 95%CI: 0.87-0.98) were less likely to complete the primary series. Body mass index, Charlson comorbidity score, and neighborhood household income level were not associated with completion. Conclusion(s): Coverage of the COVID-19 vaccine primary series was high in adult PWH in the VSD. However, targeted vaccination outreach is warranted for PWH with low CD4 counts and uncontrolled HIV viral load.

13.
Critical Care Conference: 42nd International Symposium on Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine Brussels Belgium ; 27(Supplement 1), 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2314562

RESUMO

Introduction: Misinformation citing mechanical ventilation, not the virus, as causing death in COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure has led to ventilator avoidance (initial refusal of intubation) during the pandemic. Method(s): Prospective observational cohort study (March 2020- June 2021) evaluating the incidence and significance of initial refusal of intubation in patients with critical COVID-19 defined as ARDS requiring > 55% sustained FiO2 on high flow nasal canula (HFNC), non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) or requiring intubation. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality and 1-year modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score. Logistic regression was used to estimate the age and Charlson Comorbidity Index adjusted odds ratio (OR) of in-hospital death. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to evaluate differences in the mRs. Result(s): The cohort was predominantly non-Latino white (76%), male (65%), unvaccinated (99.4%), mean age of 66, and good pre- COVID-19 functional status (median mRs score of 0). Overall, 315 patients were critically ill due to COVID-19 with an in-hospital mortality of 41.9% (132/315;95% CI 36-47%). In patients in whom intubation was recommended 39% initially refused (40/102;95% CI 30-49%). Utilization of HFNC (90%) and NIPPV (72%) were similar between groups, however actual use of mechanical ventilation differed (98.4% in those that did not initially refuse compared to 20% in those that initially refused (p = 0.001)). In-hospital mortality was 79.3% (49/62) in those who initially did not refuse intubation compared to 77.5% (31/40) in those who refused (adjusted OR 1.3;95% CI 0.5-.5). The distribution of 1-year mRS was not significantly different between groups (p = 1.0) (Fig. 1). Conclusion(s): Among critically ill patients with COVID-19 associated ARDS, ventilator avoidance was common however, it was not associated with increased in-hospital mortality or a difference in 1-year functional outcome.

14.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 31(2):224-225, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2313306

RESUMO

Background: Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (NMV/r) was granted Emergency Use Authorization in December 2021 for treatment of early symptomatic patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 at high risk of progression. However, its benefit is specific population subgroups remains unclear. Method(s): We used a matched cohort design to emulate a target trial within the VA COVID-19 Shared Data Resource database. Eligible individuals were those with at least two episodes of care in the VA in the last 2 years, who had a first confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between January 1 and August 31, 2022 and were free of hospitalization or death within 3 days of testing positive. Those hospitalized in the previous 60-days and those who received Molnupiravir after diagnosis were ineligible. Among the eligible individuals, we matched those prescribed NMV/r with those not prescribed NMV/r within 3 days of diagnosis. Controls were matched 1:1 on age (5-year blocks), race, sex, body mass index, Charlson Comorbidity Index, VA facility where NMV/r was prescribed, and vaccination status. Our primary outcome measure was hospitalization or death within 30 days of the index COVID-19 diagnosis date. Result(s): Among 90,432 persons with a confirmed first SARS-CoV-2 positive test, 68,236 persons met the eligibility criteria. Of those, 4,886 were prescribed NMV/r. Final primary analysis dataset included 4,148 matched pairs of NMV/r treated cases and controls. The incidence of hospitalization or death was significantly lower among those who were prescribed NMV/r overall (73 vs. 109 events;ARD [95% CI] -0.87 [-1.49 to -0.25]), for those older than 60 years (60 vs. 88 events;ARD [95% CI] -1.05 [-1.93 to -0.18]), for unvaccinated/incomplete primary series (ARD -1.88 [-3.54 to -0.22]), and those asymptomatic at baseline (ARD -1.96 [-3.00 to -0.92]). Those who were <60 years old, vaccinated with or without a booster, and those symptomatic at baseline did not experience a significant benefit. Conclusion(s): NMV/r use is associated with a modest but statistically significant reduction in hospitalization or death among previously uninfected, nonhospitalized population with COVID-19 who are at a high risk of progression to severe disease. The benefit is evident in older, unvaccinated, asymptomatic persons and those with certain comorbidities. But not in younger, vaccinated, and symptomatic persons.

