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1.
Swiss Medical Weekly ; 151(506) (no pagination), 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2207246

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a screening tool designed to identify detained people at increased risk for COVID-19 mortality, the COVID-19 Inmate Risk Appraisal (CIRA). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with a representative sample (development) and a case-control sample (validation). SETTING: The two largest Swiss prisons. PARTICIPANTS: (1) Development sample: all male persons detained in Poschwies, Zurich (n = 365);(2) Validation sample: case-control sample of male persons detained in Champ-Dollon, Geneva (n = 192, matching 1:3 for participants at risk for severe course of COVID-19 and participants without risk factors). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The CIRA combined seven risk factors identified by the World Health Organization and the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health as predictive of severe COVID-19 to derive an absolute risk increase in mortality rate: Age >=60 years, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, chronic respiratory disease, immunodeficiency and cancer. RESULT(S): Based on the development sample, we proposed a three-level classification: average (<3.7), elevated (3.7-5.7) and high (>5.7) risk. In the validation sample, the CIRA identified all individuals identified as vulnerable by national recommendations (having at least one risk factor). The category "elevated risk" maximised sensitivity (1) and specificity (0.97). The CIRA had even higher capacity in discriminating individuals vulnerable according to clinical evaluation (a four-level risk categorisation based on a consensus of medical staff). The category "elevated risk" maximised sensitivity and specificity (both 1). When considering the individuals classified as extremely high risk by medical staff, the category "high risk" had a high discriminatory capacity (sensitivity =0.89, specificity =0.97). CONCLUSION(S): The CIRA scores have a high discriminative ability and will be important in custodial settings to support decisions and prioritise actions using a standardised valid assessment method. However, as knowledge on risk factors for COVID-19 mortality is still limited, the CIRA may be considered preliminary. Underlying data will be updated regularly on the website (http://www.prison-research.com), where the CIRA algorithm is freely available. Copyright © 2021 EMH Swiss Medical Publishers Ltd.. All rights reserved.

2.
New Armenian Medical Journal ; 16(4):31-35, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2207245

RESUMO

More than two years since the first SARS-CoV-2 infection were reported, the COVID-19 pandemic remains an acute global emergency. The COVID-19 pandemic has deeply affected the lives of people across the world. Its health, economic, political, educational, and societal consequences have disproportionately affected the most vulnerable. Apart from being a global health concern, COVID-19 is having major consequences on the world economy. The pandemic has challenged local, national, regional and global capacities to prepare and respond. Health systems globally have employed three common approaches to rapidly scale up health system infrastructure, namely by constructing new treatment facilities, converting public venues and reconfiguring existing medical facilities to provide care for patients with COVID-19. Considerable efforts were being made behind the scenes to develop new strategies to ensure adequate public healthcare infrastructure and workplace capacities. Hospitals have repurposed and reallocated internal space and redeployed resources to manage COVID-19 patients. Countries discharged many patients from hospitals to their homes and postponed non-critical treatment and elective procedures. Almost all hospitals adopted a strategy of hospital approach to COVID-19 with the different primary and secondary goals. In this article we present a strategy of Mikaelyan University Hospital located in Yerevan, Armenia in managing patients with COVID-19. Preparing for patients' admission, developing of internal and external hospital communications, reconstruction, redistribution of human resources was carried out in parallel with trainings of health care workers, patients' education, etc. Mikaelyan University Hospital laboratory was reorganized to implement the new approaches and goals in managing of unprecedented number of patients and to secure quality control. The number of intensive care unit beds has been increased, also all possible efforts have been made to obtain all the required equipment and maintenance. Overall, the strategy can be considered successful as it was based on the multidisciplinary and multisectoral approach including academic sector, clinicians, leadership, patients, decision makers, nurses, radiologists, psychologists, intensivists, etc. Copyright © 2022, Yerevan State Medical University. All rights reserved.

