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1.
Infektsionnye Bolezni ; 20(4):85-96, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20245415

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 600 million people worldwide over the last 2.5 years. So far, there efficacy of many antiviral drugs against COVID-19 has been evaluated only in small studies conducted in different countries. Objective. To assess the efficacy of umifenovir in patients with COVID-19. Materials and methods. We performed systematic search of publications in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Sixteen studies with a total of 1,843 patients were included in the analysis. The following endpoints were evaluated: frequencies of negative PCR test on days 7 and 14;mortality in patients with mild, moderate, and severe disease;and frequency of fever resolution on day 7. Results. We found that patients receiving umifenovir demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of negative PCR test on day 7 than patients who received no causal therapy or other antiviral drugs (odds ratio (OR) 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-2.62, p = 0.02, I2 = 13%). This difference was even more significant among patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 (OR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.24-3.32, p = 0.005, I2 = 0%), as well as on day 14 (OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.35-3.94, p = 0.0007, I2 = 50%). We also observed a reduced risk of death in the studies that included only patients with mild and moderate disease (JR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.33-0.83, p = 0.006, I2 = 0). Umifenovir therapy did not affect the frequency of fever resolution by day 7 (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.49-1.56, p = 0.64, I2 = 0%). Conclusion. Umifenovir significantly accelerated virus elimination by days 7 and 14 among patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. Umifenovir also reduced the risk of death compared to other antiviral drugs.Copyright © 2022, Dynasty Publishing House. All rights reserved.

2.
Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs ; 54(6):2005-2011, 2023.
Artigo em Chinês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20244964

RESUMO

Compound Qinlan Oral Liquid (,CQOL) is derived from Yinqiao San (), which is composed of Jinyinhua (Lonicerae Japonicae Flos), Huangqin (Scutellariae Radix), Lianqiao (Forsythiae Fructus) and Banlangen (Isatidis Radix). It is a common clinical herbal medicine for clearing heat and detoxification, and has antiviral effects. By reviewing the active ingredients of CQOL and the research progress on its anti-influenza virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) efficacy, with view to providing a basis for the clinical use of CQOL in treatment of respiratory diseases caused by SARS-CoV-2.Copyright © 2023 Editorial Office of Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs. All rights reserved.

3.
Pediatric Dermatology ; 40(Supplement 2):47, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20244353

RESUMO

Objectives: Varicella is common infectious disease mainly in childhood, usually is a mild, self-limited illness and complications are usually rare. The incubation period for this disease is generally 14- 16 days but may vary from 7 to 21 days. Varicella in the adults with comorbidities or immunosuppressed children may be severe and prolonged with complications. Method(s): A case report of a 6-year-old girl hospitalized for new-onset manifestations of disseminated vesicular exanthema, the manifestations of which occurred mainly on the chest, back, capillitium, oral cavity, and genital area. The child was suffering from abdominal, knee and lumbosacral pain at that time. The patient's history revealed that 10 days prior to the cutaneous manifestations, she had influenza with bronchopneumonia requiring oxygen therapy, steroids and antibiotics. Result(s): The condition progressed within 48 h, complicated by the development of multi-organ failure, coagulopathy with the development of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy over the course of antiviral, antibiotic and antifungal therapy. Laboratory parameters included high elevation of C-reactive protein, il-6, leukocytosis, neutrophilia and highly elevated liver enzymes. Varicella infection was confirmed by detection of herpes zoster virus - polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from vesicles. The patient received intravenous immunoglobulin therapy at a dose of 2 g/L and fresh frozen plasma, thrombocyte concentrate. The girl was intubated with analogization. Laboratory parameters subsequently revealed high anti CoV-2 positivity, high CoV-2 IgG positivity and negative CoV-2 IgM. The patient's condition did not preclude the course of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) corticosteroids were added to the treatment at a dose of 1 mg/kg weight. Patient's condition stabilized after 1 month. Discussion(s): Our case report presents an example of fulminant complicated life-threatening course of varicella. Even in common respiratory infections, we must think about the risk and consequences of coinfections and post-infectious complications such as in our case especially influenza and COVID-19.

