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1.
Manager ; - (35):25-38, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2034358

RESUMO

Crises are part of the life cycle of any organization, regardless of location, size, market and sector. At the beginning of 2020 all countries, their economies, the health system faced a new crisis caused by a pandemic of COVID-19. The rapid spread of the disease and its consequences on human health required an urgent response of organizations to take care of the health and protection of employees through physical distance. Organizations had to rethink their way of doing business and adapt to the new conditions. The first challenge in crisis management is to form a crisis management team. The main goal of the crisis management team is to implement within the organization a new way of functioning, using all its opportunities and strengths to mitigate the negative effects of the crisis. The success of crisis management and the adaptation to the new working conditions of an organization depends on the functioning of the crisis management team. The results of a survey conducted in September and October 2020, which included 115 members of crisis management teams, showed that those teams had responded correctly to the crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of the research showed that the team members reacted correctly to the first signs of the crisis. They made quick and appropriate decisions using a holistic approach due to different knowledge, skills and experience, precise team roles, commitment to common strategy, open, fair and effective communication and mutual trust.

2.
Boletin de Malariologia y Salud Ambiental ; 61(Edicion Especial II 2021):53-60, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2033822

RESUMO

At the beginning of the pandemic, an excessive purchase of some products was observed, but this has not been evaluated if it is related to mental health. Therefore, the objective was to determine the factors associated with the purchase of basic necessities in the Peruvian population at the beginning of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. An analytical cross-sectional study was carried out, based on a secondary data analysis. Information from 3379 Peruvians from all regions was used, they were asked about the purchases they made, crossing these with the results of the "KNOW-P-COVID-19", "F-COVID-19" and "MED-COVID-19" scales;obtaining descriptive and analytical results. The most purchased products were disinfectant (43.9%), followed by soap (43.6%) and alcohol (40.8%). In the multivariate analysis, the purchase of disinfectants (p=0.009), soap (p < 0.001) and alcohol (p=0.002) was found to be associated with sex;the purchase of personal protective equipment (p=0.027), antibacterial gel (p=0.010) and face masks (p=0.015) was associated with age;to the fatalism score the purchase of food (p=0.005), personal protective equipment (p < 0.001), soap (p=0.014), alcohol (p=0.043) and face masks (p < 0.001);to the score of fears and concern conveyed by the media the purchase of personal protective equipment (p=0.007), soap (p < 0.001) and face masks (p=0.005) and to the score of knowledge of the disease the purchase of soap (p < 0.001), antibacterial gel (p=0.011) and toilet paper (p=0.009). Significant associations were found with the purchase of supplies (p < 0.011).

3.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(10):4049-4060, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033478

RESUMO

The current pandemic situation has led researchers to rethink the conventional agricultural process. Nowadays, conventional agricultural processes are being replaced with an advanced Internet of Things (IoT)-based technology to reduce mass gathering in fields. Moreover, the advancement of technology is essential to feed the 7 billion people around the world. Thus, researchers developed several IoT devices that come under the Consumer IoT or CIoT devices which help the farmers to monitor farm performance and activities remotely. During the remote monitoring processes, the wireless CIoT devices gained privacy and security threats which became a major concern. Thus, besides gaining a competitive advantage in agriculture, minimising privacy and security threats is also essential in this pandemic. This research is going to understand the recent CIoT devices, their privacy and data protection approaches, challenges and mitigation strategies. The researchers have conducted secondary research using available journal articles and authentic internet sources belonging to the past five years. After that, other journal articles have been accessed as well to draw an effective discussion. Findings showed that privacy, data protection and security are the three major concerns that can be addressed by using an alternative wireless system. Blockchain and “Low-power Wide Area Network” are two other approaches that can be used as well. Other challenges include the cost of CIoT devices that can be addressed by purchasing low-cost sensors and microcontrollers.

4.
Politics and Governance ; 10(3):131-142, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2030419

RESUMO

Public procurement is a policy area located between two contradictory tendencies. On the one hand, the European Commission strives for greater competition to widen procurement markets. On the other hand, the boosting of competition encounters resistance among the member states. This article investigates how these colliding tendencies played out during the initial stages of the Covid-19 crisis and, more specifically, how changes in the field of procurement affected legitimate governance in the EU. Based on institutionalist and EU governance theories, the study contributes to the literature with three principal findings. First, it demonstrates that the pandemic enabled exogenously driven changes in the field of public procurement with new policies and guidelines, while the EU’s overall aims in this field were upheld. Second, the study demonstrates that the Commission was the main driver of change and that it enhanced the harmonisation of procurement rules and supranational integration despite the crisis. Third, while these changes strengthened the role of supranational actors, the study demonstrates that the changes introduced allow member states increased flexibility when it comes to the implementation. In practice, however, this flexibility has the potential to undermine the EU’s initial aims, thereby jeopardising the EU’s legitimacy.