15.
Profilakticheskaya Meditsina ; 26(3):91-100, 2023.
Artigo em Russo | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2312731

RESUMO

Background. After the first wave of the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infection, the researchers focused on identifying potential short-and long-term complications of COVID-19, especially in high-risk patients, after prolonged hospitalization and intensive care. Objective. To study the outcomes, adverse effects of severe COVID-19 and their predictors 90 days after hospital discharge in elderly patients with asthma. Material and methods. The study included elderly patients (101 subjects, 42 males and 59 females;median age 74 (67;79) years) with asthma, discharged from the hospital after treatment of severe COVID-19. They were followed up for 90 days after discharge. In the hospital, COVID-19 was confirmed by laboratory tests (polymerase chain reaction method) and/or clinically and radiologically. All patients had a documented history of asthma according to GINA 2020 criteria. Results and discussion. During the 90-day post-hospital follow-up, 86 (85%) patients survived, and 15 (15%) died after discharge. Deaths were reported within 1 to 4 weeks after discharge: 6 subjects died during re-hospitalization, 6 at home, and 3 in a rehabilitation center. The multivariate regression analysis model, adjusted for all statistically significant indicators, and the ROC analysis showed the most significant predictors of 90-day post-hospital mortality and their threshold values. They include the Charlson comorbidity index >=4 points, lung damage according to computed tomography >=30%, the absolute number of eosinophils <=100 cells/muL, and concomitant diabetes mellitus. The analysis showed that 90-day post-hospital mortality depends on combinations of identified risk factors;a combination of two, three, and especially four risk factors statistically significantly is associated with patients' lower average survival time. Conclusion. The key risk factors for 90-day post-hospital mortality in elderly patients with asthma after severe COVID-19 include the Charlson comorbidity index, lung damage >=30% according to computed tomography, the absolute number of eosinophils <=100 cells/muL, and concomitant diabetes mellitus. The 90-day post-hospital survival rate is correlated with the number of risk factors identified in patients. The effect of asthma severity on 90-day post-hospital mortality in elderly patients was not observed.Copyright © 2023, Media Sphera Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

16.
Critical Care Conference: 42nd International Symposium on Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine Brussels Belgium ; 27(Supplement 1), 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2312610

RESUMO

Introduction: Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) is a technique that provides blood oxygenation and CO2 removal, allowing a protective ventilation strategy until the resolution of respiratory failure. A delay in ECMO initiation could worsen the outcome and prolong the duration of treatment. The study aims to describe the incidence of mortality in our intensive care unit (ICU) in patients with severe COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) treated with VV ECMO. Method(s): We performed an observational retrospective study, including patients with severe COVID-19-related ARDS admitted to our ICU and treated with VV ECMO between February 2020 and February 2022. We collected data on demographic characteristics, comorbidities, mechanical ventilation, therapies, laboratory results, VV ECMO and ICU mortality. SOFA score, SAPS II and Charlson Comorbidity Index were calculated at ICU admission. Result(s): The average age of our cohort of 60 patients was 54.4 +/- 7.7 years and 51 (85%) were males. The mean value of the SOFA score at ICU admission was 7 +/- 2.3 points, and the median value of the SAPS II score was 41 [31-48] points. The incidence of mortality in the whole cohort was 48.3%. The differences between the two groups of patients, Survivors and Non-survivors, are presented in Table 1. Through a multivariate logistic regression model we found that age (OR 1.09 [95% CI 1.00-1.19], p = 0.03) and lymphocytes (OR 0.09 [95% CI 0.01-0.59], p = 0.01) were significantly associated with ICU mortality. Mechanical ventilation before ECMO placement higher than 10 days and superinfections at ICU admission were not significantly associated with the outcome in the same model. Conclusion(s): In patients with COVID-19-related ARDS treated with VV ECMO, advanced age and lymphopenia at ICU admission are risk factors for ICU mortality. A longer duration of mechanical ventilation before ECMO placement and traditional ICU prognostic scores seem not to be relevant for the prognosis.