4.
Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242741

RESUMO

Background: The clinical course of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) varies from those who are asymptomatic, experience mild symptoms such as fever, cough, and dyspnea, to more severe outcomes including acute respiratory distress, pneumonia, renal failure, and death. Early reports suggested severe outcomes in patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID), particularly those with type 1 interferon signalling defects. This prompted a rigid approach to social distancing to protect this patient population, particularly children. To date, real-world data describing the course and outcome of COVID-19 in paediatric PID patients remains scarce. Method(s): In this retrospective case series, we describe the clinical course of 36 paediatric patients with underlying primary immunodeficiency (PID) followed by SickKids Hospital (Toronto, Canada) who were symptomatic and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection between October 2020 to November 2022. Result(s): Our cohort consisted of patients with combined immunodeficiency (66.7%), antibody deficiency (22.2%), neutrophil dysfunction (8.3%), and immune dysregulation (2.8%). The median age was 7.5 years (range: 8 months - 17 years), with 21 male and 15 female patients. Three (8.3%) patients were post-hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and 12 (33%) patients were on immunoglobulin replacement. Nine (25%) patients had underlying lung problems including bronchiectasis (1), interstitial lung disease on home oxygen therapy (1), and underlying asthma (7). Most patients had mild clinical course and were managed at home. The most common symptoms were fever (80%), cough (75%) and other upper respiratory tract symptoms (72%). Nineteen (52.7%) patients experienced other symptoms which included headache, lethargy, or gastrointestinal upset. At the time of the infection, 13 patients (36.1%) had received 2 doses of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, 5 patients (13.9%) had received 1 dose, and 18 (50%) were not vaccinated. None of the patients received antiviral or monoclonal antibody as prophylaxis or treatment. Only 1 patient required hospital admission out of precaution given the close proximity to HSCT. All patients recovered without complications. Conclusion(s): The paediatric patients with PID followed by our centre experienced mild to moderate COVID-19 symptoms and recovered fully without complications. These findings support the return of much needed social interactions among children, which were impacted severely during the COVID-19 pandemic.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.

5.
Blood Purification ; 51(Supplement 3):45, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20241746

RESUMO

Background: Several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines involved in COVID-19 and it is reasonable to speculate that their removal from blood might limit organ damage. Hemoperfusion with CytoSorb is a technique developed to adsorb molecules in the middle molecular weight range (up to 55 kDa). Studies in vitro and in vivo have shown that HP is highly effective in clearing blood from a number of cytokines. Method(s): We report a case series of 9 consecutive COVID-patients admitted to our COVID Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Five of them were treated with HP using CytoSorb (T), due to the heavy emergency overload it was impossible to deliver blood purification in the other 4 patients (C), who were also considered as potential candidates by the attending medical team. All patients had pneumonia and respiratory failure requiring continuous positive airway pressure. Different antibacterial prophylaxes, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory therapies including steroids were delivered. Result(s): Our results show a better clinical course of T compared to control patients (C), in fact all T except 1 survived, and only 2 of them were intubated, while all C required intubation and died. CRP decreased in both groups, but to a greater extent after HP. Lymphocytopenia worsened in control patient but not in treated patient after HP. Procalcitonin increased in 2 of the not treated patients. In all survived patients (n = 4) HP reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines, as IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-8. Notably, a striking effect was observed on IL-6 levels that at the end of the second session were decreased by a 40% than before the first treatment. Serum levels of IL-8 and TNF-alpha were lowered within normal range. In all patients the treatment was safe and there were no complications. Conclusion(s): Our study suggests a potential efficacy of HP in an early phase of viral infection not only for improving survival in the treated patients but also by the remodeling treatment-associated cytokine levels.