5.
Sport Marketing Quarterly ; 31(3):212-227, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2026584

RESUMO

Times of crisis impact the careers and brand management of athletes. The COVID-19 pandemic serves as the research context as we explore how athletes react, cope with, and respond to external disturbances through modifications in their personal brand management. We employed a qualitative approach, drawing on semi-structured interviews with elite athletes (N=15). The themes were verified by reviewing participants' Instagram posts. The findings show that the COVID-19 context has created unique challenges for athletes' careers and personal branding, including emotional distress, interruptions of athletic labor, and a void in the sports-related content they rely upon in their branding. Through emotional capital, coping, and identification of marketing opportunities, the athletes addressed the challenges, increasingly leveraging digital channels to preserve and expand their brand and remain relevant in the market. Findings have implications for athletes experiencing temporary career and brand-related interruptions such as during external disturbances, illness, pregnancy, or injury.

6.
Mathematics ; 10(17):3155, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023887

RESUMO

As global public health events and regional conflicts have greater influence on supply chains nowadays, supplier default in procurement becomes more and more common in practice. However, there is less research on portfolio procurement purchasing decisions in the case of fixed-term contract supplier default. This paper focuses on the optimal purchasing decision of buyers by using a combination of fixed-term contracts and spot transactions, which is a beneficial extension of the classical newsvendor model. When supplier default is not considered, the optimal purchase quantity in the fixed-term contract is first obtained, which maximizes the buyer’s expected profits. Research shows that supplier default has an important impact on the optimal purchasing decision making in portfolio procurement. The optimal purchase quantity of the buyer in the fixed-term contract decreases with the increase in the default rate of the contract supplier, which implies that the default from the contract supplier inhibits a larger purchase quantity in the fixed-term contract. In addition, it is proved that the buyer’s expected profits from portfolio procurement increases with the decrease in the contract supplier’s default rate. Finally, numerical experiments and sensitivity analysis are conducted to prove the result, and some management opinions on the optimal decision-making in portfolio procurement with fixed-term contracts and spot transactions are put forward.

7.
Energies ; 15(16):6068, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023311

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine consumers’ opinions toward adopting electric vehicles (EVs) for light-duty transport in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) from the functional value (i.e., the utility or benefit attained by consumers from the functions or tangible features associated with EVs) and symbolic value (i.e., the social meaning that consumers associate with EVs) perspectives. The primary research question was as follows: To what extent do functional and symbolic values affect consumers’ opinions toward adopting EVs in the UAE? The objectives were to determine if relationships exist between gender, age, and residency and the functional and symbolic values of consumers’ opinions toward adopting EVs. A survey of 5459 people was conducted in 14 cities across the seven emirates (Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah, and Umm Al Quwain) to test the relationship. The results revealed that females, respondents aged 20–29, and residents living in Abu Dhabi City found more appealing functional and symbolic values regarding EVs.

8.
Frontiers in Psychology ; 13, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022885

RESUMO

The spread of the COVID-19 virus shows that it is time to re-emphasize the ethical attitude of "awe of others, awe of nature, and awe of life." It once again reveals the importance of green development. In this study, we introduce awe into the context of COVID-19 and construct an "emotion-motivation-behavior" framework, aiming to explore the relationship between the epidemic and green purchasing behavior from a psychological perspective. Study 1 demonstrates the effect of awe on green purchasing and examines the mediating role of the motivation perspective, to reveal the potential different path. Specifically, prosocial motivation mediates the effect of positive awe evoked by COVID-19 on green purchasing;risk avoidance motivation mediates the effect of negative awe evoked by COVID-19 on green purchasing. Study 2 examined the moderating effect of self-construal. These findings have important management implications for enterprises to correctly use emotional guidance strategies and promote green marketing practices during the COVID-19.