17.
Journal of Investigative Medicine ; 71(1):86, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2312353

RESUMO

Purpose of Study: Total knee (TKA) and hip (THA) arthroplasty procedures are recognized as effective treatments for osteoarthritis of the knee and hip joints which are the leading causes of lower extremity disability among older adults. Previous studies have demonstrated a variance in patients electing to undergo these interventions with non-White patients having significantly lower utilization rates. Our study examined if these disparities continued to exist during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Methods Used: This retrospective cohort study included 580 patients who underwent TKA or THA in 2020 and 2021 in a racially diverse region in Washington State. Demographic data, comorbidities, and post-surgical outcomes were recorded. Patients were stratified as those identifying as White (n=490, 84.5%) or Hispanic/ Latino (n=65, 11.2%). Patients identifying with other races (n=25, 4.3%) were excluded from the study due to small sample sizes. Differences between our two groups were examined using a chi-square test for categorical variables and an independent t-test for continuous variables. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Summary of Results: Compared to the White patients, Hispanic/ Latino identifying patients were younger (61.9+/-12.79 years versus 68.58+/-9.00 years;P <0.001), had lower Charlson Comorbidity Index scores (P=0.019), and were more likely to use non-Medicare or Medicaid insurance (P <0.001). No differences were observed in postoperative complication (P=0.632) and COVID-19 infection (P=0.465) rates between the groups. Conclusion(s): Although Hispanic/ Latino identifying patients in this region constitute 45.8% of our study population according to the most recent census tabulation, they accounted for only 11.2% of the patients in our study. These patients were also younger, had fewer comorbidities, and tended to use non-Medicare or Medicaid insurance suggesting an exclusive Hispanic/ Latino patient population electing to undergo TKA or THA procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Future studies controlling for osteoarthritis risk factors and patients' election of treatment options may explain these disparities we have observed.

18.
Farmacia Hospitalaria ; 47(1):20-25, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2292560

RESUMO

Objective: Adverse drug reactions increase morbidity and mortality, prolong hospital stay and increase healthcare costs. The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of emergency department visits for adverse drug reactions and to describe their characteristics. The secondary objective was to determine the predictor variables of hospitalization for adverse drug reactions associated with emergency department visits. Method(s): Observational and retrospective study of adverse drug reactions registered in an emergency department, carried out from November 15th to December 15th, 2021. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, the drugs involved and the adverse drug reactions were described. Logistic regression was performed to identify factors related to hospitalization for adverse drug reactions. Result(s): 10,799 patients visited the emergency department and 216 (2%) patients with adverse drug reactions were included. The mean age was 70 +/- 17.5 (18-98) years and 47.7% of the patients were male. A total of 54.6% of patients required hospitalization and 1.6% died from adverse drug reactions. The total number of drugs involved was 315 with 149 different drugs. The pharmacological group corresponding to the nervous system constituted the most representative group (n = 81). High-risk medications, such as antithrombotic agents (n = 53), were the subgroup of medications that caused the most emergency department visits and hospitalization. Acenocumarol (n = 20) was the main drug involved. Gastrointestinal (n = 62) disorders were the most common. Diarrhea (n = 16) was the most frequent adverse drug reaction, while gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 13) caused the highest number of hospitalizations. Charlson comorbidity index behaved as an independent risk factor for hospitalization (aOR 3.24, 95% CI: 1.47-7.13, p = 0.003, in Charlson comorbidity index 4-6;and aOR 20.07, 95% CI: 6.87-58.64, p = 0.000, in Charlson comorbidity index >= 10). Conclusion(s): The prevalence of emergency department visits for adverse drug reactions continues to be a non-negligible health problem. High-risk drugs such as antithrombotic agents were the main therapeutic subgroup involved. Charlson comorbidity index was an independent factor in hospitalization, while gastrointestinal bleeding was the adverse drug reaction with the highest number of hospital admissions.Copyright © 2022 Sociedad Espanola de Farmacia Hospitalaria (S.E.F.H)

