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1.
Journal of Biological Chemistry ; 299(3 Supplement):S670, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20235853

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is a positive-sense RNA virus that contains open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab) to produce 16 nonstructural proteins (nsps). Five stem-loops (SL) are found in the 5' UTR of the RNA that are involved in myriad viral functions and are labeled SL1 through SL5. SL1 is crucial to viral replication. Upon viral infection, nsp1 binds the ribosomal 40S subunit to inhibit all host mRNA translation. Upon SL1 binding to nsp1, viral mRNA can be processed by the ribosome, allowing viral proteins to be produced. In this study, we are examining small DNA oligonucleotides that bind to SL1-mimetic DNA in order to block SL1-nsp1 interactions. We designed a DNA analog of the SL1 hairpin and two small DNA oligonucleotides that are complementary to either the helical stem or the loop region of SL1. The binding of these oligonucleotides to the SL1 hairpin should allow the formation of either an alternate duplex or a triplex structure. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and circular dichroism (CD) techniques were performed in 1 MKCl and 10 mM MgCl2 at two different pH (5.5 and 7.0) to examine structural and thermodynamics of binding. ITC of the two oligonucleotides showed modest binding. Results from DNA binding experiments, thermal denaturation, and CD show the hairpin structure is thermodynamically more favored and mostly remains intact under the conditions examined.Copyright © 2023 The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

2.
Biol Res ; 56(1): 22, 2023 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317394

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a large number of diseases worldwide. There are few vaccines to constrain this disease and the value of them is high. In this sense, the antigens of the vaccine platform Soberana, the receptor binding domain from SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein, both the monomeric (mRBD) and dimeric (dRBD) forms, have been developed. This study encompassed several analyses by different techniques like circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence spectroscopy (FS) and Gel Filtration- High Performance Liquid ChLC of mRBD and dRBD. Monomer and dimer exhibited similar far-UV CD spectral characteristics with 54% of ß-sheet content. Similar conformational features according to near-UV CD and FS studies were observed in both RBD. Stress stability studies by far-UV CD, FS, biological activity and GF-HPLC at 37 °C showed that mRBD is very stable. On the other hand, dRBD fluorescent emission showed a shift towards higher wavelengths as the incubation time increases, suggesting exposition of tryptophan residues, unlike what happens with mRBD. Biological activity outcome confirms these results. GF-HPLC profiles showed that in mRBD, the product of molecular stress are dimers and does not increase over time. However, dRBD showed dimer fragmentation as the main degradation species. This study reveals the usefulness of CD techniques for the analysis of degradation of RBD molecules as well as showed the difference in stability of both RBD molecules. Besides, our work provides useful insights into the production of a key protein used in diagnosis and therapeutics to fight COVID-19 pandemia.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Animais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Mamíferos
3.
Molecules ; 28(8)2023 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299701

RESUMO

The development of very efficient and safe non-viral vectors, constituted mainly by cationic lipids bearing multiple charges, is a landmark for in vivo gene-based medicine. To understand the effect of the hydrophobic chain's length, we here report the synthesis, and the chemico-physical and biological characterization, of a new term of the homologous series of hydrogenated gemini bispyridinium surfactants, the 1,1'-bis-dodecyl-2,2'-hexane-1,6-diyl-bispyridinium chloride (GP12_6). Moreover, we have collected and compared the thermodynamic micellization parameters (cmc, changes in enthalpy, free energy, and entropy of micellization) obtained by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments for hydrogenated surfactants GP12_6 and GP16_6, and for the partially fluorinated ones, FGPn (where n is the spacer length). The data obtained for GP12_6 by EMSA, MTT, transient transfection assays, and AFM imaging show that in this class of compounds, the gene delivery ability strictly depends on the spacer length but barely on the hydrophobic tail length. CD spectra have been shown to be a useful tool to verify the formation of lipoplexes due to the presence of a "tail" in the 288-320 nm region attributed to a chiroptical feature named ψ-phase. Ellipsometric measurements suggest that FGP6 and FGP8 (showing a very interesting gene delivery activity, when formulated with DOPE) act in a very similar way, and dissimilar from FGP4, exactly as in the case of transfection, and confirm the hypothesis suggested by previously obtained thermodynamic data about the requirement of a proper length of the spacer to allow the molecule to form a sort of molecular tong able to intercalate DNA.