9.
PLoS One ; 17(8), 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2021903

RESUMO

In addition to the intrinsic value of the product, social, cultural and psychological factors also have a major influence on the consumer’s purchasing decision. They are also influenced by trends and tendencies such as globalisation, digitalisation and various economic and social crises. In our study, we focused on the analysis of food purchasing preferences;including the reasons for the rise of ethnocentrism in the purchase of domestic products and the potential of this phenomenon in light of relevant secondary data and quantitative primary results. The main objective of the study’s primary research is to demonstrate that consumer groups, distinguishable by food consumption preferences, have differentiated perceptions of domestic food (price, quality, reliability). This provides evidence that food consumer preferences are reflected in decisions about domestic food. Due to the Hungarian relevance of the topic, the presentation of related international research and literature was given a prominent role. The focus of our research was to investigate the food purchasing preferences of Hungarian food consumers. Based on the results, we were able to characterise distinct consumer segments based on food purchasing preferences, and we were able to identify potential target groups of domestic food based on food consumer preferences: the ‘conscious food buyers’, the ‘impulse buyers’ and the ‘no preference’. In our view, members belonging to the first two segments can be successfully persuaded to buy Hungarian food through an educational campaign based on sufficiently fashionable and trendy motifs with the help of the right reference person.

10.
BMJ Open ; 12(8), 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2020025

RESUMO

ObjectivesTo assess the cost-effectiveness of cytisine over and above brief behavioural support (BS) for smoking cessation among patients who are newly diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in low-income and middle-income countries.DesignAn incremental cost-utility analysis was undertaken alongside a 12-month, double-blind, two-arm, individually randomised controlled trial from a public/voluntary healthcare sector perspective with the primary endpoint at 6 months post randomisation.SettingSeventeen subdistrict hospitals in Bangladesh and 15 secondary care hospitals in Pakistan.ParticipantsAdults (aged ≥18 years in Bangladesh and ≥15 years in Pakistan) with pulmonary TB diagnosed within the last 4 weeks who smoked tobacco daily (n=2472).InterventionsTwo brief BS sessions with a trained TB health worker were offered to all participants. Participants in the intervention arm (n=1239) were given cytisine (25-day course) while those in the control arm (n=1233) were given placebo. No significant difference was found between arms in 6-month abstinence.Primary and secondary outcome measuresCosts of cytisine and BS sessions were estimated based on research team records. TB treatment costs were estimated based on TB registry records. Additional smoking cessation and healthcare costs and EQ-5D-5L data were collected at baseline, 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. Costs were presented in purchasing power parity (PPP) adjusted US dollars (US$). Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were derived from the EQ-5D-5L. Incremental total costs and incremental QALYs were estimated using regressions adjusting for respective baseline values and other baseline covariates. Uncertainty was assessed using bootstrapping.ResultsMean total costs were PPP US$57.74 (95% CI 49.40 to 83.36) higher in the cytisine arm than in the placebo arm while the mean QALYs were −0.001 (95% CI −0.004 to 0.002) lower over 6 months. The cytisine arm was dominated by the placebo arm.ConclusionsCytisine plus BS for smoking cessation among patients with TB was not cost-effective compared with placebo plus BS.Trial registration numberISRCTN43811467.

11.
Tourism Review of AIEST - International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism ; 77(5):1262-1275, 2022.
Artigo em Alemão | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2018589

RESUMO

Purpose>Given little light has been shed on the preference of Generation Z tourists or tourists from different cultural backgrounds toward service robot preference in hospitality contexts, this study aims to explore robot service preferences in the accommodation sector in the Chinese market, with a specific focus of Generation Z customers.Design/methodology/approach>This study followed an exploratory sequential research design including two qualitative methods (i.e. projective techniques and semistructured interviews) to reach its objectives.Findings>This study suggests that service robots are more preferred for routine tasks and gender differences exist in the preference of service robot’s anthropomorphism level. The preferences are driven by four factors based on different levels of hedonic and utilitarian values: experienced-hedonic value, utilitarian-hedonic value, task-relevant value and utilitarian value.Research limitations/implications>First, because of the exploratory nature of this study, the data interpretation is unavoidably subjective;therefore, the results can be confirmed by using a more rigorous research method. Second, this study only focuses on the preference of Generation Z customers in China in the hotel sector;as the cultural differences exist in different countries, this study’s findings cannot be readily generalized across populations and service contexts. Finally, this study fails to dig into the effect of gender differences on varying levels of anthropomorphic attributes.Practical implications>As hotels adopt service robots more widely, managers need to identify customers’ service preferences and prioritize tasks between robots and human resources for more efficient service. Particularly important is understanding the benefits and challenges of specific robot implementations rather than looking for a one-size-fits-all mode of operation.Originality/value>To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to understand robot service preference with regard to specific tourist groups in illustrating their preference for service delivery. Drawing on self-determination theory, this study potentially provides a theoretical basis for hotel service process optimization.