3.
New Armenian Medical Journal ; 16(4):14-22, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2207244

RESUMO

Calcium is involved in all vital processes of the body: synaptic transmission, memory development, immunity, blood clotting, heart contractions, etc. In this regard, it is important to understand the involvement of calcium in the development of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection and COVID-19 disease. We have studied the existing scientific literature, looking for the involvement of both calcium and calcium-regulating hormones (parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, vitamin D) in COVID contagiousness and severity of disease. Separately, both hypocalcemia and vitamin D deficiency have been identified in a number of large clinical trials as a predictor of mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 plays a key role in contagiousness with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and its formation is a calciumcalmodulin-dependent process. In our opinion, in order to prevent the penetration and spreading of the virus in the body, this link should be targeted with the usage of drugs that activate the calcium calmodulin system. Calcium blockers used parallel with hypocalcemia, to some extent, reduce the spreading of the virus in the body in the acute phase of the disease, but it is possible that in the future they lead to deeper and long-term complications-cognitive dysfunction. However, we did not find any study in the literature that aimed to identify calcium-dependent mechanisms in a complex, dynamic study of the same patients. Therefore, this question is still open in science, because without understanding how the amount of calcium-regulating hormones changes during the disease, without understanding how much phosphorus changes in parallel with calcium, it is impossible to get a complete picture of the disease on the role of calcium-dependent mechanisms in development. Only a summary of such combined data will allow us to reach a scientifically based conclusion, to explain the mechanisms by which hypocalcemia occurs, and by what possible mechanisms it can be prevented. Copyright © 2022, Yerevan State Medical University. All rights reserved.

4.
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacognosy Research ; 10(6):1126-1138, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2207242

RESUMO

Context: COVID-19 was caused by the spread and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at the end of 2019 until now. The problem comes when antiviral drugs have not yet been found and patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 can trigger a cytokine storm condition due to the effects of viral replication. Indonesia has various kinds of medicinal plants, such as Sonchus arvensis L., which are used as medicinal plants. Aim(s): To analyze the activity of the inhibitor as SARS-CoV-2 antiviral agents from n-hexane fractions of S. arvensis leaves. Method(s): The sample was collected from GC-MS analysis, PubChem, and Protein Databank database, then drug-likeness identification using Lipinski Rule of Five server and bioactive prediction of bioactive compounds as inhibitor activity was conducted by Molinspiration server. Furthermore, the docking simulation was performed using PyRx 0.9.9 software to determine the binding activity, molecular interaction by Discovery Studio software to identify position and interaction type, 3D molecular visualization by PyMol 2.5. software, and dynamic by CABS-flex 2.0 server to predict interaction stability. Result(s): alpha-Amyrin and beta-amyrin from n-hexane fractions of S. arvensis leaves had activity as SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors through interactions on helicase, RdRp, Mpro, and RBD-Spike, both compounds had more negative binding affinity than control drug and can produce stable chemical bond interactions in the ligand-protein complexes. However, the results were merely computational, so they must be validated through an in vivo and in vitro research approach. Conclusion(s): Sonchus arvensis L. leaves were predicted to have SARS-CoV-2 antiviral through inhibitor activity by alpha-amyrin and beta-amyrin. Copyright © 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research.

5.
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacognosy Research ; 10(6):1103-1116, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2207241

RESUMO

Context: The outbreak of a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 has caused an unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic. To put an end to this pandemic, effective antivirals should be identified or developed for COVID-19 treatment. However, specific and effective antivirals or inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 are still lacking. Aim(s): To evaluate bioactive compounds from Phyllanthus tenellus and Kaempferia parviflora as inhibitors against two essential SARS-CoV-2 proteins, main protease (Mpro) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), through molecular docking studies and to predict the drug-likeness properties of the compounds. Method(s): The inhibition potential and interaction of P. tenellus and K. parviflora compounds against Mpro and RdRp were assessed through molecular docking. The drug-likeness properties of the compounds were predicted using SwissADME and AdmetSAR tools. Result(s): Rutin and ellagic acid glucoside from P. tenellus and 4-hydroxy-6-methoxyflavone and 5-hydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone from K. parviflora exhibited the highest binding conformations to Mpro by interacting with its substrate binding site that was predicted to halt the Mpro activity. As for RdRp, ellagitannin and rutin from P. tenellus and peonidin and 5,3'-dihydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone from K. parviflora were the best-docked compounds that bound to the RdRp catalytic domain (Asp760 and Asp761) and NTP-entry channel that were anticipated to stop RNA polymerization. However, in the context of drug developability, 4-hydroxy-6-methoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone, peonidin and 5,3'-dihydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone from K. parviflora were highly potential to be oral active drugs compared to rutin, ellagic acid glucoside and ellagitannin from P. tenellus. Conclusion(s): P. tenellus and K. parviflora compounds, particularly the aforementioned compounds, were suggested as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and RdRp. Copyright © 2022 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research.