Assuntos
Cloretos , Hexanos , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Tensoativos/química
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(7)2023 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301381

RESUMO

The main protease (Mpro or 3CLpro) is an enzyme that is evolutionarily conserved among different genera of coronaviruses. As it is essential for processing and maturing viral polyproteins, Mpro has been identified as a promising target for the development of broad-spectrum drugs against coronaviruses. Like SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, the mature and active form of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro is a dimer composed of identical subunits, each with a single active site. Individual monomers, however, have very low or no catalytic activity. As such, inhibition of Mpro can be achieved by molecules that target the substrate binding pocket to block catalytic activity or target the dimerization process. In this study, we investigated GC376, a transition-state analog inhibitor of the main protease of feline infectious peritonitis coronavirus, and Nirmatrelvir (NMV), an oral, bioavailable SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitor with pan-human coronavirus antiviral activity. Our results show that both GC376 and NMV are capable of strongly binding to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and altering the monomer-dimer equilibrium by stabilizing the dimeric state. This behavior is proposed to be related to a structured hydrogen-bond network established at the Mpro active site, where hydrogen bonds between Ser1' and Glu166/Phe140 are formed in addition to those achieved by the latter residues with GC376 or NMV.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
5.
3rd International Conference on Mathematics and Applied Science, ICMAS 2022 ; 2322, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2051194

RESUMO

Calculated the electronics and vibrational properties of the medicine hydroxy-chloroquine nanoparticles based on the fitting of their UV-vis spectra, transmittable, IR, Raman spectrum, Electronic circular dichroism (ECD) and HOMO and LUMO, These properties were theoretically studied using Gaussian 09 program. The result shows the stability of hydroxy-chloroquine. The longer wavelength that (500 nm) means high absorbance and less energy. Transmittable, the highest transmittable value in the region is (0 - 3000cm-1) and (2600-1250 cm-1) is offset by the lowest absorption here, the sample has good transparency characteristics at this region. Infrared spectrum, the area (2900 cm-1) it is for the carbon and hydrogen Single bond C-H, and hybridization type sp3. Raman scattering, electronic effect on bond C-H in the area (2800 cm-1) is very large and this bond type stretch. Electronic circular dichroism (ECD), when finding the sign of one or more bands can be an AC limitation. A positive skew angle is foretelling to become connected CD of the low-lying p-p∗ move at about 600 nm;certainly, for a negative CD, can find a negative angle is expected. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

6.
FEBS Open Bio ; 12:160, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1976656

RESUMO

The virus responsible for the current COVID -19 pandemic is SARS-CoV-2, which has caused >400 million infections and >5 million deaths (as of February 2022). Despite vaccination efforts, there is still an urgent need to develop strategies to control infection and treat patients. One of the proteins bound to the viral membrane is the spike (S) protein, which consists of two subunits: S1, which contains a receptor-binding domain (RBD) responsible for binding to the host cell receptor, and S2, which facilitates membrane fusion between the viral and host cell membranes, previously published in: Jackson CB et al. (2018) Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 23, 3-20. Thus, this protein is primarily responsible for the ability of the virus to enter host cells, making it one of the most promising therapeutic targets of coronavirus, previously published in: Cao L et al. (2020) Science 6515, 426- 431. The aim of this work was to design and produce antiviral proteins that could prevent the interaction between the two proteins and thus block infection by binding to the RBD region and blocking its interaction with the host receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) protein. First, several antiviral proteins were computationally designed using the Rosetta program based on the interactions between ACE2 and the RBD. Next, six molecular dynamics simulations (MD) of 1 ls of three candidates were performed to test their interaction with the RBD. This was followed by experimental validation after expression and purification of the three candidates. The secondary structure and thermostability of these proteins were tested by far-UV circular dichroism spectropolarimetry. Surface plasmon resonance was used to evaluate the affinity of each candidate for RBD. Neutralization assays were performed to investigate the neutralization ability of the proteins. The experimental results show that one of the developed proteins is a promising therapeutic approach that will be further improved in the future.

7.
Mol Pharm ; 19(7): 2022-2031, 2022 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898414

RESUMO

Preservation of the integrity of macromolecular higher-order structure is a tenet central to achieving biologic drug and vaccine product stability toward manufacturing, distribution, storage, handling, and administration. Given that mRNA lipid nanoparticles (mRNA-LNPs) are held together by an intricate ensemble of weak forces, there are some intriguing parallels to biologic drugs, at least at first glance. However, mRNA vaccines are not without unique formulation and stabilization challenges derived from the instability of unmodified mRNA and its limited history as a drug or vaccine. Since certain learning gained from biologic drug development may be applicable for the improvement of mRNA vaccines, we present a perspective on parallels and contrasts between the emerging role of higher-order structure pertaining to mRNA-LNPs compared to pharmaceutical proteins. In a recent publication, the location of mRNA encapsulated within lipid nanoparticles was identified, revealing new insights into the LNP structure, nanoheterogeneity, and microenvironment of the encapsulated mRNA molecules [Brader et al. Biophys. J. 2021, 120, 2766]. We extend those findings by considering the effect of encapsulation on mRNA thermal unfolding with the observation that encapsulation in LNPs increases mRNA unfolding temperatures.