12.
Spanish Journal of Marketing - ESIC ; 26(2):146-167, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2018584

RESUMO

Purpose>This study aims to explore past and present service research and to provide a future research agenda for service researchers by presenting a big picture of the intellectual connections and emerging topics in the discipline.Design/methodology/approach>This study is an empirical analysis of citations and cocitations on a sample of 5,837 articles published in leading service journals (from 1981 to December 2020). Network analysis was adopted to analyze the data. This study is exclusive in conducting the inquiry at the individual publication level, rather than using the normal aggregated author co-citation analysis approach.Findings>The findings reveal that the main themes of service research centered on customer satisfaction, service quality, service-dominant logic, methodological foundations, market orientation and service encounter. Also clarified is the periphery domain that may become more important in the future (i.e. technology). The findings also present anchor points for conceptual framing and conceptual development – five main themes that are momentous to navigate theory discovery and justification in the knowledge domain.Research limitations/implications>It calls for a more academic effort to evaluate the service research by considering different epistemological paradigms, such as positivism, monologic and hermeneutic, to better understand the process and progress of the discipline.Practical implications>Through exploring the transformation of service research into a customer-centric model and technology-based service logic, this study offers possible implications for practitioners and further research areas for service researchers.Originality/value>To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to use a citation, cocitation and network analysis to examine service research published in leading service journals. This study provides a significant contribution to the theory by combining main conceptual areas and interests in the given discipline.

13.
The Journal of Services Marketing ; 36(7):991-1005, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2018529

RESUMO

Purpose>This paper aims to provide an in-depth conceptualization of service exclusion by drawing on our exploratory research as well as thick and rich insights from the authors’ qualitative data.Design/methodology/approach>Qualitative research was used to explore service exclusion practices against customers experiencing vulnerabilities. A total of 28 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with refugees residing within Malaysia. The Gioia methodology was used for the authors’ data analysis and the findings were validated by an independent moderator.Findings>The authors’ empirical findings challenge how service exclusion is currently understood, by adding substantial depth and complexity beyond simply describing “the lack of access to services”. The authors also offer rich empirical findings describing 29 forms of exclusion, which were further reduced to seven types of service exclusion practices: discrimination, restriction, cost barriers, language and technology barriers, poor servicing, non-accountability and non-inclusivity.Originality/value>This study conceptualizes service exclusion from a process perspective, that is, “how” customers experiencing vulnerabilities are being excluded, rather than “what” is excluded.

14.
The Journal of Services Marketing ; 36(7):895-907, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2018528

RESUMO

Purpose>This research aims to examine pathways for providers to facilitate social resilience in service communities to promote collective well-being and engagement.Design/methodology/approach>Using abductive and metaphorical analysis, this study develops insights leveraging: the transdisciplinary field of molecular biology where 150 years of research demonstrates how cells build resilience through clustering together in a hostile environment;and case data collected with nonprofit service communities to help ground and elaborate upon the metaphorical analogues of cellular concepts.Findings>This analysis uncovers the emergent processes of communal protection, communal adaptation and communal training within customer-to-customer service interactions. Findings identify novel drivers, such as the sharing of vulnerability markers and pre-training for community stressors, as well as pathways through which social resilience within service communities promotes habitual and transformative value, as well as collective well-being.Practical implications>Service leaders can build upon the ideas in this research to understand the nature of social resilience and to intentionally design communal experiences and interactions that promote greater well-being and brand engagement.Originality/value>The recent COVID-19 pandemic, along with the UN Development Goal for building a more resilient society, highlights the acute needs for a deeper understanding of social resilience. However, resilience-related research in marketing primarily focuses on individual-level coping. This research provides a deeper understanding of the drivers and outcomes of social resilience in service communities and offers a catalyst for future research on the topic.