6.
Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences ; 52(6):1754-1761, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2207222

RESUMO

Background/aim: Data on antibody response following COVID-19 in kidney transplant recipients is scarce. This crosssectional study aims to investigate the antibody response to COVID-19 among kidney transplant recipients. Material(s) and Method(s): We recruited 46 kidney transplant recipients with RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 and 45 recipients without COVID-19 history. We also constructed two control groups (COVID-19 positive and negative) from a historical cohort of healthcare workers. We used age and sex-based propensity score matching to select the eligible subjects to the control groups. We measured the SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels quantitatively using the Abbott ARCHITECT system. An antibody level above 1.4 S/C was defined as positivity. Result(s): Transplant recipients with COVID-19 had a higher BMI, and COVID-19 history in a household member was more common than that of the transplant recipient without COVID-19. IgG seropositivity rate (69.6% vs. 78.3%, p = 0.238) and the median IgG level (3.28 [IQR: 0.80-5.85] vs. 4.59 [IQR: 1.61-6.06], p = 0.499) were similar in COVID-19-positive transplant recipients and controls. Kidney transplant recipients who had a longer duration between RT-PCR and antibody testing had lower antibody levels (r = -0.532, p < 0.001). Conclusion(s): At the early post-COVID-19 period, kidney transplant recipients have a similar antibody response to controls. However, these patients' antibody levels and immunity should be closely monitored in the long term. Copyright © TUBITAK.

7.
Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences ; 52(6):1745-1753, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2207221

RESUMO

Background/aim: It is important to evaluate the vaccine-related metabolic changes on FDG PET/CT to avoid confusing results. We here aimed to assess the frequency and intensity of regional and systemic metabolic PET/CT changes of patients who received the mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine (BNT162b2-Pfizer/BioNTech) and to analyze possible factors affecting these changes. Material(s) and Method(s): Among the patients who underwent FDG PET/CT for any indication in our department between July 2021 and December 2021, 129 volunteer patients with a history of COVID-19 vaccination were included in this prospective observational study. Bilateral axillary lymph nodes, ipsilateral deltoid muscle, bone marrow, spleen, thyroid, and liver FDG uptakes were evaluated visually and semiquantitatively for each examination. Result(s): The frequencies of positive axillary lymph nodes after vaccination were 40%, 44.4%, 32.6%, and 44.7% in all, 1st dose, 2nd dose, and heterologous vaccination regimens groups, respectively. Maximum standardized uptake values of spleen, liver, and bone marrow were statistically high in patients with positive axillary lymph nodes than with negative ones (p < 0.05). Positive deltoid muscle uptake and diffusely increased thyroid uptake findings were observed in 10 and 8 patients, respectively. The median time interval between vaccination and imaging was 9.5 days for patients with positive axillary lymph nodes and 17 days for patients with negative nodes. In our study group, only 8 patients had a positive documented history of COVID-19 infection. Conclusion(s): Regional and systemic metabolic changes were occasionally found on FDG PET/CT imaging in patients who received the mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine. To avoid these timely decreasing changes, we recommend managing the ideal timing of imaging or vaccination and taking a careful history. Copyright © TUBITAK.