6.
Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 18(1) (no pagination), 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20239807

RESUMO

Background: Many aspects of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV2) pandemic in 2019 have been unclear, especially in newborns, and reports of neonatal diseases are usually associated with perinatal infection. Objective(s): The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical and para-clinical manifestations in newborns that contracted the infection after birth. Method(s): This observational research was conducted from October 2020 to March 2022 to examine postnatal SARSCoV2 infection in infants admitted to the NICU or neonatal ward at the Children's Medical Center in Tehran, Iran. Inclusion in the study was open to neonates who had positive RT-PCR results postnatally. Result(s): In total, 55 newborns were confirmed to have postnatal SARSCOV2. Fever was the most frequently observed symptom, with 35 (61%). Necrotizing enterocolitis was seen in 18% of neonates, and 30% of them were preterm. Neutropenia was seen in 34% of cases, with five cases having severe neutropenia. All neonates had a normal platelet count. Twenty percent of patients showed C-reactive protein higher than 6 mg/L. Two newborns had co-existing bacterial urinary tract infections. Our neonates didn't require antiviral, anticoagulant, or corticosteroid medications, and they recovered while receiving only supportive care. Everyone in the group of newborns was discharged without complications, and there were no deaths. Conclusion(s): The high rate of fever, high C-reactive protein, and neutropenia in SARSCoV2 neonates suggests that more observational research is needed to compare these symptoms to bacterial sepsis to avoid the overuse of antibiotics in these patients.Copyright © 2023, Author(s).

7.
Paediatria Croatica ; 64(2):94-100, 2020.
Artigo em Servo-Croata (Latino) | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20239293

RESUMO

Since the outbreak in December 2019, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic virus has been a major public health problem in all countries of the world. The virus is transmitted by inhalation of respiratory droplets from the patient or asymptomatic carrier and is highly contagious. The clinical disease in children is similar to any acute respiratory infection with predominant upper respiratory symptoms, but occasionally can progress to pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure. The disease is milder in children than in adults, with low mortality, and it appears that infants and young children have a somewhat more severe clinical course. Diagnosis is made by detecting the virus from respiratory samples (mainly nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs) using polymerase chain reaction. Treatment is usually symptomatic, and in severe and critical forms, the use of one of the antiviral drugs (lopinavir-ritonavir, remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine) may be consideredCopyright © 2020 Croatian Paediatric Society. All rights reserved.

8.
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy ; 10(4):326-344, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20238190

RESUMO

The safety of COVID-19 pharmacotherapy is a relevant issue, first of all, because of the current lack of experience with using particular medicinal products and with off-label prescribing. The aim of the study was to analyse information on potential adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and their predictors in etiology- and pathogenesis-oriented COVID-19 therapy. According to literature data, the main clinically significant risk factors for COVID-19 patients to develop an ADR are the duration of their hospital stay, combined use of antivirals, polypharmacy, and their history of drug allergies. The most common adverse reactions to antivirals, to virus-neutralising antibodies, and to human anti-COVID-19 immunoglobulin and convalescent plasma are, respectively, gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders;gastrointestinal disorders, neurological disorders, and allergic reactions;and transfusion reactions (fever, chills, etc.). For pathogenesis-oriented therapy with systemic glucocorticosteroids, the most characteristic ADR is hyperglycaemia. Janus kinase inhibitors and interleukin inhibitors are most often associated with gastrointestinal disorders and hypertransaminasemia;neutropenia is also characteristic of a number of interleukin inhibitors. Haemostatic adverse reactions to anticoagulants depend on the patient's dosing regimen and condition. Drug-drug interactions are a common problem in COVID-19 treatment, with the combination of nirmatrelvir and ritonavir showing the largest number of significant interactions attributed to their pharmacokinetics. Currently, there is data on the role of pharmacogenetic biomarkers in the safety and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 therapy. Thus, to improve the safety of COVID-19 therapy, an integrated approach is needed that will take into account both the clinical, demographic, and pharmacogenetic predictors of ADRs and the risk of drug-drug interactions.Copyright © 2023 Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy. All rights reserved.