15.
The Journal of Services Marketing ; 36(7):873-876, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2018527

RESUMO

Purpose>This commentary describes ServCollab’s perspective on Elevating Human Experience and urges researchers to join in collaborating on research to reduce suffering and improve human well-being.Design/methodology/approach>This commentary is based on ServCollab’s pioneering approach to building a serving humanity logic and growing service research capacity to work on the hardest service systems problems humanity faces.Findings>ServCollab’s ongoing efforts to Elevate the Human Experience are described. First, ServCollab seeks to develop a serving humanity logic. Second, ServCollab seeks to coalesce divergent perspectives on service. Third, ServCollab seeks to build a serving humanity movement capable of addressing complex service systems problems.Practical implications>Practical ideas are offered for serving humanity through collaboration.Social implications>Because human life depends on service systems, this ServCollab commentary has broad application to all human experience.Originality/value>This commentary offers a unique approach to building collaborative service research projects capable of addressing service inclusion, service language and climate change.

16.
International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management ; 50(10):1302-1318, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2018485

RESUMO

Purpose>This study examined how consumer competition affects purchase intention. The anticipated loss of not buying and the anticipated gain of buying are considered the underlying mechanism. This research also demonstrated the moderating effects of situational factors such as purchase importance and prior brand attitude.Design/methodology/approach>In total, 200 responses were collected from an experiment that manipulated the level of consumer competition in the retail environment. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and multigroup analysis were used to test the hypotheses.Findings>The results indicated that perceived competition positively affects both the anticipated loss of not buying and the anticipated gain of buying. Among these, only the anticipated gain of buying significantly increased purchase intention. However, for participants with lower purchase importance or prior brand attitude, both the anticipated loss of not buying and the anticipated gain of buying significantly affected purchase intention.Research limitations/implications>The findings suggest an appropriate communication method when practicing retail strategies related to competition. In particular, the consideration of intervention of purchase importance and prior brand attitude helps retail managers execute marketing strategies more effectively.Originality/value>This study verified the effect of consumer competition on purchase intention in terms of anticipated losses and gains related to buying. Moreover, the moderation effects of situational factors such as purchase importance and prior brand attitude were initially examined in the context of consumer competition.

17.
The International Journal of Bank Marketing ; 40(6):1182-1199, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2018461

RESUMO

Purpose>This research set out to examine how financial advice provided by a human advisor (vs robo-advisor) influences investment intentions in a retail banking context.Design/methodology/approach>In two experiments, between-subjects experimental designs were employed to test the primary hypothesis and identify the underlying causal mechanisms that influence consumer investment decisions.Findings>The results from two experiments indicate consumers have more belief in financial advice provided by a human financial advisor (vs robo-advisor), when the level of involvement is high. The authors also identify customer belief in the information and the customer's perception of the bank's “customer focus” as the causal mechanisms that have downstream effects on investment intentions.Originality/value>This research is the first to examine how financial advice received from a human advisor (vs robo-advisor) influences investment intentions in a retail banking context. Furthermore, this research identifies high involvement as a key boundary condition moderating the effects on investment intention and identifies consumer belief in the advice, as well as the bank's perceived level of customer focus as the causal mechanisms influencing investment intentions.

18.
Business Strategy and the Environment ; 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2013375

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has spread worldwide, resulting in crises in public health and sustainable development. Aimed at understanding the determinants of conscious green purchasing behavior (GPB), this paper developed a comprehensive framework linking the moderating effect of negative environmental affective reactions (NEAR) to COVID-19 based on the S–O–R paradigm. Using randomly selected urban residents from China's Yangtze River Delta and Bohai Rim regions, the empirical study was conducted using 559 valid responses. The results show that media and peers are the major social forces activating altruistic and egoistic motivations, while family influence was not significant. Dual motivations significantly mediated the relationships of unconditional and conditional GPB with media exposure and peer influence. Contrary to expectations, NEAR negatively moderated the formation process of conscious GPB. The findings indicate that the influence of peers on conscious GPB through dual motivations is stronger compared to media. Negative affective reactions to COVID-19 were also found to inhibit the impact of peer influence on altruistic and egoistic motivations, as well as the path of altruistic motivation on unconditional GPB. The results of this study have important theoretical and practical implications for enterprise marketing and environmental campaigns, and narrowing the green attitude-behavior gap. © 2022 ERP Environment and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

19.
Research Series - Economic Policy Research Centre 2022. (157):52 pp. 39 ref. ; 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011810