8.
Salus ; 25(3):32-38, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2207152

RESUMO

Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection ranges from asymptomatic forms to very serious manifestations of COVID-19 that can compromise life. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic raises the need to identify the risk factors that determine interindividual variability in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, pathophysiology and disease progression. Several authors suggest that the genetic component plays a key role in the complex virus-host interaction, where population differences are responsible for such heterogeneity. Method(s): A scoping review of the literature published to date was carried out in order to learn about the biological markers that seem to affect the evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and the genetic polymorphisms of molecules potentially involved in the complex virus-host interaction. Result(s): Numerous evidences indicate that allelic variants of genes encoding molecules working in the early stages of virus-cell interaction or during events that define the immune response of the host, could favor the infection and/or the disease severity by SARS-CoV-2. The ABO blood group seems to play a role in immunopathogenesis, with group O individuals showing a lower risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2, although other genetic, physiological and metabolic components of the host, such as the differential expression of toll-like receptors, HLA antigens, proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines or other effectors of the innate and acquired immune response would also be participating. Conclusion(s): The success and progression of the viral infection towards the development of clinical manifestations and the severity grade depend largely on the interaction between viral factors and the host's response, as well as seem to be conditioned by epigenetic factors and pre-existing comorbidities. The contribution of the genetic component raises the potential application of targeted preventive strategies, the identification of therapeutic targets and the development of new drugs. Copyright © 2021, Revista Salus. All rights reserved.

9.
Salus ; 25(3):15-18, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2207149

RESUMO

The infection generated by SARS-CoV-2 has caused more than 200 million cases and 4.5 million deaths worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 has accumulated mutations that allow it to be classified into different lineages. Some of these lineages have been designated variants by the WHO: under monitoring (VUM), of interest (VOI), or of concern (VOC). Methodology. Different strategies for genomic surveillance of these SARS-CoV-2 variants have been described in each country. In Venezuela, the strategies include the amplification of a fragment of the spike, PCR-RFLP, and sequencing of the complete viral genome, which has allowed us to monitor the introduction of VOCs and VOIs to the country. Results. By October 2021, in Venezuela, the circulation of three VOCs, Alpha, Gamma, and Delta, and the two VOIs (Lambda and Mu) have been described. Globally, the Delta variant predominates in practically all continents except some Latin American countries, although it is estimated that it will soon prevail in the region as well. Discussion. The circulation of variants in the countries is a very dynamic process and Venezuela does not escape from this reality;therefore, it is important to continue genomic surveillance of this virus. Copyright © 2021, Revista Salus. All rights reserved.

10.
Salus ; 25(3):8-14, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2207148

RESUMO

Introduction. The first cases of COVID-19 were reported in China in early December 2019 and the discovery of its etiological agent, the SARS-CoV-2 virus, was announced in January 2020. The knowledge gained about the structure and biology of the SARS-CoV-2 enabled, among other things, the rapid development of several vaccines against COVID-19, which until now have been based on the production of neutralizing antibodies against spike protein S. Methods. The vaccines were initially authorized for emergency use, based on safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy results in phase 3 clinical trials. These vaccines began to be applied in public health programs in December 2020. Results. As vaccination programs expand, several questions begin to arise regarding current vaccines, which are discussed in this review: safety and adverse effects, efficacy against emerging viral variants, effectiveness in "real life conditions", duration of protective immunity and need for boosters, heterologous vaccination, and vaccination of children. Conclusions. The strategy for the use of vaccines must be based on scientific knowledge, which is in continuous development. Research continues to develop a second generation of more effective vaccines. Copyright © 2021, Revista Salus. All rights reserved.