Assuntos
Lipídeos , Nanopartículas , Lipídeos/química , Lipossomos , Nanopartículas/química , RNA Mensageiro , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas de mRNA
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892899

RESUMO

We studied the kinetics of the reaction of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC or RSH) with cupric ions at an equimolar ratio of the reactants in aqueous acid solution (pH 1.4-2) using UV/Vis absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies. Cu2+ showed a strong catalytic effect on the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical (ABTSr) consumption and autoxidation of NAC. Difference spectra revealed the formation of intermediates with absorption maxima at 233 and 302 nm (ε302/Cu > 8 × 103 M-1 cm-1) and two positive Cotton effects centered at 284 and 302 nm. These intermediates accumulate during the first, O2-independent, phase of the NAC autoxidation. The autocatalytic production of another chiral intermediate, characterized by two positive Cotton effects at 280 and 333 nm and an intense negative one at 305 nm, was observed in the second reaction phase. The intermediates are rapidly oxidized by added ABTSr; otherwise, they are stable for hours in the reaction solution, undergoing a slow pH- and O2-dependent photosensitive decay. The kinetic and spectral data are consistent with proposed structures of the intermediates as disulfide-bridged dicopper(I) complexes of types cis-/trans-CuI2(RS)2(RSSR) and CuI2(RSSR)2. The electronic transitions observed in the UV/Vis and CD spectra are tentatively attributed to Cu(I) → disulfide charge transfer with an interaction of the transition dipole moments (exciton coupling). The catalytic activity of the intermediates as potential O2 activators via Cu(II) peroxo-complexes is discussed. A mechanism for autocatalytic oxidation of Cu(I)-thiolates promoted by a growing electronically coupled -[CuI2(RSSR)]n- polymer is suggested. The obtained results are in line with other reported observations regarding copper-catalyzed autoxidation of thiols and provide new insight into these complicated, not yet fully understood systems. The proposed hypotheses point to the importance of the Cu(I)-disulfide interaction, which may have a profound impact on biological systems.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína , Compostos de Sulfidrila , Antioxidantes , Cobre/química , Dissulfetos , Oxirredução , Oxigênio/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
9.
Pure and Applied Chemistry ; 0(0):10, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1765566

RESUMO

From the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a RBD-hFc fusion protein was obtained at the Center of Molecular Immunology (Havana, Cuba). This fusion protein was used in the construction of a diagnostic device for COVID-19 called Ultramicroenzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (UMELISA)-SARS-CoV-2-IgG and it is currently been used in the studies of biological activity of the Cuban vaccine Abdala (CIGB-66). In this work, Circular Dichroism (CD) is used to characterize this protein. Using Far Ultraviolet Circular Dichroism (FAR-UV CD), it was determined that the protein has a secondary structure in the form of a sheet-beta fundamentally. Using this technique, a thermodynamic study was carried out and it was determined that the melting temperature (Tm) of the protein is 71.5 degrees C. Information about the tertiary structure of the protein was obtained using Near Ultraviolet Circular Dichroism (NEAR-UV CD) and Molecular Fluorescence;they indicates that the protein has a three-dimensional folding associated with the aromatic amino acids in its structure, where tryptophan (Trp) is located inside the folded structure of the protein while tyrosine (Tyr) is exposed to the solvent.

10.
J Mol Graph Model ; 108: 107999, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330984

RESUMO

Bioactive peptides derived from food proteins are becoming increasingly popular due to the growing awareness of their health-promoting properties. The structure and mechanism of anti-cancer action of pentapeptide Glu-Gln-Arg-Pro-Arg (EQRPR) derived from a rice bran protein are not known. Theoretical and experimental methods were employed to fill this gap. The conformation analysis of the EQRPR pentapeptide was performed first and the obtained lowest energy conformer was optimized. The experimental structural data obtained by FTIR and CD spectroscopies agree well with the theoretical results. d-isomer introduced one-by-one to each position and all D-isomers of the peptide were also examined for its possible anti-proteolytic and activity enhancement properties. The molecular docking revealed avid binding of the pentapeptide to the integrins α5ß1 and αIIbß3, with Kd values of 90 nM and 180 nM, respectively. Moreover, the EQRPR and its D-isomers showed strong binding affinities to apo- and holo-forms of Mpro, spike glycoprotein, ACE2, and dACE2. The predicted results indicate that the pentapeptide may significantly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thus, the peptide has the potential to be the leading molecule in the drug discovery process as having multifunctional with diverse biological activities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Oryza , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Oligopeptídeos , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 40(3): 982-994, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214145