9.
Revue Medicale Suisse ; 16(691):863-868, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20238148

RESUMO

The SARS-coronavirus 2 disease initially reported in December 2019 in China (COVID-19) represents a major challenge for intensive care medicine, due to the high number of ICU admission and the prolonged stay for many patients. Up to 5% of COVID-19 infected patients develop severe acute hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation as supportive treatment. Apart from early antiviral and anti-inflammatory treatment, the management of COVID-19 patients is mainly applying protective mechanical ventilation, to support the injured lungs. However recently acquired data and clinical experience suggest that COVID-19-related ARDS presents some specificities that will be summarized in the present article.Copyright © 2020 Editions Medecine et Hygiene. All rights reserved.

10.
Ankara Universitesi Eczacilik Fakultesi Dergisi ; 46(2):505-522, 2022.
Artigo em Turco | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20238118

RESUMO

Objective: Viruses are agents that can infect all kinds of living organisms, and the most important hosts are humans, animals, plants, bacteria and fungi. Viral diseases are responsible for serious morbidity and mortality worldwide, are a major threat to public health, and remain a major problem worldwide. The recently prominent Coronaviruses (CoVs) within this group belong to the Coronaviridae family, subfamily Coronavirinae, and are large (genome size 26-32 kb), enveloped, single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA ) viruses that can infect both animals and humans. The world has experienced three epidemics caused by betaCoVs in the last two decades: SARS in 2002-03, MERS in 2012, and COVID-19, first identified in 2019. COVID-19 continues to be our current health problem and studies on the subject continue. Result and Discussion: The term "antiviral agents" is defined in very broad terms as substances other than virus-containing vaccine or specific antibody that can produce a protective or therapeutic effect for the clearly detectable effect of the infected host. Nature has the potential to cure humanity's helplessness against viruses with many different plant species with strong antiviral effects. During the screening of plants with antiviral effects, focusing on plants used in folk medicine is of great importance in terms of maximizing the benefit to humanity - saving time and effort by dealing with valuable ancient knowledge on a scientific basis. In this review, viral diseases and the plants used in these diseases and determined to be effective are mentioned.Copyright © 2022 University of Ankara. All rights reserved.

11.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; 58(2):97-98, 2023.
Artigo em Chinês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20237410

RESUMO

The conventional drug design method focuses on the reductionist approach of simplifying complex things. Pharmaceutical development following this approach is thorough and detailed. However, it does not guarantee satisfactory results for all drugs. Systems theory, which explores the nature of things from a holistic perspective based on their integrity and relevance, has played a vital role in the prevention and treatment of major viral diseases. Based on the interpretations of examples of the holistic approach in drug designs at home and abroad, novel coronavirus infection demonstrates the advantages of combining reductionist and systemic theories in the research of antiviral drugs, with a view to providing guidance for the design and development of antiviral drugs as well as scientific solutions for the prevention and treatment of viral diseases.Copyright © 2023 Chinese Pharmaceutical Association. All rights reserved.

12.
Drug Delivery Letters ; 13(2):83-91, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20236526

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by coronavirus. Devel-oping specific drugs for inhibiting replication and viral entry is crucial. Several clinical trial studies are underway to evaluate the efficacy of anti-viral drugs for COVID-19 patients. Nanomedicine formulations can present a novel strategy for targeting the virus life cycle. Nano-drug delivery systems can modify the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics properties of anti-viral drugs and reduce their adverse effects. Moreover, nanocarriers can directly exhibit anti-viral effects. A number of nanocarriers have been studied for this purpose, including liposomes, dendrimers, exosomes and decoy nanoparticles (NPs). Among them, decoy NPs have been considered more as nanodecoys can efficiently protect host cells from the infection of SARS-CoV-2. The aim of this review article is to highlight the probable nanomedicine therapeutic strategies to develop anti-viral drug delivery systems for the treatment of COVID-19.Copyright © 2023 Bentham Science Publishers.