11.
Neurology Asia ; 27(4):931-935, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2207120

RESUMO

Background: Bell's palsy or peripheral facial palsy after coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) vaccination is relatively rare and presents only as an adverse event that resolves spontaneously. The increasing reports of Bell's palsy after immunization shows an increased risk and this hinders some individuals from acquiring vaccination in this certain time of pandemic. Method(s): This case-control study was performed from September 2021 to March 2022, at the emergency and outpatient departments of a tertiary hospital in the Philippines to determine the association of COVID-19 vaccination and Bell's palsy. Patients diagnosed with facial nerve palsy were matched by age, sex, and date of consult with control patients admitted for other reasons. The proportion of patients with Bell's palsy after vaccination was compared between groups, and odds ratio for exposure to the vaccine was calculated. A secondary comparison with the overall number of patients with facial nerve palsy in preceding years was also performed. Result(s): Thirty-one patients were evaluated for new-onset facial nerve palsy during the study period. The mean (SD) patient age was 42.9 (15.6) years, wherein 12 (37.8%) were males and 19 (61.3%) were females. Out of the 31 patients, 8 (25.8%) had hypertension, 3 (9.7%) had diabetes mellitus, 1 (3.2%) had dyslipidemia and 2 (6.5%) had previous episode of peripheral nerve palsy. Of the vaccinated cases, 5 (62.5%) received Sinovac, 2 (25%) received the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine and 1 (12.5%) had Moderna. Comparing recently vaccinated (8 of 31 [25.8%]) with unvaccinated (23 of 31 [74.2%]) patients showed no meaningful difference in age (mean [SD], 46.5 [11.7] vs 40 [16.6] years;P = 0.92), or sex (5 [62.5%] male, 3 [37.5] female) vs 7 [30.4%] male, 16 [69.6] female;P =0.10). The mean (SD) time from vaccination was 6.1 (4.5 [range, 1-14]) days. The calculated OR for exposure to the vaccine among cases was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.40-1.99;P = 0.76). Furthermore, a relatively stable trend of cases of Bell's palsy was seen during the same period in the preceding years (mean [SD], 27.5 [3.4] cases;median, 28 [range, 23-29] cases). Conclusion(s): This study revealed no significant association between new-onset Bell's palsy and recent vaccination with COVID-19 vaccines. However, it is important to note that Bell's palsy can be an adverse effect of COVID-19 immunization and is a typically benign condition with excellent prognosis. The protective effects of COVID-19 vaccination outweigh the risk of this generally self-limiting treatable adverse effect. Copyright © 2022, ASEAN Neurological Association. All rights reserved.

12.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(11):564-566, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2207097

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the outcomes of coronavirus disease-2019 patients with acute renal damage who received remdesivir against placebo at a private hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Methodology: At the COVID-19 ICU of Hussain Lakhni Hospital, a cohort study was conducted from July 2021 to February 2022. Male and female study participants with COVID-19 and acute renal injury ranged in age from 40 to 80. Remdesivir-treated individuals with COVID-19 acute kidney injury were exposed, but placebo-treated patients with COVID-19 acute kidney injury were not exposed. In-hospital mortality, elevated serum creatinine levels, and prolonged hospital stays were the results. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 23. Result(s): Patients who took remdesivir had a lower mortality rate than those who were placebo (32.2% vs 67.8%, OR=0.38, 95 percent CI=0.27-0.52), with a p-value of 0.001. Remdesivir was also associated with a shorter hospital stay (4.2% versus 95.8%, OR=0.005, 95 percent CI=.003-0.009) with a p-value of 0.001). However, increased serum creatinine revealed statistically insignificant differences between groups. The odds of in-hospital mortality were 0.376 times lower (AOR=0.376, 95 percent CI=0.275-0.514, p=0.0001) and the odds of a prolonged hospital stay were 0.030 times lower (AOR=0.030, 95 percent CI=0.012-0.074, p=0.001) in the remdesivir group than in the placebo group after controlling for covariates. Practical implication: In literature Remdesvir was associated with acute kidney injury (rise in serum creatinine) and in many centres,it was not used in patients with acute kidney injury although it has very beneficial effect in patients of severe covid pneumonia,many centres were not using it in patients of acute renal failure. in our study, rise in serum creatinine was not significant in remdesvir group in patient with acute kidney injury,so remdesvir must not be withheld in this group of patients as it can decrease the severity of covid pneumonia and saves patients lives Conclusion(s): Remdesivir is an effective medicine in COVID-19 patients with acute renal damage in terms of in-hospital mortality and duration of stay. Copyright © 2022 Lahore Medical And Dental College. All rights reserved.