RESUMO

Human C5a (hC5a), one of the pro-inflammatory glycoproteins of the complement system is known to undergo production hyperdrive in response to stress and infection. hC5a has been associated with the pathogenesis of many chronic and acute diseases, due to its proven ability in triggering the 'cytokine storm', by binding to its cognate receptor C5aR, expressed in myriad of tissues. Given the pleiotropic downstream function of hC5a, it is logical to consider the hC5a or its precursors as potential drug targets, and thus, we have been rationally pursuing the idea of neutralizing the harmful effect of excessive hC5a, by implementing the repurposing strategies for FDA-approved drugs. Indeed, the proof of principle biophysical studies published recently is encouraging, which strongly supports the potential of this strategy. Considering BSA-carprofen as a reference model system, the current study further explores the inherent conformational plasticity of hC5a and its effect in accommodating more than one drug molecule cooperatively at multiple sites. The data generated by recruiting a battery of experimental and computational biology techniques strongly suggest that hC5a can sequentially accommodate more than one raloxifene molecule with an estimated Ki ∼ 0.5 µM and Ki ∼ 3.58 µM on its surface at non-analogous sites. The study hints at exploration of polypharmacology approach, as a new avenue for discovering synergistic drug molecule pairs, or drug molecules with 'broad-range' binding affinity for targeting the different 'hot spots' on hC5a, as an alternative combination therapy for possible management of the 'cytokine storm'-related inflammatory diseases, like COVID19.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Assuntos
Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno , Complemento C5a/química , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Humanos , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/farmacologia , Receptor da Anafilatoxina C5a , Receptores de Complemento , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Comput Biol Chem ; 92: 107482, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163580

RESUMO

Complement system plays a dual role; physiological as well as pathophysiological. While physiological role protects the host, pathophysiological role can substantially harm the host, by triggering several hyper-inflammatory pathways, referred as "hypercytokinaemia". Emerging clinical evidence suggests that exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2), tricks the complement to aberrantly activate the "hypercytokinaemia" loop, which significantly contributes to the severity of the COVID19. The pathophysiological response of the complement is usually amplified by the over production of potent chemoattractants and inflammatory modulators, like C3a and C5a. Therefore, it is logical that neutralizing the harmful effects of the inflammatory modulators of the complement system can be beneficial for the management of COVID19. While the hunt for safe and efficacious vaccines were underway, polypharmacology based combination therapies were fairly successful in reducing both the morbidity and mortality of COVID19 across the globe. Repurposing of small molecule drugs as "neutraligands" of C5a appears to be an alternative for modulating the hyper-inflammatory signals, triggered by the C5a-C5aR signaling axes. Thus, in the current study, few specific and non-specific immunomodulators (azithromycin, colchicine, famotidine, fluvoxamine, dexamethasone and prednisone) generally prescribed for prophylactic usage for management of COVID19 were subjected to computational and biophysical studies to probe whether any of the above drugs can act as "neutraligands", by selectively binding to C5a over C3a. The data presented in this study indicates that corticosteroids, like prednisone can have potentially better selectively (Kd ∼ 0.38 µM) toward C5a than C3a, suggesting the positive modulatory role of C5a in the general success of the corticosteroid therapy in moderate to severe COVID19.


Assuntos
Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Complemento C5a/antagonistas & inibidores , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Prednisona/química , SARS-CoV-2 , Sítios de Ligação , COVID-19/patologia , Complemento C5a/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 172: 418-428, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033569

RESUMO

The major antioxidant enzyme catalase is downregulated and the enzyme activity is compromised in various disease conditions such as malarial and cancer. Hence, the restoration and protection of catalase is a promising therapeutic strategy in disease management. In the present study, for the first time we have demonstrated the protective role of well-known anti-malarial drug Artemisinin (ART) on the time and temperature-induced degradation of bovine liver catalase (BLC) activity. The findings at different time intervals and at higher temperature showed the protective role of ART on BLC activity. Molecular docking studies suggested specific binding of ART on BLC through heme group interface which was further supported by cyclic voltammetry and dynamic light scattering study. The stabilization of BLC in presence of ART was mediated through forming a BLC-ART complex with reduced and shifted electrochemical peak and increased hydrodynamic diameter. ART substantially prevents the temperature-induced reduction in α-helical content with simultaneous increment in other secondary structures like antiparallel, parallel, ß-turn and random coils. Nevertheless, the protective role of ART was accepted from the enhanced thermal stability and increased Tm value of BLC in presence of ART at higher temperatures. Our results uncover the mechanism of interaction between ART with BLC and suggest the protective role of ART towards spatiotemporal alteration of BLC by preventing the structural and molecular change in BLC. Thus, the findings advocate ART as a potential therapeutic drug for diseases associated with reduced catalase activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Artemisininas/química , Catalase/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Artemisininas/metabolismo , Catalase/isolamento & purificação , Catalase/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Bovinos , Humanos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Fígado/química , Fígado/enzimologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Termodinâmica
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