13.
Advances in Traditional Medicine ; 23(2):321-345, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20236383

RESUMO

The current outbreak of COVID-19 is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus that has affected > 210 countries. Various steps are taken by different countries to tackle the current war-like health situation. In India, the Ministry of AYUSH released a self-care advisory for immunomodulation measures during the COVID-19 and this review article discusses the detailed scientific rationale associated with this advisory. Authors have spotted and presented in-depth insight of advisory in terms of immunomodulatory, antiviral, antibacterial, co-morbidity associated actions, and their probable mechanism of action. Immunomodulatory actions of advised herbs with no significant adverse drug reaction/toxicity strongly support the extension of advisory for COVID-19 prevention, prophylaxis, mitigations, and rehabilitation capacities. This advisory also emphasized Dhyana (meditation) and Yogasanas as a holistic approach in enhancing immunity, mental health, and quality of life. The present review may open-up new meadows for research and can provide better conceptual leads for future researches in immunomodulation, antiviral-development, psychoneuroimmunology, especially for COVID-19.Copyright © 2021, Institute of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University.

14.
Farmakoekonomika ; 16(1):105-124, 2023.
Artigo em Russo | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20236273

RESUMO

Background. The rapidly developing resistance of viruses to synthetic antiviral drugs indicates the need to use substances with multitarget action (to avoid polypharmacy and to improve the safety of treatment). Objective(s): systematic analysis of the scientific literature on the pharmacology of bioflavonoids with an emphasis on their antiviral action. Material and methods. More than 150,000 references of primary sources were found in the PubMed/MEDLINE database of biomedical publications, including 3282 references on the antiviral effects of bioflavonoids. A systematic computerized analysis of this array of publications was carried out in order to identify the main directions in the pharmacology of bioflavonoids with an emphasis on their antiviral, antibacterial and immunomodulatory effects. The literature analysis was carried out using modern methods of topological and metric analysis of big data. Results. The molecular mechanisms of action of baicalin, hesperidin, rutin, quercetin, leukodelphinidin bioflavonoids and epigallocatechin-3gallate, curcumin polyphenols, their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, bactericidal, angioprotective, regenerative effects, and their prospects in therapy, prevention and rehabilitation of patients with COVID-19 and other respiratory viral infections were described in detail. Conclusion. Bioflavonoids and synergistic polyphenols exhibit not only multitarget antiviral effects by inhibiting the main protease, spike proteins, and other target proteins, but also pronounced anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and immunomodulatory effects.Copyright © 2023 Modern Medical Technology. All rights reserved.

15.
Perfusion ; 38(1 Supplement):138, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20235761

RESUMO

Objectives: Reviewing current literature and case reports of patients placed on Venous-Venous ECMO support for HIV and AIDS, with confection with Pneumocystis pneumonia and covid-19 pneumonia. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in patients who have acute respiratory distress syndrome has been shown to have very good outcomes. However, there is limited data to support the initiation of ECMO in patients who have human immunodeficiency virus infection with or without acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Method(s): We present a unique and challenging case of a 30 year old male, with no known past medical history, unvaccinated against covid-19, who presented with one week of progressive shortness of breath. On admission he was found with moderate bilateral infiltrates and was diagnosed with covid-19 pneumonia. Despite appropriate medical therapy, patient developed worsening hypoxic respiratory failure. Found to have elevated (1- 3)-7beta;-d-glucan and tested positive for HIV. CD4 count 11, HIV viral load 70,000. The patient remained severely hypoxemic despite mechanical ventilation, sedation, paralytics and proning. Venous venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was initiated. Considering his non improvement with variety of antivirals and antibiotics and with elevated (1-3)-7beta;-d-glucan in the setting of AIDS he was treated for presumed Pneumocystis pneumonia. The patient tolerated proning while on VV ECMO and his course was complicated with bilateral pneumothorax necessitating chest tube placement. Result(s): The patient successfully completed 64 days on VV ECMO, where he was treated for PCP pneumonia, covid pneumonia, CMV viremia and tolerated initiation of anti-retroviral therapy. Patient was successfully decannulated, and ultimately discharged from the hospital. Conclusion(s): VV-ECMO can be a beneficial intervention with successful outcomes in severely immunocomprimised patients with AIDS. This case highlights the importance of minimizing sedation and early mobilization on ECMO support. (Figure Presented).