13.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(11):468-471, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2207096

RESUMO

Objective: To study the relationship of demographic factors and co-morbidities with post-COVID-19 recovery in tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar. Methodology: This research was conducted in tertiary care hospitals of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa extending over a period of 6 months starting from 1st July 2020 to 31st December 2020. It was an analytical descriptive study (cross-sectional). Patients were selected through a non-probability consecutive sampling technique. Descriptive statistics were performed with SPSS software 22.0 in the form of the mean (sd) and percentages while univariate and multivariate logistic regression scrutiny was performed with STATA version 13.0. Result(s): A mean age (48.94+/-17.57) was observed up to the post-infection recovery or death. The mean age of post-infection recovered patients in the age series of 18-35 years and >55 years was significantly significant (P<0.05) Out of those who recovered, 110 (79.5%) were males and 49(20.5%) were females while those who died of the infection 15(36.6%) were females and 26(83.8%) were males. Univariate analysis showed that age, residence, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease were the covariates significantly associated (p.value <0.05) with post COVID recovery. In multivariate analysis with adjusted OR, "residence" was the only covariate associated with post-infection recovery. Adjusting for the effect of age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, those who were living in urban areas were most likely to recover from COVID-19 infection as compared to the peri-urban residents (OR=0.067, CI: 0.013-0.333). In the full deduced model, adjusting for age, gender, diabetes, hypertension and ischemic heart disease, being an urban resident was 0.08 times more likely to survive or alive after getting COVID-19 infection as compared to dwellers living in city outskirts (OR=0.08, CI: 0.016-0.360). Conclusion Patients suffering from chronic hypertension and ischemic heart diseases were the most affected having higher post-infection mortalities compared to diabetic patients while, from a demographic point of view, being a resident of an urban area was a protective factor for post-infection recovery. Copyright © 2022 Lahore Medical And Dental College. All rights reserved.

14.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(11):393-396, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2207095

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the frequency of COVID-19 in pregnant women and its effects on feto-maternal outcomes at a tertiary care hospital. Method(s): Present cross-sectional study was conducted at the department of gynae and OBS, at Ziauddin University and Hospital Karachi, from April, 2020 to August 2020. All the pregnant women at term who were admitted for delivery in maternity unit, aged more than 18 years old, and of either parity, were included. After taking written and verbal informed consent women were offered to be tested for SARS-COV2 via Nasopharyngeal PCR swab test. Those women who tested positive for the COVID-19 test were treated according to the severity of the symptoms, and asymptomatic and clinically sound patients were shifted to isolation rooms. Women who presented in spontaneous labour were treated as SARS COV2 positive for safety purposes. SPSS version 22 was used to perform the analysis, all of the data. Result(s): A total of 454 pregnant females were tested for SARS-CoV2 via a nasopharyngeal PCR swab test, and 12 (3%) women tested positive. Out of the 12 women testing positive, 4 were preterm births, and no significant association was found between COVID PCR being positive (p=0.00) and preterm birth (p=0.112). Five out of 12 women testing positive had an episode(s) of leaking. There was a strong association between COVID PCR being positive and episodes of leaking (p=0.001). Three out of 12 women testing positive had fetal distress, while 19 out of 454 women testing negative had fetal distress (p=0.004). There were no cases of APH or PPH reported in women testing positive;however, out of 442 women testing negative, 1 APH and 3 PPH were reported. There was no mortality in either of the patients, mother or neonate. Conclusion(s): As per the study conclusion, the frequency of COVID-19 among women during pregnancy was observed to be only 3%, which was significantly linked to the pneumonia, leaking, and fetal distress. Copyright © 2022 Lahore Medical And Dental College. All rights reserved.