RESUMO

Background: Uganda's budget authority has faced increased fiscal pressure caused by a sudden drop in revenues from the economic slowdown and new expenditure pressures associated with COVID-19 impacts. Consequently, the country has responded by reprioritizing the budget towards 7 sectors, i.e., agriculture, health, education, trade and industry, social development, works and energy. These sectors respond to the government's objective of increasing household and firm production and productivity, providing jobs, reducing the health impacts of coronavirus, supporting poverty reduction efforts, promoting exports and enhancing economic growth. Methods and Data: This paper estimates public development budget allocative and technical efficiency for 7 priority sectors that address government policy objectives. Both allocative and technical efficiency are analysed using ratio calculation. However, for some cases, technical efficiency is analysed based on the difference between target and actual outcomes. We calculate the ratios for the 7 sectors based on the votes and outputs. Furthermore, we use a threshold of 80%, which we deem sufficient to determine whether a budget output is inefficient or not. Budget outputs below 80% are considered to be underperforming. Data on allocative efficiency was provided by MoFPED directorate of budget and that on technical efficiency from budget performance reports. The study period considered for this paper runs from 2016/17 to 2020/21. Findings: While we observe high allocative efficiency in a majority of the proposed reprioritisation sectors, there is much variation in budget funds and their utilisation due to: i. A missing link between policy objectives and budgets. Notably, there is a mismatch between wage and non-wage or capital expenditure (CAPEX) allocations, implying inadequate human resources are required to implement the policy objectives, consequently leading to poor outcomes despite the funding provided for CAPEX. This was endemic in the agriculture and health sectors. ii. Duplication of budget outputs reduces flexibility and accountability and increases monitoring costs. This calls for the consolidation of similar budget outputs, but this should be done with consultation from key stakeholders. iii. There are variations in utilisation of domestic relative to the external development financing with unmet outcomes. This could be a case of stringent donor monitoring requirements and delays in procurement. This calls for strict monitoring of the domestic development financing to ensure results. iv. Relatedly, health budgets exhibit an over-reliance on external financing. However, donor funds are largely not integrated into government budgets and may challenge any planned re-allocation. Hence, there is a need to open a discussion with the donors on the possibility of re-channelling financing to other key priority sectors/outputs in line with the country's short-term goals. v. Generally, as observed in the health and education sectors, budgeting is still based on the output/ institution-based system rather than service. This makes it complex to pool resources, spend and strategically purchase goods and services. There is a need to build stronger linkages between budget allocations and sector priorities. This can also enable the implementation of strategic purchasing and incentivize accountability for sector performance. vi. In addition, there is generally an absence of proper transition towards programme-based budgeting (PBB). For example, numerous budget outputs in the trade, tourism and industry sector do not have performance indicators that weaken the link between strategies, annual plans, sector policies and budgets. vii. Generally, we recommend that new road construction should be paused in the short term so that the available funds can be rechannelled to other urgent and critical areas.

20.
Journal of Public Health in Africa ; 13:65-66, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006846

RESUMO

Introduction/ Background: Self-Medication (SM) involves the utilisation of medicines to treat self-recognised symptoms or diseases without consultation and irrational use of over-the-counter drugs. We aimed to estimate the extent of SM for drugs used to treat COVID-19 symptoms through data mining of community pharmacy records in Uganda. Methods: The study was conducted in Kampala, Uganda where we extracted data from community pharmacies with functional Electronic Health Records between January 2018 and June 2021. The data included number of clients purchasing the following drugs that were used to treat COVID-19 and its symptoms: Azithromycin, Augmentin, Dexamethasone, Vitamin C, Vitamin D and Zinc. A negative binomial model was used to estimate the incident rate ratios for each drug to compare the effect of COVID-19 on SM. Data mining, cleaning and analysis were performed using R Software. Results: We extracted data from 10 community pharmacies in Kampala. 369 clients purchased at least one of the six drugs in the 12 months preceding March 2020 and a three-fold increase of 1202 customers between March 2020-June 2021. There was a statistically significant increase in SM of Azithromycin during the COVID-19 pandemic with Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) 1.17 (95% CI: 1.06 - 1.32), 1.07(95% CI: 1.04-1.11) for Vitamin C, and 2.13 (95% CI: 1.02 - 6.05) for Vitamin D. We observed non- significant increases, 1.04 (95% CI: 0.88-1.26) for Augmentin, 1.21 (95% CI: 0.94-1.68) for Dexamethasone, and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.94-1.68) for Zinc. Impact: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the lack of definitive treatment or limited access to vaccines led to increased SM. This work demonstrates the potential impact on SM on drug resistance and drug development pipelines needs to be explored through innovative data science tools. Conclusion: Community pharmacy data records are a valuable source for identification of SM in Africa. SM to treat COVID-19, including the irrational use of antibiotics and other OTC drugs may lead to polypharmacy and fuel the looming pandemic of antibiotic resistance.

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