16.
Modern Pediatrics ; Ukraine.(1):7-15, 2023.
Artigo em Ucraniano | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20234114

RESUMO

Purpose - to draw attention to an infection that was little known, but has now become a global problem for society;to familiarize readers with the peculiarities of the 2022 monkeypox outbreak and to increase the level of alertness of doctors to this disease. Monkeypox is a global problem because the disease is spreading rapidly, covering 111 countries. Three cases were diagnosed in Ukraine. It is predominantly a self-limited infection, but there are severe and deadly complications. The lethality of this disease ranges from 0% to 11%. The course of the disease is more severe in children and people with reduced immunity. Vertical transmission of the virus from mother to child is possible, resulting in congenital monkeypox. Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease and its natural reservoir is not exactly known, but rodents are most likely to act. In most cases, person-to-person transmission of the virus occurs through close skin to skin contact, often during sexual intercourse. At the beginning of the outbreak 98% of cases of disease were was diagnosed in homo- and bisexuals. Airborne transmission is also possible. Infection is possible through close contact with infectious skin lesions. Clinically, the initial period resembles influenza, but lymphadenopathy is characteristic, which is considered a pathognomonic symptom of mpox. The rash is similar to that of chickenpox, but with more prevalent location on palms and soles than in chickenpox. In the presence of a vesicular rash in a patient, it is necessary to exclude monkeypox. PCR diagnostics of the virus in samples of vesicles or crusts has the greatest diagnostic value. Hygienic skin care is important. Antiviral drugs (tecovirimat, brincidofovir) are recommended only in severe cases. To reduce the spread of infection, international rules apply as for other infections, such as COVID-19. The monkeypox virus vaccine is recommended primarily for groups at risk of infection, including medical personnel who may come into contact with the patient or samples for laboratory testing. Being aware for this infection, following international health regulations, it is possible to prevent the further spread of monkeypox.Copyright © 2023 Tomsk State University. All rights reserved.

17.
Value in Health ; 26(6 Supplement):S102-S103, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20233924

RESUMO

Objectives: Efforts to combat COVID-19 have largely focused on vaccination and non-pharmaceutical interventions to decrease hospitalization and death and to reduce transmission. First generation COVID-19 direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are only authorized for high-risk patients to reduce individual risk of disease progression. However, DAAs can also impact transmission by reducing viral load, thereby shortening the duration of infectivity. Next generation oral DAAs in development may have safety profiles that are amenable to broader eligibility and use. This analysis estimates the economic and clinical impact of increasing the utilization of DAAs to treat COVID-19. Method(s): A susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible model was developed to estimate COVID-19-related outcomes based on DAA uptake. Cost-savings modeled included reduced healthcare utilization amongst individual patients and, importantly, potential savings attributable to reduced transmission. Cost inputs included treatment acquisition costs, adverse events, healthcare utilization, and productivity losses based on published literature. One million individuals were assessed with clinical and economic outcomes estimated for DAA adoption by risk level. Result(s): The model projects 402,330 new infections per 1 million individuals annually, leading to 6,000 hospitalizations and 107 deaths. By increasing DAA use by 10% in the high-risk population and 20% in the standard-risk population, infections decreased to 312,000, with 1,800 fewer hospitalizations and 34 fewer deaths. Decreases in medical encounters were driven by reduction in transmission (77% of the decrease) and reduction in severity amongst those treated (23% of the decrease). Among deaths averted, 72% were attributable to the reduction in transmission. Overall, costs decrease by 23.5% with increased treatment. Conclusion(s): This study is among the first to model the potential population-level impact of DAAs in reducing infectivity and transmission, a factor currently under-emphasized in the literature. New DAAs under development with potentially improved safety profiles may expand the uptake of treatment and substantially reduce the clinical and economic burden of COVID-19.Copyright © 2023

18.
Value in Health ; 26(6 Supplement):S39, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20233799

RESUMO

Objectives: Development of new and repurposed medicines in response to the COVID-19 pandemic has occurred at an unprecedented rate, resulting in a dynamic pipeline marked by significant challenges and successes. This analysis provides an overview of the vaccines and therapies undergoing clinical evaluation or with recent approval for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 in global markets. Method(s): For this analysis, COVID-19 pipeline medicines are defined in three categories: vaccines, new treatments and repurposed medicines. GlobalData is the primary data source for this study, in addition to online databases from Health Canada, the US FDA, and the EMA. International markets examined include the US and geographic Europe (excluding Russia and Turkey). Result(s): As of November 2022, the global pipeline contained over 600 therapies and vaccines undergoing Phase I, II, III clinical trials or pre-registration for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Preventive and repurposed medicines include antivirals, immunoglobulins, monoclonal antibodies, cellular therapies, and convalescent plasma. In Canada, twelve medicines, including six vaccines, have been approved for COVID-19. The number of global approvals is greater, with approximately 9 vaccines on the market in OECD countries. In addition to pre-exposure preventative therapies, manufacturers are also developing COVID-19 drugs to be used as prophylactic therapy. The analysis identifies new oral antiviral treatments and preventative therapies in the pipeline and under review in various jurisdictions globally. Conclusion(s): This research provides a clearer picture of the characteristics and evolution of the market for new and emerging COVID-19 medicines, which will help policy-makers and other stakeholders understand and anticipate the unique pressures of the COVID-19 pandemic.Copyright © 2023

19.
Infectious Microbes and Diseases ; 4(3):85-93, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20232428
20.
Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs ; 54(4):1201-1207, 2023.
Artigo em Chinês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2324524

RESUMO

Objective To explore the clinical effect and safety of Suhexiang Pills () in the treatment of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Methods A total of 192 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 admitted to 17 hospitals including Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated to Capital Medical University from December 2022 to January 2023 were randomly divided into control group and treatment group, with 89 patients in the treatment group and 103 in the control group. The patients in control group received basic treatment according to the Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for COVID-19 (Trial Version 10). The patients in treatment group were oral administered with Suhexiang Pills on the basis of the control group, one pill each time, twice day. The patients in two groups were treated for 5 d. The clinical efficacy of the two groups after treatment was compared. The differences in scores of headache, chest pain, limb pain and inflammatory indexes before and after treatment were compared. Results After treatment, the total clinical effective rate of the treatment group was 95.51%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group (81.55%, P < 0.05). After treatment, headache, chest pain and limb pain scores were significantly decreased in both groups (P < 0.05), the headache score of the treatment group was significantly lower than that of the control group from the first day of treatment (P < 0.05), the chest pain score of the treatment group was significantly lower than that of the control group on the fifth day of treatment (P < 0.05), the limb pain score of the treatment group was significantly lower than that of the control group from the third day of treatment (P < 0.05). After treatment, the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the two groups were decreased significantly (P < 0.05) and the levels of CRP and IL-6 in the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse events between the two groups. Conclusion Suhexiang Pills have a certain effect on headache, chest pain and limb pain, inhibiting the inflammatory response in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, with good safety.Copyright © 2023 Editorial Office of Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs. All rights reserved.

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