15.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(11):366-370, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2207094

RESUMO

Purpose: This study determines the information dissemination during the Covid-19 pandemic and examine the impact on the educational activity of postgraduate students in Allied Health Sciences institute in Pakistan. Methodology: Present quantitative study is based on survey method that was carried out to assess the effectiveness of information dissemination during Covid-19 pandemic among postgraduate allied health science students in different universities in Lahore Pakistan. Finding(s): The response rate of the study remained 80%. Majority of users, about 69.5% (n=66) students responded that they did not have challenges in information dissemination during Covid-19, while 30.5% (n=29) students respond that the information was poor. Respondents of the study found highly satisfied with the efficiency of library on providing e-services during Covid-19 (P-Value = 0.487). usability of libraries in information dissemination in which 74 (78%) responded that libraries provide access to reliable and trustworthy Covid-19 pandemic information via different media. 75(79%) students are agreed on providing awareness sensitization on how to restrain the spread of Covid-19 pandemic, online and offline services provided by libraries to allied health science students, challenges faced by libraries in the dissemination of information 77 (81%) Students respond that there is inadequate skills and knowledge of utilizing the Internet resources and services. The recommendations of the study might be beneficial to enhance the effectiveness of resources and services of universities libraries. Copyright © 2022 Lahore Medical And Dental College. All rights reserved.

16.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(11):320-323, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2207093

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the policy barriers leading to hindrance in mass immunization of Covid-19 in Pakistan. Study design: A cross-sectional qualitative study was Duration of study: study was conducted from October 2021 to April 2022 Place of study: was conducted on 106 individuals at 4 vaccination centers of Lahore, including Expo center, Pakistan Kidney and Liver Institute and research center (PKLI), Lahore Developmental Authority (LDA) sports complex, Railway dispensary Model Town. Methodology: It covered interviews, focus group discussions and filling in of semi- structured questionnaires from the general public visiting the vaccination center. Individual interviews of hospital administrators and focused group interviews of general public visiting various hospitals of Lahore, including Jinnah Hospital, Services hospital, Lady Wallington hospital and University of Lahore Teaching Hospital were also included in this study. The data obtained was transcribed and analyzed by using SPSS software version 21. The theme we chose was Politically Informed Views and the subthemes were common hurdles, common myths, different vaccine brands, lack of awareness and conspiracy theories. Result(s): The results were significant (p<0.05) with the levels of different variables as: Common hurdles 41%;Common myth 25%;Religious Aspects 17%;Different brands 7% ;Lack of awareness 10% respectively. Each variable showed a remarkable difference from considered standard SOPs. Conclusion(s): To increase the vaccination drive, proper implementation of the already established government policies, with better surveillance and monitoring of the vaccine centers is required. Awareness among the general population should also be increased to debunk myths and motivate them. Copyright © 2022 Lahore Medical And Dental College. All rights reserved.

17.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(11):317-319, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2207092

RESUMO

An outbreak of Covid-19 occurred in Wuhan, China initially in December 2019. Over the next few months, the wide spread of SARS-CoV-2 had been reported in all continents and the transmission in utero from an infected mother to fetus debating yet was observed.1,9Objectives: To determine risk of vertical transmission of corona virus in neonates of SARS COVID-2 positive mothers. Study Design: A Cross-Sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Pediatric department of Pakistan Air Force (PAF) Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan. The study conducted during 01-03-2020 to 31-08-2020. Methodology: After taking informed consent, Nasopharyngeal swab for PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was taken one week before delivery. Confirmed COVID positive pregnant ladies were included irrespective of symptoms of COVID-19 infection and any other medical illness. Neonates born to COVID-19 positive mothers were admitted in NICU, and Performa was filled for neonates after PCR done 24 and 48 hours respectively. Result(s): Total 14(87.5%) out of 16 COVID positive mothers were asymptomatic. 16(100%) neonates were negative for Sars- COV-2 at 24 hours and 48 hours. Conclusion(s): This study concluded with no evidence of transmission of COVID-19 from infected mothers. Copyright © 2022 Lahore Medical And Dental College. All rights reserved.

18.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(11):273-274, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2207090

RESUMO

Background: Covid-19 was fulminant and had a rapid spread in China and many other areas around the globe. This is a life threatening problem at present as it causes the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV). Aim(s): To explore the diagnostic value of hematological parameters in COVID-19 patients. Study Design: Comparative Cross-Sectional Study. Methodology: Patients (n=200) having COVID-19 were enrolled. All patients had CBC and inflammatory markers. Various hematological markers were used as prognostic markers. SPSS software, v 23 analyzed data. Independent t-test and Chi square were applied and p value of <0.05 was taken significant. Result(s): Mean age for patients having COVID was 47+/- 15.48 years. Mean values of hematological parameters and platelet count were significantly low among COVID patients when compared with non-COVID patients thus having significant difference. Practical Implication: This study highlighted simple, cost-effective hematological parameters that can be useful diagnostic tools for COVI-19. This study indicated that routine tests can guide towards disease like COVID-19. Conclusion(s): We concluded that hematological parameters (TLC, ANC, AMC, NLR and platelet count) play a vital role as diagnostic tool for COVID-19 patients. Copyright © 2022 Lahore Medical And Dental College. All rights reserved.

19.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(11):185-187, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2207089

RESUMO

Background: Covid-19 is a spectrum of infection not only causing fever and respiratory changes but including alteration in chemosensory functions including;olfactory dysfunction and gustatory dysfunction. In covid-19, olfactory dysregulation could be treated with either systemic steroids or with topical steroids. Objective(s): To assess and compare role of systemic and topical steroids in regaining normal olfactory functions. Material(s) and Method(s): A Randomized control trial was conducted at Central Park Teaching Hospital Lahore after getting ethical approval and prior written informed consent from participants. A total of 35 patients were recruited were segregated into two groups;Group 1 who were treated with topical steroids (n=17) and Group 2 who were given and treated with systemic steroids (n=18). Time frame of regain of olfaction was compared between the groups using Mann Whitney U test. A p value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Result(s): A total of 35 participants participated in this randomized controlled trial who were segregated into two groups with the mean ages of 47.12 + 11.94 and 43.72 + 13.74 with no significant mean difference. On appliance of Mann-Whitney U test in Group 1 and group 2 (52 + 39 v/s 4 + 2) it was observed that systemic steroid patients regain olfaction earlier as compared to group 1 (topical steroids) with the p value of .0001. Practical implication: Systemic Steroids will help in prompt regaining of normal olfaction and should be part of COVID-19 infection management. Conclusion(s): Olfaction management till the regaining of normal olfactory functions should be part of covid-19 management and role of steroids in crucial yet unavoidable. Systemic steroids play a key role in early regain of normal olfactory response so should be encouraged under the physician observation. Copyright © 2022 Lahore Medical And Dental College. All rights reserved.

20.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(11):99-102, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2207088

RESUMO

Background: Almost everyone in society has been affected by the Covid epidemic.However, it has a different impact on individuals who have disabilities or special needs. People with special needs are more prone to this. Aim(s): To explore relationship between mental distress, perceived stress and resilience among special students during Covid-19 Method:Cross-sectional correlational research design was used to investigate the relationship between study variables. The total sample of n=250 special students consisted of 100(40%) females and 150(60%) with having age range from 15 to 30 years. The purposive sampling technique was employed to collect the data by using different research instruments Results:Results were drawn using correlation and multiple regression analyses. To explore gender differences, an independent t-test was computed. It was concluded that mental distress is negatively correlated with resilience and positively correlated with perceived stress. PraccticalImplication: This research would be helpfulfor the teachers of the special education centers, they train their how they develop resilience hence they may become emotionally stable and deal effectively with any worrisome circumstance well. It will help school administration of the special students'to conduct workshops on the resilience so that students could deal with their mental distress and perceived stress effectively. Conclusion(s): There was little published research on the variables examined in this study, particularly in Pakistan. To increase the body of knowledge, research on this subject must be done in Pakistan. Copyright © 2022 Lahore Medical And Dental College. All rights reserved.

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