19.
Minerva Respiratory Medicine ; 62(1):25-32, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2291997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the type and the number of treatments for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have substantially evolved since the start of the pandemic a significant number of hospitalized patients continue to succumb. This requires ongoing research in the development and improvement of early risk stratification tools. METHOD(S): We developed a prognostic score using epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and treatment variables collected on admission in 130 adult COVID-19 patients followed until in-hospital death (N.=38) or discharge (N.=92). Potential variables were selected via multivariable logistic regression modelling conducted using a logistic regression univariate analysis to create a combined index. RESULT(S): Age, Charlson Comorbidity Index, P/F ratio, prothrombin time, C-reactive protein and troponin were the selected variables. AUROC indicated that the model had an excellent AUC value (0.971, 95% CI 0.926 to 0.993) with 100% sensitivity and 83% specificity for in-hospital mortality. The Hosmer-Lemeshow calibration test yielded non-significant P values (chi2=1.79, P=0.99) indicates good calibration. CONCLUSION(S): This newly developed combined index could be useful to predict mortality of hospitalized COVID-19 patients on admission.Copyright © 2022 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA.

20.
Pneumologie ; 77(Supplement 1):S17, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2291641

RESUMO

Introduction The development of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV), its scientific evidence and the need to monitor the most severe cases, has led to the creation of the IRCUs. In our hospital, we apply NIMV to patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) or exacerbated chronic respiratory failure (ACRF). Material and methods Prospective study of 220 non-Covid patients with ARF or ACRF who require NIMV and admission to the IRCU. General clinical and radiological data were collected and mortality was analyzed, as well as compared with the year 2019, when we did not have an IRCU. Results Mean age 71 years, (56 % men) and a Charlson Index (mean) of 6.4 points. The most frequent respiratory failure was hypercapnic 65 % vs. hypoxemic 34 %. After IRCU, 77 % were referred to the ward, 5 % to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and 17 % died or began comfort measures. Mortality in the IRCU is significantly related to the data in the table. There are 12 % of patients who, having been discharged from the IRCU, finally die during the rest of their hospital stay. Of these, 3 % are deaths of those admitted to the ICU, and 9 % to deaths on the ward after discharge from the IRCU. Analyzing mortality, we found significant differences in terms of the service they belong to (Internal Medicine 41 %), hypoxemic failure (58 %), bilateral infiltrates (52 %), age (80 years) and Charlson Index (7.8) (*Tab. 1). Finally, we have compared mortality in the IRCU with that of 2019 when we did not have this Unit, using the hospital mortality data (not mortality in the IRCU as it was not available in 2019). For this, we have amnalyzed a representative saple of 53 % of the most severe cases treated in 2019 with NIMV in the ward, according to Apache II, and which was similar in age and comorbidities to those admitted to the IRCU. **Without IRCU: Age 70.6 years // Charlson 6.4 // ICU admission 15 % // Hospital mortality 38 %. **With IRCU: Age 71 years // Charlson 6.4 // ICU admission 5 % // Hospital mortality 29 % Conclusions Mortality is higher in hypoxemics, related to Charlson Index and infiltrates. The opening of the IRCU has led to a decrease in hospital mortality for severe patients who require NIMV, and a 66 % decrease in ICU admissions.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA